Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: scaffolding

51 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

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50 Safety Conditions Analysis of Scaffolding on Construction Sites

Authors: M. Pieńko, A. Robak, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Szer

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This paper presents the results of analysis of 100 full-scale scaffolding structures in terms of compliance with legal acts and safety of use. In 2016 and 2017, authors examined scaffolds in Poland located at buildings which were at construction or renovation stage. The basic elements affecting the safety of scaffolding use such as anchors, supports, platforms, guardrails and toe-boards have been taken into account. All of these elements were checked in each of considered scaffolding. Based on the analyzed scaffoldings, the most common errors concerning assembly process and use of scaffolding were collected. Legal acts on the scaffoldings are not always clear, and this causes many issues. In practice, people realize how dangerous the use of incomplete scaffolds is only when the accident occurs. Despite the fact that the scaffolding should ensure the safety of its users, most accidents on construction sites are caused by fall from a height.

Keywords: façade scaffolds, load capacity, practice, safety of people

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49 Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education

Authors: Seree Chadcham, Niphon Sukvilai

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This study is the research and development which is intended to: 1) design of the Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System (ISLMS) for vocational education, 2) assess the suitability of the Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of the ISLMS for Vocational Education and phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the design. The samples used in this study are work done by 15 professionals in the field of Intelligent Scaffolding, Learning Management System, Vocational Education, and Information and Communication Technology in education selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the ISLMS for vocational education consists of 2 main components which are: 1) the Intelligent Learning Management System for Vocational Education, 2) the Intelligent Scaffolding Management System. The result of the system suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest range.

Keywords: intelligent, scaffolding, learning management system, vocational education

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48 Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Does It Help for Reading Strategy?

Authors: Mahmood Dehqan, Peyman Peyvasteh

Abstract:

In recent years there has been a growing interest in issues concerning the impact of sociocultural theory (SCT) of learning on different aspects of second/foreign language learning. This study aimed to find the possible effects of sociocultural teaching techniques on reading strategy of EFL learners. Indeed, the present research compared the impact of peer and teacher scaffolding on EFL learners’ reading strategy use across two proficiency levels. To this end, a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design was used and two instruments were utilized to collect the data: Nelson English language test and reading strategy questionnaire. Ninety five university students participated in this study were divided into two groups of teacher and peer scaffolding. Teacher scaffolding group received scaffolded help from the teacher based on three mechanisms of effective help within ZPD: graduated, contingent, dialogic. In contrast, learners of peer scaffolding group were unleashed from the teacher-fronted classroom as they were asked to carry out the reading comprehension tasks with the feedback they provided for each other. Results obtained from ANOVA revealed that teacher scaffolding group outperformed the peer scaffolding group in terms of reading strategy use. It means teacher’s scaffolded help provided within the learners’ ZPD led to better reading strategy improvement compared with the peer scaffolded help. However, the interaction effect between proficiency factor and teaching technique was non-significant, leading to the conclusion that strategy use of the learners was not affected by their proficiency level in either teacher or peer scaffolding groups.

Keywords: peer scaffolding, proficiency level, reading strategy, sociocultural theory, teacher scaffolding

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47 Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, M. Pieńko, A. Robak, P. Jamińska-Gadomska

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Work at height, such as construction works on scaffoldings, is associated with a considerable risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions to which the worker may be exposed. The data from meteorological stations may be used to asses this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The paper presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind speed. Measurements of these parameters were made between April and November of 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. They were compared with the results taken from the meteorological stations located closest to the studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analyses have shown that they were correlated.

Keywords: scaffolding, health and safety at work, temperature, wind velocity

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46 Analysis of Exploitation Damages of the Frame Scaffolding

Authors: A. Robak, M. Pieńko, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Bęc, I. Szer

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The analyzes and classifications presented in the article were based on the research carried out in year 2016 and 2017 on a group of nearly one hundred scaffoldings assembled and used on construction sites in different parts of Poland. During scaffolding selection process efforts were made to maintain diversification in terms of parameters such as scaffolding size, investment size, type of investment, location and nature of conducted works. This resulted in the research being carried out on scaffoldings used for church renovation in a small town or attached to the facades of classic apartment blocks, as well as on scaffoldings used during construction of skyscrapers or facilities of the largest power plants. This variety allows to formulate general conclusions about the technical condition of used frame scaffoldings. Exploitation damages of the frame scaffolding elements were divided into three groups. The first group includes damages to the main structural components, which reduce the strength of the scaffolding elements and hence the whole structure. The qualitative analysis of these damages was made on the basis of numerical models that take into account the geometry of the damage and on the basis of computational nonlinear static analyzes. The second group focuses on exploitation damages such as the lack of a pin on the guardrail bolt which may cause an imminent threat to people using scaffolding. These are local damages that do not affect the bearing capacity and stability of the whole structure but are very important for safe use. The last group consider damages that reduce only aesthetic values and do not have direct impact on bearing capacity and safety of use. Apart from qualitative analyzes the article will present quantitative analyzes showing how frequently given type of damage occurs.

Keywords: scaffolding, damage, safety, numerical analysis

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45 The Impact of Scaffolding on Motivation of Vocational Special Education Students in Kakamega Program for Persons with Hearing Impaired in Kenya

Authors: J. W. Mbogani, B. A. Bunyasi

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The special skills for five students in the vocational class in Kakamega program for Hearing impaired were identified within one term period of the Kenyan education system. Three students were identified as having a liking for tailoring. The remaining two students did not show any interest in any vocational subject. The three students were attached to two professionals in practicing general tailors within the school vicinity for scaffolding purposes. The students were allowed to attend general classes under the normal curriculum and were withdrawn after eleven in the morning for tailoring classes. The students were then monitored with the guideline of a checklist. The purpose of monitoring was to establish whether the behavior of the students reflected a motivated student. It was established that two of them improved in their school attendance in terms of regularity, punctuality and responsibility accomplishment. The third student ended up attending only tailoring classes. The socialization aspect of the two students improved a lot. They also tended to identify more with the teachers than their fellow students. We recommend that learners with special needs in education should be subjected to the normal curriculum. They may benefit more and attain a skill that could help them economically. Further study should also be done to in several institutions involving learners in other classes.

Keywords: general tailoring, scaffolding, term, vocational class

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44 Effects of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding to Enhance Graduate Students' Research Competency and Analytical Thinking Skills

Authors: Panita Wannapiroon, Prachyanun Nilsook

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This paper is a report on the findings of a Research and Development (R&D) aiming to develop the model of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding (RBBL-AS) to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills, to study the result of using such model. The sample consisted of 10 experts in the fields during the model developing stage, while there were 23 graduate students of KMUTNB for the RBBL-AS model try out stage. The research procedures included 4 phases: 1) literature review, 2) model development, 3) model experiment, and 4) model revision and confirmation. The research results were divided into 3 parts according to the procedures as described in the following session. First, the data gathering from the literature review were reported as a draft model; followed by the research finding from the experts’ interviews indicated that the model should be included 8 components to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills. The 8 components were 1) cloud learning environment, 2) Ubiquitous Cloud Learning Management System (UCLMS), 3) learning courseware, 4) learning resources, 5) adaptive Scaffolding, 6) communication and collaboration tolls, 7) learning assessment, and 8) research-based blended learning activity. Second, the research finding from the experimental stage found that there were statistically significant difference of the research competency and analytical thinking skills posttest scores over the pretest scores at the .05 level. The Graduate students agreed that learning with the RBBL-AS model was at a high level of satisfaction. Third, according to the finding from the experimental stage and the comments from the experts, the developed model was revised and proposed in the report for further implication and references.

Keywords: research based learning, blended learning, adaptive scaffolding, research competency, analytical thinking skills

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43 Intelligent Scaffolding Diagnostic Tutoring Systems to Enhance Students’ Academic Reading Skills

Authors: A.Chayaporn Kaoropthai, B. Onjaree Natakuatoong, C. Nagul Cooharojananone

Abstract:

The first year is usually the most critical year for university students. Generally, a considerable number of first-year students worldwide drop out of university every year. One of the major reasons for dropping out is failing. Although they are supposed to have mastered sufficient English proficiency upon completing their high school education, most first-year students are still novices in academic reading. Due to their lack of experience in academic reading, first-year students need significant support from teachers to help develop their academic reading skills. Reading strategies training is thus a necessity and plays a crucial role in classroom instruction. However, individual differences in both students, as well as teachers, are the main factors contributing to the failure in not responding to each individual student’s needs. For this reason, reading strategies training inevitably needs a diagnosis of students’ academic reading skills levels before, during, and after learning, in order to respond to their different needs. To further support reading strategies training, scaffolding is proposed to facilitate students in understanding and practicing using reading strategies under the teachers’ guidance. The use of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) as a tool for diagnosing students’ reading problems will be very beneficial to both students and their teachers. The ITSs consist of four major modules: the Expert module, the Student module, the Diagnostic module, and the User Interface module. The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) enables the systems to perform diagnosis consistently and appropriately for each individual student. Thus, it is essential to develop the Intelligent Scaffolding Diagnostic Reading Strategies Tutoring Systems to enhance first-year students’ academic reading skills. The systems proposed will contribute to resolving classroom reading strategies training problems, developing students’ academic reading skills, and facilitating teachers.

Keywords: academic reading, intelligent tutoring systems, scaffolding, university students

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42 Examining Audiology Students: Clinical Reasoning Skills When Using Virtual Audiology Cases Aided With no Collaboration, Live Collaboration, and Virtual Collaboration

Authors: Ramy Shaaban

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The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in clinical reasoning skills of students when using virtual audiology cases with and without collaborative assistance from major learning approaches important to clinical reasoning skills and computer-based learning models: Situated Learning Theory, Social Development Theory, Scaffolding, and Collaborative Learning. A quasi-experimental design was conducted at two United States universities to examine whether there is a significant difference in clinical reasoning skills between three treatment groups using IUP Audiosim software. Two computer-based audiology case simulations were developed, and participants were randomly placed into the three groups: no collaboration, virtual collaboration, and live collaboration. The clinical reasoning data were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey posthoc analyses. The results show that there was a significant difference in clinical reasoning skills between the three treatment groups. The score obtained by the no collaboration group was significantly less than the scores obtained by the virtual and live collaboration groups. Collaboration, whether virtual or in person, has a positive effect on students’ clinical reasoning. These results with audiology students indicate that combining collaboration models with scaffolding and embedding situated learning and social development theories into the design of future virtual patients has the potential to improve students’ clinical reasoning skills.

Keywords: clinical reasoning, virtual patients, collaborative learning, scaffolding

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41 Restructuring the College Classroom: Scaffolding Student Learning and Engagement in Higher Education

Authors: Claire Griffin

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Recent years have witnessed a surge in the use of innovative teaching approaches to support student engagement and higher-order learning within higher education. This paper seeks to explore the use of collaborative, interactive teaching and learning strategies to support student engagement in a final year undergraduate Developmental Psychology module. In particular, the use of the jigsaw method, in-class presentations and online discussion fora were adopted in a ‘lectorial’ style teaching approach, aimed at scaffolding learning, fostering social interdependence and supporting various levels of student engagement in higher education. Using the ‘Student Course Engagement Questionnaire’, the impact of such teaching strategies on students’ college classroom experience was measured, with additional qualitative student feedback gathered. Results illustrate the positive impact of the teaching methodologies on students’ levels of engagement, with positive implications emerging across the four engagement factors: skills engagement, emotional engagement, participation/interaction engagement and performance engagement. Thematic analysis on students’ qualitative comments also provided greater insight into the positive impact of the ‘lectorial’ teaching approach on students’ classroom experience within higher level education. Implications of the findings are presented in terms of informing effective teaching practices within higher education. Additional avenues for future research and strategy usage will also be discussed, in light of evolving practice and cutting edge literature within the field.

Keywords: learning, higher education, scaffolding, student engagement

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40 Simulation versus Hands-On Learning Methodologies: A Comparative Study for Engineering and Technology Curricula

Authors: Mohammed T. Taher, Usman Ghani, Ahmed S. Khan

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This paper compares the findings of two studies conducted to determine the effectiveness of simulation-based, hands-on and feedback mechanism on students learning by answering the following questions: 1). Does the use of simulation improve students’ learning outcomes? 2). How do students perceive the instructional design features embedded in the simulation program such as exploration and scaffolding support in learning new concepts? 3.) What is the effect of feedback mechanisms on students’ learning in the use of simulation-based labs? The paper also discusses the other aspects of findings which reveal that simulation by itself is not very effective in promoting student learning. Simulation becomes effective when it is followed by hands-on activity and feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, the paper presents recommendations for improving student learning through the use of simulation-based, hands-on, and feedback-based teaching methodologies.

Keywords: simulation-based teaching, hands-on learning, feedback-based learning, scaffolding

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39 A Dream to Bicycle: A Curriculum Practice of Thematic Teaching Constructed by Scaffolding Theory

Authors: Gu Chun-Mei, Kung Mei-Juan

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The aim of this research is to examine (1) how a kindergarten teacher followed the scaffolding theory to inspire children’s interest in bicycling and (2) how these children had learned the skill of bicycling. Results revealed that: first of all, the teacher (1) used questions during the teaching process to stimulate the levels of children’s abilities; (2) provided follow-up thematic clues and hints which are based on children’s abilities (e.g., would not provide instructions and demonstrations except children continued failing to solve the current problems); (3) assisted only when children needed it. Furthermore, when children continued failing the task and being frustrated, instead of providing more concrete guidance, the teacher would utilize the following strategies: (1) postulating children’s thoughts; (2) encouraging children to feel the difficulties; (3) giving children opportunities to reflect on how to solve the problems. In sum, by raising questions, allowing children to implement by themselves for the first attempt, then inducing children to correct their actions, the teacher built a scaffold with thematic teaching to develop children’s potential on bicycling.

Keywords: thematic teaching, scaffold, zone of proximal development, children

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38 Apparent Temperature Distribution on Scaffoldings during Construction Works

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, K. Czarnocki, E. Błazik-Borowa

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People on construction scaffoldings work in dynamically changing, often unfavourable climate. Additionally, this kind of work is performed on low stiffness structures at high altitude, which increases the risk of accidents. It is therefore desirable to define the parameters of the work environment that contribute to increasing the construction worker occupational safety level. The aim of this article is to present how changes in microclimate parameters on scaffolding can impact the development of dangerous situations and accidents. For this purpose, indicators based on the human thermal balance were used. However, use of this model under construction conditions is often burdened by significant errors or even impossible to implement due to the lack of precise data. Thus, in the target model, the modified parameter was used – apparent environmental temperature. Apparent temperature in the proposed Scaffold Use Risk Assessment Model has been a perceived outdoor temperature, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, radiative temperature, relative humidity and wind speed (wind chill index, heat index). In the paper, correlations between component factors and apparent temperature for facade scaffolding with a width of 24.5 m and a height of 42.3 m, located at south-west side of building are presented. The distribution of factors on the scaffolding has been used to evaluate fitting of the microclimate model. The results of the studies indicate that observed ranges of apparent temperature on the scaffolds frequently results in a worker’s inability to adapt. This leads to reduced concentration and increased fatigue, adversely affects health, and consequently increases the risk of dangerous situations and accidental injuries

Keywords: apparent temperature, health, safety work, scaffoldings

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37 Online-Scaffolding-Learning Tools to Improve First-Year Undergraduate Engineering Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Abilities

Authors: Chen Wang, Gerard Rowe

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The number of undergraduate engineering students enrolled in university has been increasing rapidly recently, leading to challenges associated with increased student-instructor ratios and increased diversity in academic preparedness of the entrants. An increased student-instructor ratio makes the interaction between teachers and students more difficult, with the resulting student ‘anonymity’ known to be a risk to academic success. With increasing student numbers, there is also an increasing diversity in the academic preparedness of the students at entry to university. Conceptual understanding of the entrants has been quantified via diagnostic testing, with the results for the first-year course in electrical engineering showing significant conceptual misunderstandings amongst the entry cohort. The solution is clearly multi-faceted, but part of the solution likely involves greater demands being placed on students to be masters of their own learning. In consequence, it is highly desirable that instructors help students to develop better self-regulated learning skills. A self-regulated learner is one who is capable of setting up their own learning goals, monitoring their study processes, adopting and adjusting learning strategies, and reflecting on their own study achievements. The methods by which instructors might cultivate students’ self-regulated learning abilities is receiving increasing attention from instructors and researchers. The aim of this study was to help students understand fully their self-regulated learning skill levels and provide targeted instructions to help them improve particular learning abilities in order to meet the curriculum requirements. As a survey tool, this research applied the questionnaire ‘Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire’ (MSLQ) to collect first year engineering student’s self-reported data of their cognitive abilities, motivational orientations and learning strategies. MSLQ is a widely-used questionnaire for assessment of university student’s self-regulated learning skills. The questionnaire was offered online as a part of the online-scaffolding-learning tools to develop student understanding of self-regulated learning theories and learning strategies. The online tools, which have been under development since 2015, are designed to help first-year students understand their self-regulated learning skill levels by providing prompt feedback after they complete the questionnaire. In addition, the online tool also supplies corresponding learning strategies to students if they want to improve specific learning skills. A total of 866 first year engineering students who enrolled in the first-year electrical engineering course were invited to participate in this research project. By the end of the course 857 students responded and 738 of their questionnaires were considered as valid questionnaires. Analysis of these surveys showed that 66% of the students thought the online-scaffolding-learning tools helped significantly to improve their self-regulated learning abilities. It was particularly pleasing that 16.4% of the respondents thought the online-scaffolding-learning tools were extremely effective. A current thrust of our research is to investigate the relationships between students’ self-regulated learning abilities and their academic performance. Our results are being used by the course instructors as they revise the curriculum and pedagogy for this fundamental first-year engineering course, but the general principles we have identified are applicable to most first-year STEM courses.

Keywords: academic preparedness, online-scaffolding-learning tool, self-regulated learning, STEM education

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36 Research Networks and Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Study of Aquaculture in Europe

Authors: Zeta Dooly, Aidan Duane

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The collaborative European funded research and development landscape provides prime environmental conditions for multi-disciplinary teams to learn and enhance their knowledge beyond the capability of training and learning within their own organisation cocoons. Whilst the emergence of the academic entrepreneur has changed the focus of educational institutions to that of quasi-businesses, the training and professional development of lecturers and academic staff are often not formalised to the same level as industry. This research focuses on industry and academic collaborative research funded by the European Commission. The impact of research is scalable if an optimum research network is created and managed effectively. This paper investigates network embeddedness, the nature of relationships, links, and nodes within a research network, and the enhancement of the network’s knowledge. The contribution of this paper extends our understanding of establishing and maintaining effective collaborative research networks. The effects of network embeddedness are recognized in the literature as pertinent to innovation and the economy. Network theory literature claims that networks are essential to innovative clusters such as Silicon valley and innovation in high tech industries. This research provides evidence to support the impact collaborative research has on the disparate individuals toward their innovative contributions to their organisations and their own professional development. This study adopts a qualitative approach and uncovers some of the challenges of multi-disciplinary research through case study insights. The contribution of this paper recommends the establishment of scaffolding to accommodate cooperation in research networks, role appointment, and addressing contextual complexities early to avoid problem cultivation. Furthermore, it suggests recommendations in relation to network formation, intra-network challenges in relation to open data, competition, friendships, and competency enhancement. The network capability is enhanced by the adoption of the relevant theories; network theory, open innovation, and social exchange, with the understanding that the network structure has an impact on innovation and social exchange in research networks. The research concludes that there is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the impact of network reuse and network hoping that provides scaffolding for the network members to enhance and build upon their knowledge using a progressive approach.

Keywords: research networks, competency building, network theory, case study

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35 Robot Spatial Reasoning via 3D Models

Authors: John Allard, Alex Rich, Iris Aguilar, Zachary Dodds

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With this paper we present several experiences deploying novel, low-cost resources for computing with 3D spatial models. Certainly, computing with 3D models undergirds some of our field’s most important contributions to the human experience. Most often, those are contrived artifacts. This work extends that tradition by focusing on novel resources that deliver uncontrived models of a system’s current surroundings. Atop this new capability, we present several projects investigating the student-accessibility of the computational tools for reasoning about the 3D space around us. We conclude that, with current scaffolding, real-world 3D models are now an accessible and viable foundation for creative computational work.

Keywords: 3D vision, matterport model, real-world 3D models, mathematical and computational methods

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34 Human Factors as the Main Reason of the Accident in Scaffold Use Assessment

Authors: Krzysztof J. Czarnocki, E. Czarnocka, K. Szaniawska

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Main goal of the research project is Scaffold Use Risk Assessment Model (SURAM) formulation, developed for the assessment of risk levels as a various construction process stages with various work trades. Finally, in 2016, the project received financing by the National Center for Research and development according to PBS3/A2/19/2015–Research Grant. The presented data, calculations and analyzes discussed in this paper were created as a result of the completion on the first and second phase of the PBS3/A2/19/2015 project. Method: One of the arms of the research project is the assessment of worker visual concentration on the sight zones as well as risky visual point inadequate observation. In this part of research, the mobile eye-tracker was used to monitor the worker observation zones. SMI Eye Tracking Glasses is a tool, which allows us to analyze in real time and place where our eyesight is concentrated on and consequently build the map of worker's eyesight concentration during a shift. While the project is still running, currently 64 construction sites have been examined, and more than 600 workers took part in the experiment including monitoring of typical parameters of the work regimen, workload, microclimate, sound vibration, etc. Full equipment can also be useful in more advanced analyses. Because of that technology we have verified not only main focus of workers eyes during work on or next to scaffolding, but we have also examined which changes in the surrounding environment during their shift influenced their concentration. In the result of this study it has been proven that only up to 45.75% of the shift time, workers’ eye concentration was on one of three work-related areas. Workers seem to be distracted by noisy vehicles or people nearby. In opposite to our initial assumptions and other authors’ findings, we observed that the reflective parts of the scaffoldings were not more recognized by workers in their direct workplaces. We have noticed that the red curbs were the only well recognized part on a very few scaffoldings. Surprisingly on numbers of samples, we have not recognized any significant number of concentrations on those curbs. Conclusion: We have found the eye-tracking method useful for the construction of the SURAM model in the risk perception and worker’s behavior sub-modules. We also have found that the initial worker's stress and work visual conditions seem to be more predictive for assessment of the risky developing situation or an accident than other parameters relating to a work environment.

Keywords: accident assessment model, eye tracking, occupational safety, scaffolding

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33 Using Infrared Thermography, Photogrammetry and a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System to Create 3D Thermal Models

Authors: C. C. Kruger, P. Van Tonder

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Concrete deteriorates over time and the deterioration can be escalated due to multiple factors. When deteriorations are beneath the concrete’s surface, they could be unknown, even more so when they are located at high elevations. Establishing the severity of such defects could prove difficult and therefore the need to find efficient, safe and economical methods to find these defects becomes ever more important. Current methods using thermography to find defects require equipment such as scaffolding to reach these higher elevations. This could become time- consuming and costly. The risks involved with personnel scaffold or abseil to such heights are high. Accordingly, by combining the technologies of a thermal camera and a Remotely Piloted Aerial System it could be used to find better diagnostic methods. The data could then be constructed into a 3D thermal model to easy representation of the results

Keywords: concrete, infrared thermography, 3D thermal models, diagnostic

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32 Conceptual Perimeter Model for Estimating Building Envelope Quantities

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu

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Building girth is important in building economics and mostly used in quantities take-off of various cost items. Literature suggests that the use of conceptual quantities can improve the accuracy of cost models. Girth or perimeter of a building can be used to estimate conceptual quantities. Hence, the current paper aims to model the perimeter-area function of buildings shapes for use at the conceptual design stage. A detailed literature review on existing building shape indexes was carried out. An empirical approach was used to study the relationship between area and the shortest length of a four-sided orthogonal polygon. Finally, a mathematical approach was used to establish the observed relationships. The empirical results obtained were in agreement with the mathematical model developed. A new equation termed “conceptual perimeter equation” is proposed. The equation can be used to estimate building envelope quantities such as external wall area, external finishing area and scaffolding area before sketch or detailed drawings are prepared.

Keywords: building envelope, building shape index, conceptual quantities, cost modelling, girth

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31 Role of Feedbacks in Simulation-Based Learning

Authors: Usman Ghani

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Feedback is a vital element for improving student learning in a simulation-based training as it guides and refines learning through scaffolding. A number of studies in literature have shown that students’ learning is enhanced when feedback is provided with personalized tutoring that offers specific guidance and adapts feedback to the learner in a one-to-one environment. Thus, emulating these adaptive aspects of human tutoring in simulation provides an effective methodology to train individuals. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of automating different types of feedback techniques such as Knowledge-of-Correct-Response (KCR) and Answer-Until- Correct (AUC) in software simulation for learning basic information technology concepts. For the purpose of comparison, techniques like simulation with zero or no-feedback (NFB) and traditional hands-on (HON) learning environments are also examined. The paper presents the summary of findings based on quantitative analyses which reveal that the simulation based instructional strategies are at least as effective as hands-on teaching methodologies for the purpose of learning of IT concepts. The paper also compares the results of the study with the earlier studies and recommends strategies for using feedback mechanism to improve students’ learning in designing and simulation-based IT training.

Keywords: simulation, feedback, training, hands-on, labs

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30 Enhancing Experiential Learning in a Smart Flipped Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Fahri Benli, Sitalakshmi Venkartraman, Ye Wei, Fiona Wahr

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A flipped classroom which is a form of blended learning shifts the focus from a teacher-centered approach to a learner-centered approach. However, not all learners are ready to take the active role of knowledge and skill acquisition through a flipped classroom and they continue to delve in a passive mode of learning. This challenges educators in designing, scaffolding and facilitating in-class activities for students to have active learning experiences in a flipped classroom environment. Experiential learning theories have been employed by educators in the past in physical classrooms based on the principle that knowledge could be actively developed through direct experience. However, with more of online teaching witnessed recently, there are inherent limitations in designing and simulating an experiential learning activity for an online environment. In this paper, we explore enhancing experiential learning using smart digital tools that could be employed in a flipped classroom within a higher education setting. We present the use of smart collaborative tools online to enhance the experiential learning activity to teach higher-order cognitive concepts of business process modelling as a case study.

Keywords: experiential learning, flipped classroom, smart software tools, online learning higher-order learning attributes

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29 Ubiquitous Scaffold Learning Environment Using Problem-based Learning Activities to Enhance Problem-solving Skills and Context Awareness

Authors: Noppadon Phumeechanya, Panita Wannapiroon

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities that enhance problem-solving skills and context awareness, and to evaluate the suitability of the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. We divide the research procedures into two phases. The first phase is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities, and the second is to evaluate the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. The sample group in this study consists of five experts selected using the purposive sampling method. We analyse data by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The research findings are as follows; the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities consists of three major steps, the first is preparation before learning. This prepares learners to acknowledge details and learn through u-LMS. The second is the learning process, where learning activities happen in the ubiquitous learning environment and learners learn online with scaffold systems for each step of problem solving. The third step is measurement and evaluation. The experts agree that the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities is highly appropriate.

Keywords: ubiquitous learning environment scaffolding, learning activities, problem-based learning, problem-solving skills, context awareness

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28 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

Abstract:

The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition

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27 NanoCelle®: A Nano Delivery Platform to Enhance Medicine

Authors: Sean Hall

Abstract:

Nanosystems for drug delivery are not new; as medicines evolve, so too does the desire to deliver a more targeted, patient-compliant medicine. Though, historically the widespread use of nanosystems for drug delivery has been fouled by non-replicability, scalability, toxicity issues, and economics. Examples include steps of manufacture and thus cost to manufacture, toxicity for nanoparticle scaffolding, autoimmune response, and considerable technical expertise for small non-commercial yields. This, unfortunately, demonstrates the not-so-obvious chasm between science and drug formulation for regulatory approval. Regardless there is a general and global desire to improve the delivery of medicines, reduce potential side effect profiles, promote increased patient compliance, and increase and/or speed public access to medicine availability. In this paper, the author will discuss NanoCelle®, a nano-delivery platform that specifically addresses degradation and solubility issues that expands from fundamental micellar preparations. NanoCelle® has been deployed in several Australian listed medicines and is in use of several drug candidates across small molecules, with research endeavors now extending into large molecules. The author will discuss several research initiatives as they relate to NanoCelle® to demonstrate similarities seen in various drug substances; these examples will include both in vitro and in vivo work.

Keywords: NanoCelle®, micellar, degradation, solubility, toxicity

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26 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

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25 The Six 'P' Model: Principles of Inclusive Practice for Inclusion Coaches

Authors: Tiffany Gallagher, Sheila Bennett

Abstract:

Based on data from a larger study, this research is based in a small school district in Ontario, Canada, that has made a transition from self-contained classes for students with exceptionalities to inclusive classroom placements for all students with their age-appropriate peers. The school board aided this transition by hiring Inclusion Coaches with a background in special education to work alongside teachers as partners and inform their inclusive practice. Based on qualitative data from four focus groups conducted with Inclusion Coaches, as well as four blog-style reflections collected at various points over two years, six principles of inclusive practice were identified for coaches. The six principles form a model during transition: pre-requisite, process, precipice, promotion, proof, and promise. These principles are encapsulated in a visual model of a spiraling staircase displaying the conditions that exist prior to coaching, during coaching interactions and considerations for the sustainability of coaching. These six principles are re-iterative and should be re-visited each time a coaching interaction is initiated. Exploring inclusion coaching as a model emulates coaching in other contexts and allows us to examine an established process through a new lens. This research becomes increasingly important as more school boards transition toward inclusive classrooms, The Six ‘P’ Model: Principles of Inclusive Practice for Inclusion Coaches allows for a unique look into a scaffolding model of building educator capacity in an inclusive setting.

Keywords: capacity building, coaching, inclusion, special education

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24 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi, Taki Eddine Seghier

Abstract:

Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: construction industry, safety measures, accident, prevention

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23 The Development of an Integrity Cultivating Module in School-Based Assessment among Malaysian Teachers: A Research Methodology

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor, Norazilawati Binti Abdullah, Rahimah Adam, Othman Bin Lebar

Abstract:

The competency and integrity required for better understanding and practice of School-based Assessment (PBS) comes not only from the process, but also in providing the support or ‘scaffolding’ for teachers to recognize the student as a learner, improve their self-assessment skills, understanding of the daily teaching plan and its constructive alignment of the curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The cultivation of integrity in PBS among the teachers is geared towards encouraging them to become committed and dedicated in implementing assessments in a serious, efficient manner, thus moving away from the usual teacher-focused approach to the student-focused approach. The teachers show their integrity via their professional commitment, responsibility and actions. The module based on the cultivation of integrity in PBS among Malaysian teachers aims to broaden the guidance support for teachers (embedded in the training), which consists of various domains to enable better evaluation of complex assessment tasks and the construction of suitable instrument for measuring the relevant cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to describe the students’ achievement. The instrument for integrity cultivation in PBS has been developed and validated for measuring the effectiveness of the module constructed. This module is targeted towards assisting the staff in the Education Ministry, especially the principal trainers, teachers, headmasters and education officers to acquire effective intervention for improving the PBS assessors’ integrity and competency.

Keywords: school-based assessment, assessment competency integrity cultivation, professional commitment, module

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22 Enriching Post-Colonial Discourse: An Appraisal of Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher

Authors: Robertgie L. Pianar

Abstract:

Post-colonial theory, post-colonialism, or Poco is a recently established literary theory. Consequently, not many literary works, local and international, have been subjected to its criticism. To help intellectualize local literary texts, in particular, through post-colonial discourse, this qualitative inquiry unfolded. Textual analysis was employed to describe, analyse, and interpret Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher, a regional work of literature, grounded on the postcolonial concepts of Edward Said’s Otherness, Homi Bhabha’s Unhomeliness or Paralysis, and Frantz Fanon’s Cultural Resistance. The in-depth reading affirmed that the story contains those postcolonial attributes, revealing the following; (A) the presence of the colonizer, who successfully established colonial control over the colonized, the other, was found; (B) through power superimposition, the colonized character was silenced or paralyzed; and, (C) forms of cultural resistance from the colonized character were shown but no matter how its character avoids ‘postcolonial acts’, the struggle just intensifies, hence inevitable. Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher is thus a post-colonial text realizer between two differing cultures, the colonizer and the other. Results of this study may substantiate classroom discussions, both undergraduate and graduate classes, specifically in Philippine and World literature, 21st Century literature, readings in New English literatures, and literary theory and criticism courses, scaffolding learners’ grasp of post-colonialism as a major literary theory drawing classic exemplifications from this regional work.

Keywords: cultural resistance, otherness, post-colonialism, textual analysis, unhomeliness/paralysis

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