Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Hanif Che Lah

32 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son


This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, frequency divider, pulse generator

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31 The Role of Speed Reduction Model in Urban Highways Tunnels Accidents

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi


According to the increasing travel demand in cities, bridges and tunnels are viewed as one of the fundamental components of cities transportation systems. Normally, due to geometric constraints forms in the tunnels, the considered speed in the tunnels is lower than the speed in connected highways. Therefore, drivers tend to reduce the speed near the entrance of the tunnels. In this paper, the effect of speed reduction on accident happened in the entrance of the tunnels has been discussed. The relation between accidents frequency and the parameters of speed, traffic volume and time of the accident in the mentioned tunnel has been analyzed and the mathematical model has been proposed.

Keywords: urban highway, accident, tunnel, mathematical model

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30 Some Generalized Multivariate Estimators for Population Mean under Multi Phase Stratified Systematic Sampling

Authors: Muqaddas Javed, Muhammad Hanif


The generalized multivariate ratio and regression type estimators for population mean are suggested under multi-phase stratified systematic sampling (MPSSS) using multi auxiliary information. Estimators are developed under the two different situations of availability of auxiliary information. The expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) are developed. Special cases of suggested estimators are also discussed and simulation study is conducted to observe the performance of estimators.

Keywords: generalized estimators, multi-phase sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling

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29 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan


This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

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28 The Prediction of Effective Equation on Drivers' Behavioral Characteristics of Lane Changing

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi


According to the increasing volume of traffic, lane changing plays a crucial role in traffic flow. Lane changing in traffic depends on several factors including road geometrical design, speed, drivers’ behavioral characteristics, etc. A great deal of research has been carried out regarding these fields. Despite of the other significant factors, the drivers’ behavioral characteristics of lane changing has been emphasized in this paper. This paper has predicted the effective equation based on personal characteristics of lane changing by regression models.

Keywords: effective equation, lane changing, drivers’ behavioral characteristics, regression models

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27 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah


This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS process sensor, PVT sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit

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26 Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Salik


In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In)-Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (InI) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.

Keywords: indium-tin plasma, laser ablation, optical emission spectroscopy, electron temperature, electron number density

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25 Minimization of Propagation Delay in Multi Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Network

Authors: Purva Joshi, Rohit Thanki, Omar Hanif


Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly important in various industrial applications and sectors. Nowadays, a multi UAV network is used for specific types of communication (e.g., military) and monitoring purposes. Therefore, it is critical to reducing propagation delay during communication between UAVs, which is essential in a multi UAV network. This paper presents how the propagation delay between the base station (BS) and the UAVs is reduced using a searching algorithm. Furthermore, the iterative-based K-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm and Travelling Salesmen Problem (TSP) algorthm were utilized to optimize the distance between BS and individual UAV to overcome the problem of propagation delay in multi UAV networks. The simulation results show that this proposed method reduced complexity, improved reliability, and reduced propagation delay in multi UAV networks.

Keywords: multi UAV network, optimal distance, propagation delay, K - nearest neighbor, traveling salesmen problem

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24 Estimation of Rare and Clustered Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Adaptive Cluster Sampling

Authors: Muhammad Nouman Qureshi, Muhammad Hanif


Adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) is specifically developed for the estimation of highly clumped populations and applied to a wide range of situations like animals of rare and endangered species, uneven minerals, HIV patients and drug users. In this paper, we proposed a generalized semi-exponential estimator with two auxiliary variables under the framework of ACS design. The expressions of approximate bias and mean square error (MSE) of the proposed estimator are derived. Theoretical comparisons of the proposed estimator have been made with existing estimators. A numerical study is conducted on real and artificial populations to demonstrate and compare the efficiencies of the proposed estimator. The results indicate that the proposed generalized semi-exponential estimator performed considerably better than all the adaptive and non-adaptive estimators considered in this paper.

Keywords: auxiliary information, adaptive cluster sampling, clustered populations, Hansen-Hurwitz estimation

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23 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir


This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: methodology, flip chip, bump cell, LEF, astro, calibre, SCHEME, TCL

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22 Knowledge Engineering Based Smart Healthcare Solution

Authors: Rhaed Khiati, Muhammad Hanif


In the past decade, smart healthcare systems have been on an ascendant drift, especially with the evolution of hospitals and their increasing reliance on bioinformatics and software specializing in healthcare. Doctors have become reliant on technology more than ever, something that in the past would have been looked down upon, as technology has become imperative in reducing overall costs and improving the quality of patient care. With patient-doctor interactions becoming more necessary and more complicated than ever, systems must be developed while taking into account costs, patient comfort, and patient data, among other things. In this work, we proposed a smart hospital bed, which mixes the complexity and big data usage of traditional healthcare systems with the comfort found in soft beds while taking certain concerns like data confidentiality, security, and maintaining SLA agreements, etc. into account. This research work potentially provides users, namely patients and doctors, with a seamless interaction with to their respective nurses, as well as faster access to up-to-date personal data, including prescriptions and severity of the condition in contrast to the previous research in the area where there is lack of consideration of such provisions.

Keywords: big data, smart healthcare, distributed systems, bioinformatics

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21 Create a Brand Value Assessment Model to Choosing a Cosmetic Brand in Tehran Combining DEMATEL Techniques and Multi-Stage ANFIS

Authors: Hamed Saremi, Suzan Taghavy, Seyed Mohammad Hanif Sanjari, Mostafa Kahali


One of the challenges in manufacturing and service companies to provide a product or service is recognized Brand to consumers in target markets. They provide most of their processes under the same capacity. But the constant threat of devastating internal and external resources to prevent a rise Brands and more companies are recognizing the stages are bankrupt. This paper has tried to identify and analyze effective indicators of brand equity and focuses on indicators and presents a model of intelligent create a model to prevent possible damage. In this study, the identified indicators of brand equity are based on literature study and according to expert opinions, set of indicators By techniques DEMATEL Then to used Multi-Step Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS) to design a multi-stage intelligent system for assessment of brand equity.

Keywords: brand, cosmetic product, ANFIS, DEMATEL

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20 Mobile Mediated Learning and Teachers Education in Less Resourced Region

Authors: Abdul Rashid Ahmadi, Samiullah Paracha, Hamidullah Sokout, Mohammad Hanif Gharana


Conventional educational practices, do not offer all the required skills for teachers to successfully survive in today’s workplace. Due to poor professional training, a big gap exists across the curriculum plan and the teacher practices in the classroom. As such, raising the quality of teaching through ICT-enabled training and professional development of teachers should be an urgent priority. ‘Mobile Learning’, in that vein, is an increasingly growing field of educational research and practice across schools and work places. In this paper, we propose a novel Mobile learning system that allows the users to learn through an intelligent mobile learning in cooperatively every-time and every-where. The system will reduce the training cost and increase consistency, efficiency, and data reliability. To establish that our system will display neither functional nor performance failure, the evaluation strategy is based on formal observation of users interacting with system followed by questionnaires and structured interviews.

Keywords: computer assisted learning, intelligent tutoring system, learner centered design, mobile mediated learning and teacher education

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19 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Muhammad Al Baqir Zinal Abidin, Md Hanif Md Nasir


This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic) and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: physical verification, DRC, LVS, XRC, flow, foundry, runset

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18 The Integration and Automation of EDA Tools in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, M. Hanif M. Nasir


This paper will discuss how EDA tools are integrated and automated in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment. Some of the problems face in our current environment is that users need to configure manually on the library paths, start-up files and project directories. Certain manual processes that happen between the users and applications can be automated but they must be transparent to the users. For example, the users can run the applications directly after login without knowing the library paths and start-up files locations. The solution to these problems is to automate the processes using standard configuration files which will benefit the users and EDA support. This paper will discuss how the implementation is done to automate the process using scripting languages such as Perl, Tcl, Scheme and Shell Script. These scripting tools are great assets for design engineers to build a robust and powerful design flow and this technique is widely used to integrate all the tools together.

Keywords: EDA tools, Integrated Circuits, scripting, integration, automation

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17 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone, oxidative stress

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16 A New Fuzzy Fractional Order Model of Transmission of Covid-19 With Quarantine Class

Authors: Asma Hanif, A. I. K. Butt, Shabir Ahmad, Rahim Ud Din, Mustafa Inc


This paper is devoted to a study of the fuzzy fractional mathematical model reviewing the transmission dynamics of the infectious disease Covid-19. The proposed dynamical model consists of susceptible, exposed, symptomatic, asymptomatic, quarantine, hospitalized and recovered compartments. In this study, we deal with the fuzzy fractional model defined in Caputo’s sense. We show the positivity of state variables that all the state variables that represent different compartments of the model are positive. Using Gronwall inequality, we show that the solution of the model is bounded. Using the notion of the next-generation matrix, we find the basic reproduction number of the model. We demonstrate the local and global stability of the equilibrium point by using the concept of Castillo-Chavez and Lyapunov theory with the Lasalle invariant principle, respectively. We present the results that reveal the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the considered model through the fixed point theorem of Schauder and Banach. Using the fuzzy hybrid Laplace method, we acquire the approximate solution of the proposed model. The results are graphically presented via MATLAB-17.

Keywords: Caputo fractional derivative, existence and uniqueness, gronwall inequality, Lyapunov theory

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15 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

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14 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Abdu Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 605
13 Compilation of Islamic Law as Law Applied Religious Courts in Indonesia (Responding to Changes in Religious Courts Authority)

Authors: Hamdan Arief Hanif, Rahmat Sidiq


Indonesia is a country of law, the legal system adopted by Indonesia is a civil law system. A major feature of the civil law is the codified legislation. Meanwhile the majority of society Indonesia are Muslims, whilst Islamic law itself having the sources written in Qur'an, Sunnah and the opinion of Muslim scholars, generally not codified in book form of legislation that is easy on the set as a reference. in Indonesia, many scholars have different opinions in decisions so that there is no legal certainty in Muslim civil cases, so the need for legal codification, which, as the source of the judges in deciding a case, especially a case in religious courts. This paper raised the topic of discussion which offers a solution to the application of the codification of the Islamic Law which became the core resources in delivering a verdict against Islamic civil related issue; codification usually called a compilation of Islamic Law. Compilation of Islamic Law is highly recommended as a core reference for the judges in religious courts in Indonesia. This compilation which includes a collection of large number of opinions scholars (book of fiqh) that existed previously and are ripened in deduce in order to unify the existing differences. This paper also discusses how the early formation of the compilation and as the right solution in order to create legal certainty and justice especially for the muslim community in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic law, compilation, law applied core, religious court

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12 A Literature Review on the Effect of Financial Knowledge toward Corporate Growth: The Important Role of Financial Risk Attitude

Authors: Risna Wijayanti, Sumiati, Hanif Iswari


This study aims to analyze the role of financial risk attitude as a mediation between financial knowledge and business growth. The ability of human resources in managing capital (financial literacy) can be a major milestone for a company's business to grow and build its competitive advantage. This study analyzed the important role of financial risk attitude in bringing about financial knowledge on corporate growth. There have been many discussions arguing that financial knowledge is one of the main abilities of corporate managers in determining the success of managing a company. However, a contrary argument of other scholars also enlightened that financial knowledge did not have a significant influence on corporate growth. This study used literatures' review to analyze whether there is another variable that can mediate the effect of financial knowledge toward corporate growth. Research mapping was conducted to analyze the concept of risk tolerance. This concept was related to people's risk aversion effects when making a decision under risk and the role of financial knowledge on changes in financial income. Understanding and managing risks and investments are complicated, in particular for corporate managers, who are always demanded to maintain their corporate growth. Substantial financial knowledge is extremely needed to identify and take accurate information for corporate financial decision-making. By reviewing several literature, this study hypothesized that financial knowledge of corporate managers would be meaningless without manager's courage to bear risks for taking favorable business opportunities. Therefore, the level of risk aversion from corporate managers will determine corporate action, which is a reflection of corporate-level investment behavior leading to attain corporate success or failure for achieving the company's expected growth rate.

Keywords: financial knowledge, financial risk attitude, corporate growth, risk tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
11 Potency Interaction using Simvastatin and Herbs Cholesterol Lowering Agent, Prevention of Unwanted Effect in Combination Hyperlipidemia Therapy

Authors: Agung A. Ginanjar, Lilitasari, Indra Prasetya, Rizal R. Hanif, Yusrina Rismandini, Atina Hussaana, Nurita P. Sari


Hyperlipidemia is an increase of lipids and cholesterol in the blood that causes the formation of atherosklerosis. The recent pharmacological therapy nowadays is statin. Many Indonesian people use of medicinal plants. There are several medical plants that people always use to cure hyperlipidemia such as bulbs onion sabrang, areca nuts, and seed of fenugreek. Most people often use a combination therapy of conventional medicine and herbs to achieve the desired therapeutic effect of combination therapy. The use of combination therapy might cause the interaction of pharmacodynamic from those medicines so that it influences the pharmacological effect of one of medicine. The aim of this study is to know the interaction of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb seen in rats pharmacodynamic simvastatin phase. This research used post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. The ANOVA test is used when the data is obtained homogeneous but if it is found that the data are not homogeneous then kruskal-wallis test is used. Normal (63.196 mg/dl), negative (70.604 mg/dl), positive (62.512 mg/dl), areca nuts (56.564 mg/dl), fenugreek seed (47.538 ,g/dl), onion sabrang (62.312 mg/dl). The results prove that the combination of herbs and simvastatin did not have a significant difference (P>0,05). The conclusion of this study is that the combination of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb can cause some pharmacodynamic interactions such as a synergistic effect, antagonist, and a powerful additive, so that combination therapy is not more effective than single simvastatin therapy. The use of the combination therapy is not given in the same time. It would be better if there are some period of time when the combination therapy is applied.

Keywords: onion bulb sabrang, areca nuts, seed of fenugreek, interaction medicine, hyperlipidemia

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10 Texture Characterization and Mineralogical Composition of the 1982-1983 Second Phase Galunggung Eruption, West Java Regency, Indonesia

Authors: M. Hanif Irsyada, Rifaldy, Arif Lutfi Namury, Syahreza S. Angkasa, Khalid Rizky, Ricky Aryanto, M. Alfiyan Bagus, Excobar Arman, Fahri Septianto, Firman Najib Wibisana


Galunggung Mountain is an active volcano in Indonesia, precisely on the island of Java. This area is included in the Sunda Sunda arc formed by the tendency of the Australian oceanic plate to Eurasian continental plate. This research was conducted to determine the characteristics and document the mineralogical composition of the Galunggung eruption of the second phase 1982-1983. In fragment samples, petrographic analysis is carried out under a qualitative and quantitative polarizing microscope. This sample was obtained from the second phase eruption in the Cibanjanj formation. Based on the analysis results obtained filter texture characteristics, olivine parallel growth, lamellar structure, glass inclusion, plagioclase zonation and obtained special texture in the gabbroic cummulate. The mineral composition consists of phenocryst plagioclase (41vol%), pyroxene (26vol%), olivin (4vol%) and mineral opaque (29vol%). Microlite minerals consist of plagioclase (31.95vol%), pyroxene (12.09vol%), opaque minerals (55.96vol%). This research is expected to be developed by further researchers to be able to explain in more detail related to Galunggung mountain with 3 phases of eruption that are so intense. Also, it is expected to explain the structural characteristics and mineralogical composition that can be used to determine the origin of all the results of the Galunggung eruption 1982-1983.

Keywords: Galunggung eruption, mineralogical composition, texture characterization, gabbroic cumulate

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9 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif


Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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8 Screening of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Sunflower (Helianthus anus) and Their Role in Enhancing Growth and Yield Attriburing Trairs and Colonization Studies

Authors: A. Majeed, M.K. Abbasi, S. Hameed, A. Imran, T. Naqqash, M. K. Hanif


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living soil bacteria that aggressively colonize the rhizosphere/plant roots, and enhance the growth and yield of plants when applied to seed or crops. Root associated (endophytic and rhizospheric) PGPR were isolated from Sunflower (Helianthus anus) grown in soils collected from 16 different sites of sub division Dhirkot, Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 150 bacterial isolates were isolated, purified, screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. 11 most effective isolates were selected on the basis of biochemical assays (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, growth hormone production, biocontrol assay, and carbon substrates utilization assay through gas chromatography (GCMS), spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, fungal and bacterial dual plate assay and BIOLOG GN2/GP2 microplate assay respectively) and were tested on the crop under controlled and field conditions. From the inoculation assay, the most promising 4 strains (on the basis of increased root/shoot weight, root/shoot length, seed oil content, and seed yield) were than selected for colonization studies through confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscope. 16Sr RNA gene analysis showed that these bacterial isolates belong to Pseudononas, Enterobacter, Azospirrilum, and Citobacter genera. This study is the clear evident that such isolates have the potential for application as inoculants adapted to poor soils and local crops to minimize the chemical fertilizers harmful for soil and environment

Keywords: PGPR, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, colonization

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7 Central Energy Management for Optimizing Utility Grid Power Exchange with a Network of Smart Homes

Authors: Sima Aznavi, Poria Fajri, Hanif Livani


Smart homes are small energy systems which may be equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and loads. Energy management strategy plays a main role in the efficient operation of smart homes. Effective energy scheduling of the renewable energy sources and storage devices guarantees efficient energy management in households while reducing the energy imports from the grid. Nevertheless, despite such strategies, independently day ahead energy schedules for multiple households can cause undesired effects such as high power exchange with the grid at certain times of the day. Therefore, the interactions between multiple smart home day ahead energy projections is a challenging issue in a smart grid system and if not managed appropriately, the imported energy from the power network can impose additional burden on the distribution grid. In this paper, a central energy management strategy for a network consisting of multiple households each equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) is proposed. The decision-making strategy alongside the smart home energy management system, minimizes the energy purchase cost of the end users, while at the same time reducing the stress on the utility grid. In this approach, the smart home energy management system determines different operating scenarios based on the forecasted household daily load and the components connected to the household with the objective of minimizing the end user overall cost. Then, selected projections for each household that are within the same cost range are sent to the central decision-making system. The central controller then organizes the schedules to reduce the overall peak to average ratio of the total imported energy from the grid. To validate this approach simulations are carried out for a network of five smart homes with different load requirements and the results confirm that by applying the proposed central energy management strategy, the overall power demand from the grid can be significantly flattened. This is an effective approach to alleviate the stress on the network by distributing its energy to a network of multiple households over a 24- hour period.

Keywords: energy management, renewable energy sources, smart grid, smart home

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6 Fusarium Wilt of Tomato: Plant Growth, Physiology and Biological Disease Management

Authors: Amna Shoaib, Sidrah Hanif, Rashid Mehmood


Current research work was carried out to check influence of farmyard manure (FYM) in Lycopersicon esculentum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FO) in copper polluted soil. Silt-loam soil naturally enriched with 70 ppm of Cu was inoculated with 1 x 106 spore suspensions of FO and incorporated with 0%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% FYM. The multilateral interaction of host-pathogen-metal-organic amendment was assessed in terms of morphology, growth, yield, physiology, biochemistry and metal uptake in tomato plant after 30 and 60 days of sowing. When soil was inoculated with FO, plant growth and biomass were significantly increased during vegetative stage, while declining during flowering stage with substantial increase in productivity over control. Infected plants exhibited late wilting and disease severity was found on 26-50% of plant during reproductive stage. Incorporation of up to 1% FYM suppressed disease severity, improved plant growth and biomass, while it decreased yield. Rest of manure doses was found ineffective in suppressing disease. Content of total chlorophyll, sugar and protein were significantly declined in FO inoculated plants and incorporation of FYM caused significant reduction or no influence on sugar and chlorophyll content, and no pronounced difference among different FYM doses were observed. On the other hand, proline, peroxidase, catalase and nitrate reductase activity were found to be increased in infected plants and incorporation of 1-2% FYM further enhanced the activity of these enzymes. Tomato plant uptake of 30-40% of copper naturally present in the soil and incorporation of 1-2% FYM markedly decreased plant uptake of metal by 15-30%, while increased Cu retention in soil. Present study concludes that lower dose (1%) of FYM could be used to manage disease, increase growth and biomass, while being ineffective for yield and productivity in Cu-polluted soil. Altered physiology/biochemistry of plant in response to any treatment could be served as basis for resistant against pathogen and metal homeostasis in plants.

Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum, copper, Fusarium wilt, farm yard manure

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5 The Role of Nickel on the High-Temperature Corrosion of Modell Alloys (Stainless Steels) before and after Breakaway Corrosion at 600°C: A Microstructural Investigation

Authors: Imran Hanif, Amanda Persdotter, Sedigheh Bigdeli, Jesper Liske, Torbjorn Jonsson


Renewable fuels such as biomass/waste for power production is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels in order to achieve a CO₂ -neutral power generation. However, the combustion results in the release of corrosive species. This puts high demands on the corrosion resistance of the alloys used in the boiler. Stainless steels containing nickel and/or nickel containing coatings are regarded as suitable corrosion resistance material especially in the superheater regions. However, the corrosive environment in the boiler caused by the presence of water vapour and reactive alkali very rapidly breaks down the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich oxide scale formed on stainless steels. The lifetime of the components, therefore, relies on the properties of the oxide scale formed after breakaway, i.e., the secondary protection. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of varying nickel content (0–82%) on the high-temperature corrosion of model alloys with 18% Cr (Fe in balance) in the laboratory mimicking industrial conditions at 600°C. The influence of nickel is investigated on both the primary protection and especially the secondary protection, i.e., the scale formed after breakaway, during the oxidation/corrosion process in the dry O₂ (primary protection) and more aggressive environment such as H₂O, K₂CO₃ and KCl (secondary protection). All investigated alloys experience a very rapid loss of the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich (Cr, Fe)₂O₃, and the formation of secondary protection in the aggressive environments. The microstructural investigation showed that secondary protection of all alloys has a very similar microstructure in all more aggressive environments consisting of an outward growing iron oxide and inward growing spinel-oxide (Fe, Cr, Ni)₃O₄. The oxidation kinetics revealed that it is possible to influence the protectiveness of the scale formed after breakaway (secondary protection) through the amount of nickel in the alloy. The difference in oxidation kinetics of the secondary protection is linked to the microstructure and chemical composition of the complex spinel-oxide. The detailed microstructural investigations were carried out using the extensive analytical techniques such as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDS) via the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques and results are compared with the thermodynamic calculations using the Thermo-Calc software.

Keywords: breakaway corrosion, EBSD, high-temperature oxidation, SEM, TEM

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4 Utilizing Fly Ash Cenosphere and Aerogel for Lightweight Thermal Insulating Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Asad Hanif, Pavithra Parthasarathy, Zongjin Li


Thermal insulating composites help to reduce the total power consumption in a building by creating a barrier between external and internal environment. Such composites can be used in the roofing tiles or wall panels for exterior surfaces. This study purposes to develop lightweight cement-based composites for thermal insulating applications. Waste materials like silica fume (an industrial by-product) and fly ash cenosphere (FAC) (hollow micro-spherical shells obtained as a waste residue from coal fired power plants) were used as partial replacement of cement and lightweight filler, respectively. Moreover, aerogel, a nano-porous material made of silica, was also used in different dosages for improved thermal insulating behavior, while poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were added for enhanced toughness. The raw materials including binders and fillers were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis techniques in which various physical and chemical properties of the raw materials were evaluated like specific surface area, chemical composition (oxide form), and pore size distribution (if any). Ultra-lightweight cementitious composites were developed by varying the amounts of FAC and aerogel with 28-day unit weight ranging from 1551.28 kg/m3 to 1027.85 kg/m3. Excellent mechanical and thermal insulating properties of the resulting composites were obtained ranging from 53.62 MPa to 8.66 MPa compressive strength, 9.77 MPa to 3.98 MPa flexural strength, and 0.3025 W/m-K to 0.2009 W/m-K as thermal conductivity coefficient (QTM-500). The composites were also tested for peak temperature difference between outer and inner surfaces when subjected to heating (in a specially designed experimental set-up) by a 275W infrared lamp. The temperature difference up to 16.78 oC was achieved, which indicated outstanding properties of the developed composites to act as a thermal barrier for building envelopes. Microstructural studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for characterizing the inner structure of the composite specimen. Also, the hydration products were quantified using the surface area mapping and line scale technique in EDS. The microstructural analyses indicated excellent bonding of FAC and aerogel in the cementitious system. Also, selective reactivity of FAC was ascertained from the SEM imagery where the partially consumed FAC shells were observed. All in all, the lightweight fillers, FAC, and aerogel helped to produce the lightweight composites due to their physical characteristics, while exceptional mechanical properties, owing to FAC partial reactivity, were achieved.

Keywords: aerogel, cement-based, composite, fly ash cenosphere, lightweight, sustainable development, thermal conductivity

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3 Clinical Response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 MG+Orphenadrine 50 MG) For Pain Management with Musculoskeletal Conditions in Routine Pakistani Practice (NFORTE-EFFECT)

Authors: Shahid Noor, Kazim Najjad, Muhammad Nasir, Irshad Bhutto, Abdul Samad Memon, Khurram Anwar, Tehseen Riaz, Mian Muhammad Hanif, Nauman A. Mallik, Saeed Ahmed, Israr Ahmed, Ali Yasir


Background: Musculoskeletal pain is the most common complaint presented to the health practitioner. It is well known that untreated or under-treated pain can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study was conducted across 10 sites in six (6) major cities of Pakistan to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and the clinical response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 mg + Orphenadrine 50 mg) to musculoskeletal pain in routine Pakistani practice and its impact on improving the patient’s QoL. Design & Methods: This NFORT-EFFECT observational, prospective multicenter study was conducted in compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and local regulatory requirements. The study sponsor was "The Searle Company Limited, Pakistan. To maintain the GCP compliances, the sponsor assigned the CRO for the site and data management. Ethical approval was obtained from an independent ethics committee. The IEC reviewed the progress of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants, and their confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. A total of 399 patients with known prescreened musculoskeletal conditions and pain who attended the study sites were recruited, as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria ( ID# NCT04765787). The recruited patients were then prescribed Paracetamol (650 mg) and Orphenadrine (50 mg) combination (Nuberol Forte®) for 7 to 14 days as per the investigator's discretion based on the pain intensity. After the initial screening (visit 1), a follow-up visit was conducted after 1-2 weeks of the treatment (visit 2). Study Endpoints: The primary objective was to assess the pain management response of Nuberol Forte treatment and the overall safety of the drug. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was used to measure pain severity. Secondary to pain, the patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also assessed using the Muscle, Joint Measure (MJM) scale. The safety was monitored on the first dose by the patients. These assessments were done on each study visit. Results: Out of 399 enrolled patients, 49.4% were males, and 50.6% were females with a mean age of 47.24 ± 14.20 years. Most patients were presented with Knee Osteoarthritis (OA), i.e., 148(38%), followed by backache 70(18.2%). A significant reduction in the mean pain score was observed after the treatment with the combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (p<0.05). Furthermore, an overall improvement in the patient’s QoL was also observed. During the study, only ten patients reported mild adverse events (AEs). Conclusion: The combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (Nuberol Forte®) exhibited effective pain management among patients with musculoskeletal conditions and also improved their QoL.

Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, orphenadrine/paracetamol combination, pain management, quality of life, Pakistani population

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