Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2456

Search results for: steel fiber

2456 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed

Abstract:

Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2455 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar

Abstract:

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2454 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2453 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo

Abstract:

A Polymer Cement Mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin was mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.

Keywords: polymer cement mortar, UM resin, compressive strength, PVA fiber, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2452 Investigation of Bending Behavior of Ultra High Performance Concrete with Steel and Glass Fiber Polymer Reinforcement

Authors: Can Otuzbir

Abstract:

It is one of the most difficult areas of civil engineering to provide long-lasting structures with the rapid development of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Concrete is a living material, and the structure where the concrete is located is constantly exposed to external influences. One of these effects is reinforcement corrosion. Reinforcement corrosion of reinforced concrete structures leads to a significant decrease in the carrying capacity of the structural elements, as well as reduced service life. It is undesirable that the service life should be completed sooner than expected. In recent years, advances in glass fiber technology and its use with concrete have developed rapidly. As a result of inability to protect steel reinforcements against corrosion, fiberglass reinforcements have started to be investigated as an alternative material to steel reinforcements, and researches and experimental studies are still continuing. Glass fiber reinforcements have become an alternative material to steel reinforcement because they are resistant to corrosion, lightweight and simple to install compared to steel reinforcement. Glass fiber reinforcements are not corroded and have higher tensile strength, longer life, lighter and insulating properties compared to steel reinforcement. In experimental studies, glass fiber reinforcements have been shown to show superior mechanical properties similar to beams produced with steel reinforcement. The performance of long-term use of glass fiber fibers continues with accelerated experimental studies.

Keywords: glass fiber polymer reinforcement, steel fiber concrete, ultra high performance concrete, bending, GFRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2451 Shear Behavior of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Precast/Prestressed Concrete Hollow Core Slabs

Authors: Thi Nguyet Hang Nguyen, Kang Hai Tan

Abstract:

Precast/prestressed concrete hollow core (PCHC) slabs, especially ones with depth more than 300 mm, are susceptible to web-shear failure. The reasons lie on the fact that the production process of PCHC slabs, i.e., the extrusion method (the most common method to cast PCHC slabs nowadays), does not allow them to contain any shear reinforcement. Moreover, due to the presence of the longitudinal voids, cross sections of PCHC slabs are reduced. Therefore, the shear capacity of the slabs depends solely on the tensile strength of concrete which is relatively low. Given that shear is a major concern in using hollow-core slabs, this paper investigates the possibility of adopting steel fibers in PCHC slabs produced by the extrusion method to enhance the shear capacity of the slabs. Three full-scale PCHC slabs with and without hooked-steel fibers were cast and tested until failure. Three different volumetric fiber contents of 0, 0.51 and 0.89% were investigated. The test results showed that there were substantial increases in shear capacity and ductility with the use of hooked-steel fibers. Ultimate shear strength increased with fiber content. In addition, while the specimen without steel fibers and the one with the steel-fiber volume fraction of 0.51% failed in web-shear mode, the specimen with the higher fiber content (0.89%) collapsed in flexural-shear mode. However, as the hooked-steel fibers with the fiber content of 0.89% were used, difficulties in concrete consolidation were observed while concrete was being cast. This could lead to a lower ultimate shear capacity due to a poorer bond between the concrete and the steel fibers.

Keywords: hollow-core slabs, shear strength, steel fibers, web-shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2450 Effect of Size, Geometry and Tensile Strength of Fibers on the Flexure of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Chuchai Sujivorakul

Abstract:

This research focused on the study of various parameters of fiber itself affecting on the flexure of hooked steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC). The size of HSFRC beams was 150x150 mm in cross section and 550 mm in length, and the flexural test was carried out in accordance with EN-14651 standard. The test result was the relationship between centre-point load and crack-mount opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre notch. Controlled concrete had a compressive strength of 42 MPa. The investigated variables related to the hooked fiber itself were: (a) 3 levels of aspect ratio of fibers (65, 80 and 100); (b) 2 different fiber lengths (35 mm and 60 mm); (c) 2 different tensile strength of fibers (1100 MPa and 1500 MPa); and (d) 3 different fiber-end geometries (3D 4D and 5D fibers). The 3D hooked fibers have two plastic hinges at both ends, while the 4D and 5D hooked fibers are the newly developed steel fibers by Bekaert, and they have three and four plastic hinges at both ends, respectively. The hooked steel fibers were used in concrete with three different fiber contents, i.e., 20 30 and 40 kg/m³. From the study, it was found that all variables did not seem to affect the flexural strength at limit of proportionality (LOP) of HSFRC. However, they affected the residual flexural tensile strength (fR,j). It was observed that an increase in fiber lengths and the tensile strength the fibers would significantly increase in the fR,j of HSFRC, while the aspect ratio of the fiber would slightly effect the fR,j of HSFRC. Moreover, it was found that using 5D fibers would better enhance the fR,j and flexural behavior of HSFRC than 3D and 4D fibers, because they gave highest mechanical anchorage effect created by their hooked-end geometry.

Keywords: hooked steel fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, EN-14651, flexural test

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2449 Layered Fiberconcrete Element Building Technology and Strength

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Videvuds-Arijs Lapsa, Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Steel fibres use in a concrete, such way obtaining Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), is an important technological direction in building industry. Steel fibers are substituting the steel bars in conventional concrete in another situation is possible to combine them in the concrete structures. Traditionally fibers are homogeneously dispersed in a concrete. At the same time in many situations fiber concrete with homogeneously dispersed fibers is not optimal (majority of added fibers are not participating in a load bearing process). It is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented fibers distribution in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of them. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the project «Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Riga Technical University» and project No. 2013/0025/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/13/APIA/VIAA/019 “New “Smart” Nanocomposite Materials for Roads, Bridges, Buildings and Transport Vehicle”.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber, SFRC

Procedia PDF Downloads 526
2448 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
2447 Fresh State Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Anil Nis, Nilufer Ozyurt Zihnioglu

Abstract:

The object of the study is to investigate fresh state properties of the steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFR-SCC). Three different steel fibers; straight (Vf:0.5%), hooked-end long (Vf:0.5% and 1%) and hybrid fibers (0.5%short+0.5%long) were used in the research aiming to obtain flow properties of non-fibrous self-compacting concrete. Fly ash was used as a supplementary with an optimum dosage of 30% of the total cementitious materials. Polycarboxylic ether based high-performance concrete superplasticizer was used to get high flowability with percentages ranging from 0.81% (non-fibrous SCC) to 1.07% (hybrid SF-SCC) of the cement weight. The flowability properties of SCCs were measured via slump flow and V-funnel tests; passing ability properties of SCCs were measured with J-Ring, L-Box, and U-Box tests. Workability results indicate that small increase on the superplasticizer dosages compensate the adverse effects of steel fibers on flowability properties of SSC. However, higher dosage fiber addition has a negative effect on passing ability properties, causing blocking of the mixes. In addition, compressive strength, tensile strength, and four point bending results were given. Results indicate that SCCs including steel fibers have superior performances on tensile and bending strength of concrete. Crack bridging capability of steel fibers prevents concrete from splitting, yields higher deformation and energy absorption capacities than non-fibrous SCCs.

Keywords: fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete, fly ash, fresh state properties, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
2446 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fiber content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: Matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; Fiber volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76%, and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fiber content added; Whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fiber content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2445 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2444 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri

Abstract:

Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: crack, dramix, fiber, load, slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
2443 Crack Opening Investigation in Fiberconcrete

Authors: Arturs Macanovskis, Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Work has three stages. In the first stage was examined pull-out process for steel fiber was embedded into a concrete by one end and was pulled out of concrete under the angle to pulling out force direction. Angle was varied. Length of steel fiber was 26 mm, diameter 0.5 mm. On the obtained force- displacement diagrams were observed jumps. For such mechanical behavior explanation, fiber channel in concrete surface microscopical experimental investigation, using microscope KEYENCE VHX2000, was performed. Surface of fiber channel in concrete matrix after pull-out test (fiber angle to pulling out force direction 70°). At the second stage were obtained diagrams for load- crack opening displacement for breaking homogeneously reinforced and layered fiber concrete prisms (with dimensions 10x10x40 cm) subjected to 4-point bending. After testing was analyzed main crack. On the main crack’s both surfaces were recognized all pulled out fibers their locations, angles to crack surface and lengths of pull-out fibers parts. At the third stage elaborated prediction model for the fiber-concrete beam, failure under bending, using the following data: a) diagrams for fibers pulling out at different angles; b) experimental data about steel-straight fibers locations in the main crack.

Keywords: fiberconcrete, pull-out, fiber channel, layered fiberconcrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
2442 Numerical Simulation of Flexural Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced High Volume Fly Ash Concrete by Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mahzabin Afroz, Indubhushan Patnaikuni, Srikanth Venkatesan

Abstract:

It is well-known that fly ash can be used in high volume as a partial replacement of cement to get beneficial effects on concrete. High volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is currently emerging as a popular option to strengthen by fiber. Although studies have supported the use of fibers with fly ash, a unified model along with the incorporation into finite element software package to estimate the maximum flexural loads need to be developed. In this study, nonlinear finite element analysis of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete beam under static loadings was conducted to investigate their failure modes in terms of ultimate load. First of all, the experimental investigation of mechanical properties of high strength HVFA concrete was done and validates with developed numerical model with the appropriate modeling of element size and mesh by ANSYS 16.2. To model the fiber within the concrete, three-dimensional random fiber distribution was simulated by spherical coordinate system. Three types of high strength HVFA concrete beams were analyzed reinforced with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% volume fractions of steel fibers with specific mechanical and physical properties. The result reveals that the use of nonlinear finite element analysis technique and three-dimensional random fiber orientation exhibited fairly good agreement with the experimental results of flexural strength, load deflection and crack propagation mechanism. By utilizing this improved model, it is possible to determine the flexural behavior of different types and proportions of steel fiber reinforced HVFA concrete beam under static load. So, this paper has the originality to predict the flexural properties of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete by numerical simulations.

Keywords: finite element analysis, high volume fly ash, steel fibers, spherical coordinate system

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2441 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer

Abstract:

Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2440 The Structural Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams: An Analytical Approach

Authors: Jubee Varghese, Pouria Hafiz

Abstract:

Increased use of lightweight concrete in the construction industry is mainly due to its reduction in the weight of the structural elements, which in turn reduces the cost of production, transportation, and the overall project cost. However, the structural application of these lightweight concrete structures is limited due to its reduced density. Hence, further investigations are in progress to study the effect of fiber inclusion in improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Incorporating structural steel fibers, in general, enhances the performance of concrete and increases its durability by minimizing its potential to cracking and providing crack arresting mechanism. In this research, Geometric and Materially Non-linear Analysis (GMNA) was conducted for Finite Element Modelling using a software known as ABAQUS, to investigate the structural behavior of lightweight concrete with and without the addition of steel fibers and shear reinforcement. 21 finite element models of beams were created to study the effect of steel fibers based on three main parameters; fiber volume fraction (Vf = 0, 0.5 and 0.75%), shear span to depth ratio (a/d of 2, 3 and 4) and ratio of area of shear stirrups to spacing (As/s of 0.7, 1 and 1.6). The models created were validated with the previous experiment conducted by H.K. Kang et al. in 2011. It was seen that the lightweight fiber reinforcement can replace the use of fiber reinforced normal weight concrete as structural elements. The effect of an increase in steel fiber volume fraction is dominant for beams with higher shear span to depth ratio than for lower ratios. The effect of stirrups in the presence of fibers was very negligible; however; it provided extra confinement to the cracks by reducing the crack propagation and extra shear resistance than when compared to beams with no stirrups.

Keywords: ABAQUS, beams, fiber-reinforced concrete, finite element, light weight, shear span-depth ratio, steel fibers, steel-fiber volume fraction

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2439 Analysis of the Influence of Fiber Volume and Fiber Orientation on Post-Cracking Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marilia M. Camargo, Luisa A. Gachet-Barbosa, Rosa C. C. Lintz

Abstract:

The addition of fibers into concrete matrix can enhance some properties of the composite, such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths, toughness, deformation capacity and post-cracking ductility. Many factors affect the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, such as concrete matrix (concrete strength, additions, aggregate diameter, etc.), characteristics of the fiber (geometry, type, aspect ratio, volume, orientation, distribution, strength, stiffness, etc.), specimen (size, geometry, method of preparation and loading rate). This research investigates the effects of fiber volume and orientation on the post-cracking behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Hooked-end steel fibers with aspect ratios of 45 were added into concrete with volume of 0,32%, 0,64%, 0,94%. The post-cracking behaviour was assessed by double punch test of cubic specimens and the actual volume and orientation of the fibers were determined by non-destructive tests by means of electromagnetic induction. The results showed that the actual volume of fibers in each sample differs in a small amount from the dosed volume of fibers and that the deformation and toughness of the concrete increase with the increase in the actual volume of fibers. In determining the orientation of the fibers, it was found that they tend to distribute more in the X and Y axes due to the influence of the walls of the mold. In addition, it was concluded that the orientation of the fibers is important in the post-cracking behaviour of FRC when analyzed together with the actual volume of fibers, since the greater the volume of fibers, the greater the number of fibers oriented orthogonally to the application of loadings and, consequently, there is a better mechanical behavior of the composite. These results provide a better understanding of the influence of volume and fiber orientation on the post-cracking behavior of the FRC.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, steel fibers, volume of fibers, orientation of fibers, post-cracking behaviour

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2438 Influence of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber on Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe Ngu-Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the use of Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) for the production of fiber reinforced high performance concrete. The Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) were obtained from dealers that extracted the fibers by burning the scrap tyres and were characterized. The effect of STSF was investigated on grade 50 concrete of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of STSF of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% by volume of concrete. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths, respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. The results indicate that slump decreased with increase in STSF, while compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased with increase in STSF up to 1.5% and reduction in strength with increase in STSF above 1.5%. 1.5% STSF was considered as the optimum dosage with a 28 days increase in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of 12.3% and 43.8% respectively, of control.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, scrap tyre steel fiber, splitting tensile strength

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2437 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hardness and Compressive Strength of Hybrid Glass/Steel Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Amar Patnaik, Pankaj Agarwal

Abstract:

This paper investigates the experimental study of hardness and compressive strength of hybrid glass/steel fiber reinforced polymer composites by varying the glass and steel fiber layer in the epoxy matrix. The hybrid composites with four stacking sequences HSG-1, HSG-2, HSG-3, and HSG-4 were fabricated by the VARTM process under the controlled environment. The experimentally evaluated results of Vicker’s hardness of the fabricated composites increases with an increase in the fiber layers sequence showing the high resistance. The improvement of micro-structure ability has been observed from the SEM study, which governs in the enhancement of compressive strength. The finite element model was developed on ANSYS to predict the above said properties and further compared with experimental results. The results predicted by the numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. The hybrid composites developed in this study was identified as the preferred materials due to their excellent mechanical properties to replace the conventional materialsused in the marine structures.

Keywords: finite element method, interfacial strength, polymer composites, VARTM

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2436 Strength and Permeability Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Amrit Pal Singh Arora

Abstract:

The paper reports the results of a study undertaken to study the effects of addition of steel fibres of different aspect ratios on the permeability and strength characteristics of steel fiber reinforced fly ash concrete (SFRC). Corrugated steel fibres having a diameter of 0.6 mm and lengths of 12.5 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm were used in this study. Cube samples of 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm were cast from mixes replacing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% cement content by fly ash with and without fibres and tested for the determination of coefficient of water permeability, compressive and split tensile strengths after 7 and 28 days of curing. Plain concrete samples were also cast and tested for reference purposes. Permeability was observed to decrease significantly for all concrete mixes with the addition of steel fibers as compared to plain concrete. The replacement of cement content by fly ash results in an increase in the coefficient of water permeability. With the addition of fly ash to the plain mix the7 day compressive and split tensile strengths decreased, however both the compressive and split tensile strengths increased with increase in curing age.

Keywords: curing age, fiber shape, fly ash, Darcy’s law, Ppermeability

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2435 Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Sally Hosny, Mona G. Ibrahim, N. K. Hassan

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.

Keywords: FRP, strengthened steel I-beams, flexural, FEM, ANSYS

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2434 Performance Evaluation of Cement Mortar with Crushed Stone Dust as Fine Aggregates

Authors: Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

The present work is based on application of cement mortar with natural sand and discontinuous steel fiber through which bending behavior of skinny beam was evaluated. This research is to study the effects of combining reinforcing steel meshes (continuous steel reinforcement) with discontinuous fibers as reinforcement in skinny walled Portland cement based cement mortar with crushed stone dust as a fine aggregate. The term ‘skinny’ means thickness of the beams is less than 25 mm. The main idea behind this combination is to satisfy the ultimate strength limit state through the steel mesh reinforcement (as a main reinforcement) and to control the cracking under service loads through fiber (Recron 3s) reinforcement (as secondary reinforcement). The main object of this study is to carry out the bending behavior of mortar reinforced thin beam with only one layer of steel mesh (with various transfer wire spacing) and with a recron 3s (Reliance) fifers. The wide experimental program with bending tests is undertaken. The following variables are investigated: (a) the reference mesh size - 25.4 x 25.4 mm and 50.8 x 50.8 mm; (b) the transverse wire spacing - 25.4 mm, 50.8 mm, and no transverse wires; (c) the type of fibers – Reliance (Recron 3s, 6mm length); and (d) the fiber volume fraction – 0.1% and 0.25%. Some of the main conclusions are: (a) the use of recron 3s fibers leads to a little better overall performance than that with no fiber; (b) an increase in equivalent stress is observed when 0.1% RF,0.25% R Fibers are used; (c) when 25.4 x 50.8 size steel mesh is used, no noticeable change in behavior is observed in comparison to specimens without fibers; and (d) for no fibers 0.1% and o.1% RF the transverse wire spacing has some little effect on the equivalent stress for RF fibers, the transverse wire has no influence but the equivalent stress are increased.

Keywords: cement mortar, crushed stone dust, fibre, steel mesh

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2433 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100 mm×100 mm×400 mm with layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated. Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber, construction engineering

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2432 Effects of Rice Husk Ash on the Properties of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (RHA-STSFRHAC)

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe-Ngu Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (STSFRHPC). RHA was obtained by control burning of rice husk in a kiln to a temperature of 650-700oC and when cooled sieved through 75µm sieve and characterized. The effect of RHA were investigated on grade 50 STSFRHPC of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber (STSF) of 1.5% by volume of concrete and partial replacement of cement with RHA at percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. Results of RHA-STSFRHPC indicated a reduction in slump and compressive strength with increase in RHA content, while splitting tensile strength increased with RHA replacement up to 10% and reduction in strength above 10% RHA content. The 28 days compressive strength of RHA-STSFRHPC with up to 10% RHA attained the desired characteristic strength of 50N/mm2 and therefore up to 10% RHA is considered as the optimum replacement dosage in STSFRHPC-RHA.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, rice husk ash, scrap tyre steel fibers

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2431 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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2430 Experimental Work to Estimate the Strength of Ferrocement Slabs Incorporating Silica Fume and Steel Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Mashrei

Abstract:

Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete made of cement-sand matrix with closely spaced relatively small diameter wire meshes, with or without steel bars of small diameter called skeletal steel. This work concerns on the behavior of square ferrocement slabs of dimensions (500) mm x (500) mm and 30 mm subjected to a central load. This study includes testing thirteen ferrocement slabs. The main variables considered in the experimental work are the number of wire mesh layers, percentage of silica fume and the presence of steel fiber. The effects of these variables on the behavior and load carrying capacity of tested slabs under central load were investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that by increasing the percentage of silica fume from (0 to 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6) of weight of cement the ultimate loads are affected. Also From this study, it is observed that the load carrying capacity increases with the presence of steel fiber reinforcement, the ductility is high in the case of steel fibers. The increasing wire mesh layer from six to ten layers increased the load capacity by 76%. Also, a reduction in width of crack with increasing in number of cracks in the samples that content on steel fibers comparing with samples without steel fibers was observed from the results.

Keywords: ferrocement, fibre, silica fume, slab, strength

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2429 Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen

Abstract:

According to the ASTM C1018 toughness index method, the single and combined toughness effects of copper coated steel fiber and polypropylene (pp) fiber on reactive powder concrete (RPC) were investigated. Through flexural toughness test of RPC with different fiber volume dosages, the corresponding load-deflection curves were also drawn. Test results indicate that the binary combination of fibers provide the best flexural toughness, and improve the post-peak load-deflection characteristics of RPC. However, the single effect of pp fibers was not pronounced on improving the flexural toughness of RPC.

Keywords: RPC, PP, flexural toughness, toughness index

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2428 Development of Tensile Stress-Strain Relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. A. Alguhi, W. A. Elsaigh

Abstract:

This paper provides a tensile stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HSFRC). Load-deflection (P-δ) behavior of HSFRC beams tested under four-point flexural load were used with inverse analysis to calculate the tensile σ-ε relationship for various tested concrete grades (70 and 90MPa) containing 60 kg/m3 (0.76 %) of hook-end steel fibers. A first estimate of the tensile (σ-ε) relationship is obtained using RILEM TC 162-TDF and other methods available in literature, frequently used for determining tensile σ-ε relationship of Normal-Strength Concrete (NSC) Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) package ABAQUS® is used to model the beam’s P-δ behavior. The results have shown that an element-size dependent tensile σ-ε relationship for HSFRC can be successfully generated and adopted for further analyzes involving HSFRC structures.

Keywords: tensile stress-strain, flexural response, high strength concrete, steel fibers, non-linear finite element analysis

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2427 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 251