Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: indole

61 Usy-Cui Zeolite: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Derivatives Indole Synthesis

Authors: Hassina Harkat, Samiha Taybe, Salima Loucif, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale

Abstract:

Indole and its derivatives have attracted great interest because of their importance in the synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry. They are widely used as anti hypertension, anti tubercular, anticancer activity, antiviral, Alzheimer's disease, antioxidant properties, and free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Many drugs and natural products contain indole moiety, such as the vinca alkaloids, fungal metabolites and marine natural products. Generally applicable synthetic methods for indole moiety involve ring closure to form the pyrrole. Indole derivatives can also be accessed by further functionalization of the indole nucleus. Therefore we report a mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of analogues of indole catalyzed via zeolithe USY doped with CuI under solvent-free conditions.

Keywords: indole, zeolithe, USY-CuI, heterogeneous catalysis

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60 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Hiroshi Nakayama, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: ELISA, monoclonal antibody, sensor, synthetic cannabinoid

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59 Ag (I) Catalyzed Domino Carbonyl and Alkyne Activation: A Smooth Entry to 2, 2′-Di-Substituted 3, 3′-Bisindolylarylmethanes

Authors: Swastik Karmakar, Prasanta Das, Shital K. Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

An efficient synthesis of symmetrical 2, 2′-Di-substituted 3, 3′-bisindolylarylmethanes (BIAMs) having different aryl and hetero-aryl moieties has been developed by Ag(I)-catalyzed indolyzation and a sequential deoxygenative addition involving o-alkynylanilines and aryl/hetero-aryl aldehydes as substrates. Alkyne and carbonyl units could be activated by Ag (I) simultaneously which results in a domino 5-endo-dig indole annulation, addition of C3 of this indole nucleus to the carbonyl carbon in addition to second indole annulation, and its dehydroxylative addition to the same carbonyl carbon to furnish BIAMs in excellent yield. As 3, 3′-bisindolylmethanes (BIMs) are biologically significant scaffolds, this moiety with further substitutions at the indole core could find some important use in medicinal chemistry. The methodology developed is atom-economic and involves more accessible silver salts, which could be useful for large-scale synthesis.

Keywords: alkyne, 3, 3′-Bisindolylarylmethanes, carbonyl, domino, 5-endo-dig indole annulation, silver catalyst

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58 Green, Smooth and Easy Electrochemical Synthesis of N-Protected Indole Derivatives

Authors: Sarah Fahad Alajmi, Tamer Ezzat Youssef

Abstract:

Here, we report a simple method for the direct conversion of 6-Nitro-1H-indole into N-substituted indoles via electrochemical dehydrogenative reaction with halogenated reagents under strongly basic conditions through N–R bond formation. The N-protected indoles have been prepared under moderate and scalable electrolytic conditions. The conduct of the reactions was performed in a simple divided cell under constant current without oxidizing reagents or transition-metal catalysts. The synthesized products have been characterized via UV/Vis spectrophotometry, 1H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed based on the N-protective products. This methodology could be applied to the synthesis of various biologically active N-substituted indole derivatives.

Keywords: green chemistry, 1H-indole, heteroaromatic, organic electrosynthesis

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57 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone, oxidative stress

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56 Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Oxyindole Derivatives

Authors: Vivek Singh Bhadauria, Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Indole-2,3-diones are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent, different novel indole-2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study, various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized, and evaluated their for different pharmacological activities. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole-2,3-dione with benzyl chloride and 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the TLC, MP, Elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer, antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory as well as anti-SARS activity and the results are presented. Some of compounds possessed different pharmacological activity at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight and even at lower concentration.

Keywords: indoles, isatin, NMR, biological activities

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55 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah

Abstract:

Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, molecular docking

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54 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

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53 Versatile Variation of Fischer Indolization in Green Synthesis of Nitro Substituted Tetrahydrocarbazole

Authors: Zubi Sadiq, Ghazala Yaqub, Almas Hamid

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We wish to report herein a very stimulating variation in Fischer indole reaction by adopting solvent and catalyst free conditions. A concise synthesis of dinitro tetrahydrocarbazole derivative 3 was introduced without the use of any accelerating agent at ambient temperature with fairly good yield. Product was fully corroborated by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and CHN analysis.

Keywords: fischer indole reaction, neutral medium, solvent free synthesis, tetrahydrocarbazole

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52 Effects of Indole on Aerobic Biodegradation of Butanoic Acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens

Authors: J. B. J. Njalam’mano, E. M. N. Chirwa

Abstract:

In low resource settings in Africa and other developing regions, pit latrines remain the dominant basic minimum acceptable form of sanitation. However, unpleasant smells-malodours emitted from faecal sludge in the pit latrines, which elicit disgusting or repulsive response, are one of the factors that thwart people to use latrines and instead opt for open defecation as an alternative. This provides an important but often overlooked major impediment, dissuading people from adopting and using the pit latrines hence affecting successful, effective sanitation promotion. The malodours are primarily attributed to four odorants: butanoic acid (C₄H₈O₂), dimethyl trisulphide (C₂H₆S₃), indole (C₈H₇N) and para-cresol (C₇H₈O). Several pit latrine deodorisation methods such as addition of carbonous materials, use of ventilation systems and urine separation are available, and they continue to occupy their niche, but social, economic, environmental and technological shortfalls remain. Bioremediation has been gaining popularity because it is inexpensive, simple to operate and environmentally friendly. Recently, the biodegradation of butanoic acid as individual odorant has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no kinetic studies of the butanoic acid in the presence of other key odorous compounds. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of indole on the removal of butanoic acid under aerobic conditions using indigenous bacteria strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens isolated from faecal sludge as pure cultures as well as mixed cultures. In this purpose, butanoic acid removal was performed in a batch reactor containing the bacterial strains in mineral salt medium (MSM) amended with 3000 ppm of butanoic acid at the temperature of 30°C, under continuous stirring rate of 150 rpm and the concentration of indole was varied from 50-200 ppm. The initial pH of the solution was in the range of 6.0-7.2. Overall, there were significant differences in the bacterial growth rate and total butanoic acid removal dependent on the concentration of indole in the solution.

Keywords: biodegradation, butanoic acid, indole, pit latrine

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51 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban

Abstract:

Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

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50 The Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on in vitro Rooting of Apple Microcuttings

Authors: Shabnam Alizadeh, Hatice Dumanoglu

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is a substantial plant propagation technique for mass clonal production throughout the year, regardless of time in fruit species. However, the rooting achievement must be enhanced in the difficult-to-root genotypes. Classical auxin applications in clonal propagation of these genotypes are inadequate to solve the rooting problem. Nanoparticles having different physical and chemical properties from bulk material could enhance the rooting success of controlled release of these substances when loaded with auxin due to their ability to reach the active substance up to the target cells as a carrier system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-nZnO) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-nZnO) on in vitro rooting of microcuttings in a difficult-to-root apple genotype (Malus domestica Borkh.). Rooting treatments consisted of IBA or IAA at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/L; nZnO, IAA-nZnO and IBA-nZnO at doses of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 mg/L were used. All components were added to the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium at strength ½ with 2% sucrose and 0.7% agar before autoclaving. In the study, no rooting occurred in control and nZnO applications. Especially, 1.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L IBA-nZnO nanoparticle applications (containing 0.5 mg/L and 0.9 mg/L IBA), respectively with rooting rates of 40.3% and 70.4%, rooting levels of 2.0±0.4 and 2.3±0.4, 2.6±0.7 and 2.5±0.6 average root numbers and 20.4±1.6 mm and 20.2±3.4 mm average root lengths put forward as effective applications.

Keywords: Auxin, Malus, nanotechnology, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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49 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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48 Indigo Production in a Fed Batch Bioreactor Using Aqueous-Solvent Two Phase System

Authors: Vaishnavi Unde, Srikanth Mutnuri

Abstract:

Today dye stuff sector is one of the major chemical industries in India. Indigo is a blue coloured dye used all over the world in large quantity. The indigo dye produced and used in textile industries is synthetic having toxic effect, thus there is an increase in interest for natural dyes owing to the environmental concerns. The present study focuses on the use of a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from garage soil, for the production of indigo in fed batch bioreactor. A comparative study between single phase and two phase production was carried out in this work. The blue colour produced during the experiments was analyzed using, TLC, UV-visible spectrophotometer and FTIR technique. The blue pigment was found to be indigo. The production of bio-indigo was done in a single phase fermentor carrying medium and substrate indole in dissolved form and was found to produce maximum of 0.041 g/L of indigo. Whereas there was an increase in production of indigo to 0.068 g/L in a two phase, water-silicone oil system. In this study the advantage of using second phase as silicone oil has enhanced the indigo production, as the second phase made the substrate available to the bacteria by increasing the surface area as well as it helped to prevent the inhibition effect of the high concentration of substrate, indole. The effect of single and two phases on the growth of bacteria was also studied.

Keywords: dyes, fed batch reactor, indole, Indigo

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47 Direct Palladium-Catalyzed Selective N-Allylation of 2,3-Disubstituted Indoles with Allylic Alcohols in Water

Authors: Bai-Jing Peng, Shyh-Chyun Yang

Abstract:

Organic reactions in water have recently attracted much attention, not only because unique reactivity is often observed in water but also because water is a safe and economical substitute for conventional organic solvents. Thus, development of environmental safe, atom-economical reactions in water is one of the most important goals of synthetic chemistry. The recent paper has documented renewed interest in the use of allylic substrates in the synthesis of new C−C, C−N, and C−O bonds. We have reported our attempts and some successful applications of a process involving the C-O bond cleavage catalyzed by palladium or platinum complexes in water. Because of the importance of heterocycle indole derivatives, much effort has been directed toward the development of methods for functionalization of the indole nucleus at N1 site. In our research, the palladium-catalyzed 2,3-disubstitued indoles with allylic alcohols was investigated under different conditions. Herein, we will establish a simple, convenient, and efficient method, which affords high yields of allylated indoles.

Keywords: palladium-catalyzed, allylic alcohols, indoles, water, allylation

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46 Design, Synthesis and In-Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Novel Spiro[Azetidine-2, 3’-Indole]-2, 4(1’H)-Dione

Authors: Ravi J. Shah

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The present study deals with the synthesis of novel spiro[azetidine-2, 3’-indole]-2’, 4(1’H)-dione derivative from the reactions of 3-(phenylimino)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives with chloracetyl chloride in presence of triethyl amine (TEA). All the compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. They were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results revealed that, compounds (7a), (7b), (7c), (7d) and (7e) showed very good activity with MIC value of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml against three evaluated bacterial strains and the remaining compounds showed good to moderate activity comparable to standard drugs as antibacterial agents. Compounds (7c) and (7h) displayed equipotent antifungal activity in comparison to standard drugs. Structure-activity relationship study of the compounds showed that the presence of electron withdrawing group substitution at 5’ and 7’ positions of indoline ring and on ortho or para position of phenyl ring increases both antibacterial and antifungal activity of the compound. Henceforth, our findings will have a good impact on chemists and biochemists for further investigations in search of bromine containing spiro fused antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, 2-Azetidinone, indoline

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45 Rauvolfine B Isolated from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa (Apocynaceae) Induces Apoptosis through Activation of Caspase-9 Coupled with S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

In this study, three indole alkaloids namely; rauvolfine B, macusine B, and isoreserpiline have been isolated from the dichloromethane crude extract of Rauvolfia reflexa bark (Apocynaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds has been performed using spectral methods such as UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Rauvolfine B showed anti proliferation activity on HCT-116 cancer cell line, its cytotoxicity induction was observed using MTT assay in eight different cell lines. Annexin-V is serving as a marker for apoptotic cells and the Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS). Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8 and -9 assays. Cell cycle arrest was also investigated using flowcytometric analysis. rauvolfine B had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cell line. The treatment significantly arrested HCT-116 cells in the S phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that rauvolfine B inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells and programmed cell death followed by cell cycle arrest.

Keywords: apocynacea, indole alkaloid, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest

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44 Biosynthesis of Natural and Halogenated Plant Alkaloids in Yeast

Authors: Beata J. Lehka, Samuel A. Bradley, Frederik G. Hansson, Khem B. Adhikari, Daniela Rago, Paulina Rubaszka, Ahmad K. Haidar, Ling Chen, Lea G. Hansen, Olga Gudich, Konstantina Giannakou, Yoko Nakamura, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Konstantinos Koudounas, Sarah E. O’Connor, Vincent Courdavault, Jay D. Keasling, Jie Zhang, Michael K. Jensen

Abstract:

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a large class of natural plant products with marketed pharmaceutical activities against a wide range of applications, including cancer and mental disorders. Halogenated MIAs have shown improved pharmaceutical properties; however, characterisation and synthesis of new-to-nature halogenated MIAs remain a challenge in slow-growing plants with limited genetic tractability. Here, we demonstrate a platform for de novo biosynthesis of two bioactive MIAs, serpentine and alstonine, in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reaching titers of 8.85 mg/L and 4.48 mg/L, respectively, when cultivated in fed-batch micro bioreactors. Using this MIA biosynthesis platform, we undertake a systematic exploration of the derivative space surrounding these compounds and produce halogenated MIAs. The aim of the current study is to develop a fermentation process for halogenated MIAs.

Keywords: monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, halogenated derivatives, fermentation

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43 Juniperus thurefera Multiplication Tests by Cauttigs in Aures, Algeria

Authors: N. Khater, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza

Abstract:

Juniperus thurefera is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria). It is a heritage and important ecological richness but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and socio- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out-inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. Results indicated that the percentage of developing buds on cuttings is better than the rooting ones.

Keywords: Juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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42 Synthesis of Biologically Active Heterocyclic Compounds via C-H Bond Activation

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Mishra, In Su Kim

Abstract:

The isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles are ubiquitous structural motif found in heterocyclic compounds as they exhibit biological and medicinal applications. For example, isoindoline motif is present in molecules that act as endothelin-A receptor antagonists and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors. Moreover, isoindoline derivatives are very crucial constituents in the field of materials science as attractive candidates for organic light-emitting devices. However, compounds containing the indazole motif are known to exhibit to a variety of biological activities, such as estrogen receptor, HIV protease inhibition and anti-tumor activity. The prevalence of indazoles and indoles has led to the development of many useful methods for their preparation. Thus, isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles can be new candidates for the next generation of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the development of highly efficient strategies for the formation of these heterocyclic architectures is an area of great interest in organic synthesis. The past years, transition-metal-catalyzed C−H activation followed by annulation reaction has been frequently used as a powerful tool to construct various heterocycles. Herein, we describe our recent achievements about the transition-metal-catalyzed tandem cyclization reactions of N-benzyltriflamides, 1,2-disubstituted arylhydrazines, acetanilides, etc. via C−H bond activation to access the corresponding bioactive heterocylic scaffolds.

Keywords: biologically active, C-H activation, heterocyclic compounds, transition-metal catalysts

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41 Preliminary Study of the Potential of Propagation by Cuttings of Juniperus thurefera in Aures (Algeria)

Authors: N. Khater, I. Djbablia, A. Telaoumaten, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza

Abstract:

Thureferous Juniper is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria ). It is an heritage and important ecological richness, but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and social- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. The results show that the rate of rooting is important and encourages the regeneration of this species through vegetative propagation.

Keywords: juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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40 Regioselective Nucleophilic Substitution of the Baylis-Hillman Adducts with Iodine

Authors: Zahid Shafiq, Li Liu, Dong Wang, Yong-Jun Chen

Abstract:

As synthetic organic methods are increasingly concerned with the growing importance of sustainable chemistry, iodine recently has emerged as an inexpensive, non-toxic, readily available and environmentally benign catalyst for various organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yields with high regio- and chemoselectivity. Iodine has found widespread applications in various organic synthesis such as Michael addition, coupling reaction and also in the multicomponent synthesis where it can efficiently activate C=C, C=O, C=N, and so forth. Iodine not only has been shown to be an efficient mild Lewis acid in various processes, but also due to its moderate nature, and water tolerance, reactions catalyzed by iodine can be effectively carried out in neutral media under very mild conditions. We have successfully described an efficient procedure for the nucleophilic substitution of the Baylis-Hillman (BH) adducts and their corresponding acetates with indoles to get α-substitution product using catalytic Silver Triflate (AgOTf) as Lewis acid. At this point, we were interested to develop an environmentally benign catalytic system to effect this substitution reaction and to avoid the use of metal Lewis acid as a catalyst. Since, we observed the formation of -product during the course of the reaction, we also became interested to explore the reaction conditions in order to control regioselectivity and to obtain both regioisomers. The developed methodology resulted in regioselective substitution products with controlled selectivity. Further, the substitution products were used to synthesize various Tri- and Tetracyclo Azepino indole derivatives via reductive amination.

Keywords: indole, regioselective, Baylis-Hillman, substitution

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39 In Vitro Morphogenic Response of the Alginate Encapsulated Nodal Segment and Antioxidative Enzymes Analysis during Acclimatization of Cassia Angustifolia Vahl

Authors: Iram Siddique

Abstract:

Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2. 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 µM) + indole -3- acetic acid (1.0 µM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 µM indole -3- butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

Keywords: biochemical studies, nodal segments, rooting, synthetic seeds, thidiazuron

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38 Development of One-Pot Sequential Cyclizations and Photocatalyzed Decarboxylative Radical Cyclization: Application Towards Aspidospermatan Alkaloids

Authors: Guillaume Bélanger, Jean-Philippe Fontaine, Clémence Hauduc

Abstract:

There is an undeniable thirst from organic chemists and from the pharmaceutical industry to access complex alkaloids with short syntheses. While medicinal chemists are interested in the fascinating wide range of biological properties of alkaloids, synthetic chemists are rather interested in finding new routes to access these challenging natural products of often low availability from nature. To synthesize complex polycyclic cores of natural products, reaction cascades or sequences performed one-pot offer a neat advantage over classical methods for their rapid increase in molecular complexity in a single operation. In counterpart, reaction cascades need to be run on substrates bearing all the required functional groups necessary for the key cyclizations. Chemoselectivity is thus a major issue associated with such a strategy, in addition to diastereocontrol and regiocontrol for the overall transformation. In the pursuit of synthetic efficiency, our research group developed an innovative one-pot transformation of linear substrates into bi- and tricyclic adducts applied to the construction of Aspidospermatan-type alkaloids. The latter is a rich class of indole alkaloids bearing a unique bridged azatricyclic core. Despite many efforts toward the synthesis of members of this family, efficient and versatile synthetic routes are still coveted. Indeed, very short, non-racemic approaches are rather scarce: for example, in the cases of aspidospermidine and aspidospermine, syntheses are all fifteen steps and over. We envisaged a unified approach to access several members of the Aspidospermatan alkaloids family. The key sequence features a highly chemoselective formamide activation that triggers a Vilsmeier-Haack cyclization, followed by an azomethine ylide generation and intramolecular cycloaddition. Despite the high density and variety of functional groups on the substrates (electron-rich and electron-poor alkenes, nitrile, amide, ester, enol ether), the sequence generated three new carbon-carbon bonds and three rings in a single operation with good yield and high chemoselectivity. A detailed study of amide, nucleophile, and dipolarophile variations to finally get to the successful combination required for the key transformation will be presented. To complete the indoline fragment of the natural products, we developed an original approach. Indeed, all reported routes to Aspidospermatan alkaloids introduce the indoline or indole early in the synthesis. In our work, the indoline needs to be installed on the azatricyclic core after the key cyclization sequence. As a result, typical Fischer indolization is not suited since this reaction is known to fail on such substrates. We thus envisaged a unique photocatalyzed decarboxylative radical cyclization. The development of this reaction as well as the scope and limitations of the methodology, will also be presented. The original Vilsmeier-Haack and azomethine ylide cyclization sequence as well as the new photocatalyzed decarboxylative radical cyclization will undoubtedly open access to new routes toward polycyclic indole alkaloids and derivatives of pharmaceutical interest in general.

Keywords: Aspidospermatan alkaloids, azomethine ylide cycloaddition, decarboxylative radical cyclization, indole and indoline synthesis, one-pot sequential cyclizations, photocatalysis, Vilsmeier-Haack Cyclization

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37 Potential of Lead Tolerant and Mobilizing Fungus for Plant Growth Promotion through Plant Growth Promoting Activity; A Promising Approach for Enhance Phytoremediation

Authors: Maria Manzoor, Iram Gul, Muhammad Arshad, Jean Kallerhoff

Abstract:

The potential of fungal isolates to be used in phytoremediation of widespread lead contaminated soil has been evaluated in this study. Five different fungal isolates (Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Mucor spp.) were obtained and tested for their tolerance to increasing concentration of lead (Pb) i.e. 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mgL-1 on PDA and PDB culture experiment. All strains were tolerant up to 500 mgL-1 following sequence; A. flavus > A. niger > Mucor spp. > P. simplicissimum > T. harzianum. Further the isolates were then monitored for possible effect on Pb solubility/mobility through soil incubation experiments and characterized for essays including pathogenicity, germination and root elongation and plant growth promoting activities including IAA (indole acetic acid), phosphorus solubilization and gibberellic acid (GA3) production. Results revealed that fungal isolates have positive effect on Pb mobility in soil and plant biomass production. Pb solubility was significantly (P> 0.05) increased in soil upon application of Mucor spp. P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum. when compared to control. Among different strains three isolates (Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum) were nonpathogenic because no inhibitory effect of fungus was observed to plant growth when exposed to these strains in root shoot elongation essay. Particularly T. harzianum and P. simplicissimum showed great ability to increase root length by 1.1 and 1.3 folds and shoot length by 1.47 and 1.5 folds respectively under Pb stress (500 mgL-1). Significantly high production of IAA was observed in A. niger (26.7 μg/ml), Phosphorus solubilization was observed in T. harzianum (9.15 μg/ml) and GA3 production was observed in P. simplicissimum (11.02 μg/ml). From results it is concluded that Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum have potential to increase Pb mobility and improving plant growth under highy Pb contamination, therefore can be used in microbially assisted phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb tolerant fungus, Pb mobility, plant growth promoting activities, indole acetic acid (IAA)

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36 Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Targeting Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase

Authors: Neslihan Demirci, Serdar Durdağı

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a worldwide disease-causing agent that, according to WHO, led to the death of 1.5 million people from tuberculosis (TB) in 2020. The bacteria reside in macrophages located specifically in the lung. There is a known quadruple drug therapy regimen for TB consisting of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB). Over the past 60 years, there have been great contributions to treatment options, such as recently approved delamanid (OPC67683) and bedaquiline (TMC207/R207910), targeting mycolic acid and ATP synthesis, respectively. Also, there are natural compounds that can block the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) enzyme, chuangxinmycin, and indolmycin. Yet, already the drug resistance is reported for those agents. In this study, the newly released TrpRS enzyme structure is investigated for potential inhibitor drugs from already synthesized molecules to help the treatment of resistant cases and to propose an alternative drug for the quadruple drug therapy of tuberculosis. Maestro, Schrodinger is used for docking and molecular dynamic simulations. In-house library containing ~8000 compounds among FDA-approved indole-containing compounds, a total of 57 obtained from the ChemBL were used for both ATP and tryptophan binding pocket docking. Best of indole-containing 57 compounds were subjected to hit expansion and compared later with virtual screening workflow (VSW) results. After docking, VSW was done. Glide-XP docking algorithm was chosen. When compared, VSW alone performed better than the hit expansion module. Best scored compounds were kept for ten ns molecular dynamic simulations by Desmond. Further, 100 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for elected molecules according to Z-score. The top three MMGBSA-scored compounds were subjected to steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations by Gromacs. While SMD simulations are still being conducted, ponesimod (for multiple sclerosis), vilanterol (β₂ adrenoreceptor agonist), and silodosin (for benign prostatic hyperplasia) were found to have a significant affinity for tuberculosis TrpRS, which is the propulsive force for the urge to expand the research with in vitro studies. Interestingly, top-scored ponesimod has been reported to have a side effect that makes the patient prone to upper respiratory tract infections.

Keywords: drug repurposing, molecular dynamics, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, tuberculosis

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35 Propagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider by Stem Cuttings

Authors: Ahmed M. Eed, Adam H. Burgoyne

Abstract:

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider), is a desert shrub which tolerates saline, alkyle soils and drought. The seeds contain a characteristic liquid wax of economic importance in industry as a machine lubricant and cosmetics. A major problem in seed propagation is that jojoba is a dioecious plant whose sex is not easily determined prior to flowering (3-4 years from germination). To overcome this phenomenon, asexual propagation using vegetative methods such as cutting can be used. This research was conducted to find out the effect of different Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) and rooting media on Jojoba rhizogenesis. An experiment was carried out in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with three replications, each with sixty cuttings per replication in fiberglass house of Natural Jojoba Corporation at Yemen. The different rooting media used were peat moss + perlite + vermiculite (1:1:1), peat moss + perlite (1:1) and peat moss + sand (1:1). Plant materials used were semi-hard wood cuttings of jojoba plants with length of 15 cm. The cuttings were collected in the month of June during 2012 and 2013 from the sub-terminal growth of the mother plants of Amman farm and introduced to Yemen. They were wounded, treated with Indole butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) all @ 4000 ppm (part per million) and cultured on different rooting media under intermittent mist propagation conditions. IBA gave significantly higher percentage of rooting (66.23%) compared to NAA and IAA in all media used. However, the lowest percentage of rooting (5.33%) was recorded with IAA in the medium consisting of peat moss and sand (1:1). No significant difference was observed at all types of PGRs used with rooting media in respect of root length. Maximum number of roots was noticed in medium consisting of peat moss, perlite and vermiculite (1:1:1); peat moss and perlite (1:1) and peat moss and sand (1:1) using IBA, NAA and IBA, respectively. The interaction among rooting media was statistically significant with respect to rooting percentage character. Similarly, the interactions among PGRs were significant in terms of rooting percentage and also root length characters. The results demonstrated suitability of propagation of jojoba plants by semi-hard wood cuttings.

Keywords: cutting, IBA, Jojoba, propagation, rhizogenesis

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34 An Efficient and Low Cost Protocol for Rapid and Mass in vitro Propagation of Hyssopus officinalis L.

Authors: Ira V. Stancheva, Ely G. Zayova, Maria P. Geneva, Marieta G. Hristozkova, Lyudmila I. Dimitrova, Maria I. Petrova

Abstract:

The study describes a highly efficient and low-cost protocol for rapid and mass in vitro propagation of medicinal and aromatic plant species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Hyssop is an important aromatic herb used for its medicinal values because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The protocol for large-scale multiplication of this aromatic plant was developed using young stem tips explants. The explants were sterilized with 0.04% mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) solution for 20 minutes and washing three times with sterile distilled water in 15 minutes. The cultural media was full and half strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing indole-3-butyric acid. Full and ½ Murashige and Skoog media without auxin were used as controls. For each variant 20 glass tubes with two plants were used. In each tube two tip and nodal explants were inoculated. Maximum shoot and root number were obtained on ½ Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid at the same time after four weeks of culture. The number of shoots per explant and shoot height were considered. The data on rooting percentage, the number of roots per plant and root length were collected after the same cultural period. The highest percentage of survival 85% for this medicinal plant was recorded in mixture of soil, sand and perlite (2:1:1 v/v/v). This mixture was most suitable for acclimatization of all propagated plants. Ex vitro acclimatization was carried out at 24±1 °C and 70% relative humidity under 16 h illuminations (50 μmol m⁻²s⁻¹). After adaptation period, the all plants were transferred to the field. The plants flowered within three months after transplantation. Phenotypic variations in the acclimatized plants were not observed. An average of 90% of the acclimatized plants survived after transferring into the field. All the in vitro propagated plants displayed normal development under the field conditions. Developed in vitro techniques could provide a promising alternative tool for large-scale propagation that increases the number of homologous plants for field cultivation. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted with financial support from National Science Fund at the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Project DN06/7 17.12.16.

Keywords: Hyssopus officinalis L., in vitro culture, micro propagation, acclimatization

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33 Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Igor Jerkovic

Abstract:

Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.

Keywords: honey chemical biomarkers, honey volatile compounds profiling, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE)

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32 In vitro Clonal Multiplication and Acclimatization of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Authors: Krishna Poudel, Tahar Katuwal, Sujan Karki

Abstract:

A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of large cardamom was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds were collected. The excised rhizome bud explants were cultured on semi solid culture media. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration and combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl-amino-purine) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) for shoot and root induction. Explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 gm/l IBA showed the highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted shoots were transplanted in the screen house for hardening process. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into the netted nursery for further multiplication process.

Keywords: concentration, explants, hardening, rhizome

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