Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 156

Search results for: replication

156 Investigating the Role of Circular RNA GATAD2A on H1N1 Replication

Authors: Tianqi Yu, Yingnan Ding, Yina Zhang, Yulan Liu, Yahui Li, Jing Lei, Jiyong Zhou, Suquan Song, Boli Hu


Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in various diseases. However, whether and how circular RNA regulates influenza A virus (IAV) infection is unknown. Here, we studied the role of circular RNA GATA Zinc Finger Domain Containing 2A (circ-GATAD2A) in the replication of IAV H1N1 in A549 cells. Circ-GATAD2A was formed upon H1N1 infection. Knockdown of circ-GATAD2A in A549 cells enhanced autophagy and inhibited H1N1 replication. By contrast, overexpression of circ-GATAD2A impaired autophagy and promoted H1N1 replication. Similarly, knockout of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34) blocked autophagy and increased H1N1 replication. However, the expression of circ-GATAD2A could not further enhance H1N1 replication in VPS34 knockout cells. Collectively, these data indicated that circ-GATAD2A promotes the replication of H1N1 by inhibiting autophagy.

Keywords: autophagy, circ-GATAD2A, H1N1, replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
155 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman


A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: erasure coding, P2P, redundancy, replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
154 Weighted Data Replication Strategy for Data Grid Considering Economic Approach

Authors: N. Mansouri, A. Asadi


Data Grid is a geographically distributed environment that deals with data intensive application in scientific and enterprise computing. Data replication is a common method used to achieve efficient and fault-tolerant data access in Grids. In this paper, a dynamic data replication strategy, called Enhanced Latest Access Largest Weight (ELALW) is proposed. This strategy is an enhanced version of Latest Access Largest Weight strategy. However, replication should be used wisely because the storage capacity of each Grid site is limited. Thus, it is important to design an effective strategy for the replication replacement task. ELALW replaces replicas based on the number of requests in future, the size of the replica, and the number of copies of the file. It also improves access latency by selecting the best replica when various sites hold replicas. The proposed replica selection selects the best replica location from among the many replicas based on response time that can be determined by considering the data transfer time, the storage access latency, the replica requests that waiting in the storage queue and the distance between nodes. Simulation results utilizing the OptorSim show our replication strategy achieve better performance overall than other strategies in terms of job execution time, effective network usage and storage resource usage.

Keywords: data grid, data replication, simulation, replica selection, replica placement

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
153 Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of DNA Binding Properties of the Archaeal Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex

Authors: Amna Abdalla Mohammed Khalid, Pietro Parisse, Silvia Onesti, Loredana Casalis


Basic cellular processes as DNA replication are crucial to cell life. Understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms that govern DNA replication in proliferating cells is fundamental to understand disease connected to genomic instabilities, as a genetic disease and cancer. A key step for DNA replication to take place, is unwinding the DNA double helix and this carried out by proteins called helicases. The archaeal MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus have being studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), imaging in air and liquid (Physiological environment). The accurate analysis of AFM topographic images allowed to understand the static conformations as well the interaction dynamic of MCM and DNA double helix in the present of ATP.

Keywords: DNA, protein-DNA interaction, MCM (mini chromosome manteinance) complex, atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
152 Low-Cost Space-Based Geoengineering: An Assessment Based on Self-Replicating Manufacturing of in-Situ Resources on the Moon

Authors: Alex Ellery


Geoengineering approaches to climate change mitigation are unpopular and regarded with suspicion. Of these, space-based approaches are regarded as unworkable and enormously costly. Here, a space-based approach is presented that is modest in cost, fully controllable and reversible, and acts as a natural spur to the development of solar power satellites over the longer term as a clean source of energy. The low-cost approach exploits self-replication technology which it is proposed may be enabled by 3D printing technology. Self-replication of 3D printing platforms will enable mass production of simple spacecraft units. Key elements being developed are 3D-printable electric motors and 3D-printable vacuum tube-based electronics. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities at low cost including space-based geoengineering.

Keywords: 3D printing, in-situ resource utilization, self-replication technology, space-based geoengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
151 A Study of Rapid Replication of Square-Microlens Structures

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, Jung-Ruey Tsai


This paper reports a method for the replication of micro-scale structures. By using electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting system with magnetic soft stamp written square-microlens cavity, a photopolymer square-microlens structures can be rapidly fabricated. Under the proper processing conditions, the polymeric square-microlens structures with feature size of width 100.3um and height 15.2um across a large area can be successfully fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profiler observations confirm that the micro-scale polymer structures are produced without defects or distortion and with good pattern fidelity over a 60x60mm2 area. This technique shows great potential for the efficient replication of the micro-scale structure array at room temperature and with high productivity and low cost.

Keywords: square-microlens structures, electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting, magnetic soft stamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
150 Interfacing and Replication of Electronic Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

Authors: Abdulatif Abdulsalam, Mohamed Shaban


This paper introduces interfacing and replication of electronic tools based on the MATLAB/ SIMULINK mock-up package. Mock-up components contain dc-dc converters, power issue rectifiers, motivation machines, dc gear, synchronous gear, and more entire systems. Power issue rectifier model includes solid state device models. The tools are the clear-cut structure and mock-up of complex energetic systems connecting with power electronic machines.

Keywords: power electronics, machine, MATLAB, simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
149 Replication of Meaningful Gesture Study for N400 Detection Using a Commercial Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout


In an effort to test the ability of a commercial grade EEG headset to effectively measure the N400 ERP, a replication study was conducted to see if similar results could be produced as that which used a medical grade EEG. Pictures of meaningful and meaningless hand postures were borrowed from the original author and subjects were required to perform a semantic discrimination task. The N400 was detected indicating semantic processing of the meaningfulness of the hand postures. The results corroborate those of the original author and support the use of some commercial grade EEG headsets for non-critical research applications.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, gestures, emotiv

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
148 2D Hexagonal Cellular Automata: The Complexity of Forms

Authors: Vural Erdogan


We created two-dimensional hexagonal cellular automata to obtain complexity by using simple rules same as Conway’s game of life. Considering the game of life rules, Wolfram's works about life-like structures and John von Neumann's self-replication, self-maintenance, self-reproduction problems, we developed 2-states and 3-states hexagonal growing algorithms that reach large populations through random initial states. Unlike the game of life, we used six neighbourhoods cellular automata instead of eight or four neighbourhoods. First simulations explained that whether we are able to obtain sort of oscillators, blinkers, and gliders. Inspired by Wolfram's 1D cellular automata complexity and life-like structures, we simulated 2D synchronous, discrete, deterministic cellular automata to reach life-like forms with 2-states cells. The life-like formations and the oscillators have been explained how they contribute to initiating self-maintenance together with self-reproduction and self-replication. After comparing simulation results, we decided to develop the algorithm for another step. Appending a new state to the same algorithm, which we used for reaching life-like structures, led us to experiment new branching and fractal forms. All these studies tried to demonstrate that complex life forms might come from uncomplicated rules.

Keywords: hexagonal cellular automata, self-replication, self-reproduction, self- maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
147 Design of Replication System for Computer-Generated Hologram in Optical Component Application

Authors: Chih-Hung Chen, Yih-Shyang Cheng, Yu-Hsin Tu


Holographic optical elements (HOEs) have recently been one of the most suitable components in optoelectronic technology owing to the requirement of the product system with compact size. Computer-generated holography (CGH) is a well-known technology for HOEs production. In some cases, a well-designed diffractive optical element with multifunctional components is also an important issue and needed for an advanced optoelectronic system. Spatial light modulator (SLM) is one of the key components that has great capability to display CGH pattern and is widely used in various applications, such as an image projection system. As mentioned to multifunctional components, such as phase and amplitude modulation of light, high-resolution hologram with multiple-exposure procedure is also one of the suitable candidates. However, holographic recording under multiple exposures, the diffraction efficiency of the final hologram is inevitably lower than that with single exposure process. In this study, a two-step holographic recording method, including the master hologram fabrication and the replicated hologram production, will be designed. Since there exist a reduction factor M² of diffraction efficiency in multiple-exposure holograms (M multiple exposures), so it seems that single exposure would be more efficient for holograms replication. In the second step of holographic replication, a stable optical system with one-shot copying is introduced. For commercial application, one may utilize this concept of holographic copying to obtain duplications of HOEs with higher optical performance.

Keywords: holographic replication, holography, one-shot copying, optical element

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
146 Hierarchical Checkpoint Protocol in Data Grids

Authors: Rahma Souli-Jbali, Minyar Sassi Hidri, Rahma Ben Ayed


Grid of computing nodes has emerged as a representative means of connecting distributed computers or resources scattered all over the world for the purpose of computing and distributed storage. Since fault tolerance becomes complex due to the availability of resources in decentralized grid environment, it can be used in connection with replication in data grids. The objective of our work is to present fault tolerance in data grids with data replication-driven model based on clustering. The performance of the protocol is evaluated with Omnet++ simulator. The computational results show the efficiency of our protocol in terms of recovery time and the number of process in rollbacks.

Keywords: data grids, fault tolerance, clustering, chandy-lamport

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
145 Analysis of Replication Protein A (RPA): The Role of Homolog Interaction and Recombination during Meiosis

Authors: Jeong Hwan Joo, Keun Pil Kim


During meiosis, meiotic recombination is initiated by Spo11-mediated DSB formation and exonuclease-mediated DSB resection occurs to expose single stranded DNA formation. RPA is further required to inhibit secondary structure formation of ssDNA that can be formed Watson-Crick pairing. Rad51-Dmc1, RecA homologs in eukaryote and their accessory factors involve in searching homolog templates to mediate strand exchange. In this study, we investigate the recombinational roles of replication protein A (RPA), which is heterotrimeric protein that is composed of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. Here, we investigated meiotic recombination using DNA physical analysis at the HIS4LEU2 hot spot. In rfa1-119 (K45E, N316S) cells, crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) products reduced than WT. rfa1-119 delayed in single end invasion-to-double holiday junction (SEI-to-dHJ) transition and exhibits a defect in second-end capture that is also modulated by Rad52. In the further experiment, we observed that in rfa1-119 mutant, RPA could not be released in timely manner. Furthermore, rfa1-119 exhibits failure in the second end capture, implying reduction of COs and NCOs. In this talk, we will discuss more detail how RPA involves in chromatin axis association via formation of axis-bridge and why RPA is required for Rad52-mediated second-end capture progression.

Keywords: homolog interaction, meiotic recombination, replication protein A, RPA1

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
144 Inhibition of Influenza Replication through the Restrictive Factors Modulation by CCR5 and CXCR4 Receptor Ligands

Authors: Thauane Silva, Gabrielle do Vale, Andre Ferreira, Marilda Siqueira, Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Milene D. Miranda


The exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells (HeLa) to HIV-1 viral particles, or its gp120, enhanced interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM3) content, a viral restriction factor (RF), resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. The gp120 binds to CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4) cell receptors during HIV-1 infection. Then, it is possible that the endogenous ligands of these receptors also modulate the expression of IFITM3 and other cellular factors that restrict influenza virus replication. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the role of cellular receptors R5 and X4 in modulating RFs in order to inhibit the replication of the influenza virus. A549 cells were treated with 2x effective dose (ED50) of endogenous R5 or X4 receptor agonists, CCL3 (20 ng/ml), CCL4 (10 ng/ml), CCL5 (10 ng/ml) and CXCL12 (100 ng/mL) or exogenous agonists, gp120 Bal-R5, gp120 IIIB-X4 and its mutants (5 µg/mL). The interferon α (10 ng/mL) and oseltamivir (60 nM) were used as a control. After 24 h post agonists exposure, the cells were infected with virus influenza A(H3N2) at 2 MOI (multiplicity of infection) for 1 h. Then, 24 h post infection, the supernatant was harvested and, the viral titre was evaluated by qRT-PCR. To evaluate IFITM3 and SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) protein levels, A549 were exposed to agonists for 24 h, and the monolayer was lysed with Laemmli buffer for western blot (WB) assay or fixed for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assay. In addition to this, we analyzed other RFs modulation in A549, after 24 h post agonists exposure by customized RT² Profiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Array. We also performed a functional assay in which SAMHD1-knocked-down, by single-stranded RNA (siRNA), A549 cells were infected with A(H3N2). In addition, the cells were treated with guanosine to assess the regulatory role of dNTPs by SAMHD1. We found that R5 and X4 agonists inhibited influenza replication in 54 ± 9%. We observed a four-fold increase in SAMHD1 transcripts by RFs mRNA quantification panel. After 24 h post agonists exposure, we did not observe an increase in IFITM3 protein levels through WB or IFI assays, but we observed an upregulation up to three-fold in the protein content of SAMHD1, in A549 exposed to agonists. Besides this, influenza replication enhanced in 20% in cell cultures that SAMDH1 was knockdown. Guanosine treatment in cells exposed to R5 ligands further inhibited influenza virus replication, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism may involve the activation of the SAMHD1 deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase activity. Thus, our data show for the first time a direct relationship of SAMHD1 and inhibition of influenza replication, and provides perspectives for new studies on the signaling modulation, through cellular receptors, to induce proteins of great importance in the control of relevant infections for public health.

Keywords: chemokine receptors, gp120, influenza, virus restriction factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
143 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas


Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: metal foam, Al, salt replication method, mechanical properties, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
142 Investigating Best Practice Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs, and Their Replication Potential for Residential Sector of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Habib Alshuwaikhat, Nahid Hossain


Residential sector consumes more than half of the produced electricity in Saudi Arabia, and fossil fuel is the main source of energy to meet growing household electricity demand in the Kingdom. Several studies forecasted and expressed concern that unless the domestic energy demand growth is controlled, it will reduce Saudi Arabia’s crude oil export capacity within a decade and the Kingdom is likely to be incapable of exporting crude oil within next three decades. Though the Saudi government has initiated to address the domestic energy demand growth issue, the demand side energy management policies and programs are focused on industrial and commercial sectors. It is apparent that there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy for addressing efficient energy use in residential sector in the Kingdom. Then again as Saudi Arabia is at its primary stage in addressing energy efficiency issues in its residential sector, there is a scope for the Kingdom to learn from global energy efficiency practices and design its own energy efficiency policies and programs. However, in order to do that sustainable, it is essential to address local contexts of energy efficiency. It is also necessary to find out the policies and programs that will fit to the local contexts. Thus the objective of this study was set to identify globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs in residential sector that have replication potential in Saudi Arabia. In this regard two sets of multi-criteria decision analysis matrices were developed to evaluate the energy efficiency policies and programs. The first matrix was used to evaluate the global energy efficiency policies and programs, and the second matrix was used to evaluate the replication potential of global best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia. Wuppertal Institute’s guidelines for energy efficiency policy evaluation were used to develop the matrices, and the different attributes of the matrices were set through available literature review. The study reveals that the best practice energy efficiency policies and programs with good replication potential for Saudi Arabia are those which have multiple components to address energy efficiency and are diversified in their characteristics. The study also indicates the more diversified components are included in a policy and program, the more replication potential it has for the Kingdom. This finding is consistent with other studies, where it is observed that in order to be successful in energy efficiency practices, it is required to introduce multiple policy components in a cluster rather than concentrate on a single policy measure. The developed multi-criteria decision analysis matrices for energy efficiency policy and program evaluation could be utilized to assess the replication potential of other globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for the residential sector of the Kingdom. In addition it has potential to guide Saudi policy makers to adopt and formulate its own energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, residential sector, energy efficiency, policy evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
141 Medicinal Plants: An Antiviral Depository with Complex Mode of Action

Authors: Daniel Todorov, Anton Hinkov, Petya Angelova, Kalina Shishkova, Venelin Tsvetkov, Stoyan Shishkov


Human herpes viruses (HHV) are ubiquitous pathogens with a pandemic spread across the globe. HHV type 1 is the main causative agent of cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face, whereas HHV type 2 is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks. The treatment of both viruses is more or less successful with antivirals from the nucleoside analogues group. Their wide application increasingly leads to the emergence of resistant mutants In the past, medicinal plants have been used to treat a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Their diversity and ability to produce the vast variety of secondary metabolites according to the characteristics of the environment give them the potential to help us in our warfare with viral infections. The variable chemical characteristics and complex composition is an advantage in the treatment of herpes since the emergence of resistant mutants is significantly complicated. The screening process is difficult due to the lack of standardization. That is why it is especially important to follow the mechanism of antiviral action of plants. On the one hand, it may be expected to interact with its compounds, resulting in enhanced antiviral effects, and the most appropriate environmental conditions can be chosen to maximize the amount of active secondary metabolites. During our study, we followed the activity of various plant extracts on the viral replication cycle as well as their effect on the extracellular virion. We obtained our results following the logical sequence of the experimental settings - determining the cytotoxicity of the extracts, evaluating the overall effect on viral replication and extracellular virion.During our research, we have screened a variety of plant extracts for their antiviral activity against both virus replication and the virion itself. We investigated the effect of the extracts on the individual stages of the viral replication cycle - viral adsorption, penetration and the effect on replication depending on the time of addition. If there are positive results in the later experiments, we had studied the activity over viral adsorption, penetration and the effect of replication according to the time of addition. Our results indicate that some of the extracts from the Lamium album have several targets. The first stages of the viral life cycle are most affected. Several of our active antiviral agents have shown an effect on extracellular virion and adsorption and penetration processes. Our research over the last decade has shown several curative antiviral plants - some of which are from the Lamiacea family. The rich set of active ingredients of the plants in this family makes them a good source of antiviral preparation.

Keywords: human herpes virus, antiviral activity, Lamium album, Nepeta nuda

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
140 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi


The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
139 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd


The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
138 Optimizing Availability of Marine Knowledge Repository with Cloud-Based Framework

Authors: Ahmad S. Mohd Noor, Emma A. Sirajudin, Nur F. Mat Zain


Reliability is an important property for knowledge repository system. National Marine Bioinformatics System or NABTICS is a marine knowledge repository portal aimed to provide a baseline for marine biodiversity and a tool for researchers and developers. It is intended to be a large and growing online database and also a metadata system for inputs of research analysis. The trends of present large distributed systems such as Cloud computing are the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. The goal of this research is to make NABTICS a system of greater availability by integrating it with Cloud based Neighbor Replication and Failure Recovery (NRFR). This can be achieved by implementation of NABTICS into distributed environment. As a result, the user can experience minimum downtime while using the system should the server is having a failure. Consequently the online database application is said to be highly available.

Keywords: cloud, availability, distributed system, marine repository, database replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
137 Empirical Exploration of Correlations between Software Design Measures: A Replication Study

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal


Software engineers apply different measures to quantify the quality of software design. These measures consider artifacts developed at low or high level software design phases. The results are used to point to design weaknesses and to indicate design points that have to be restructured. Understanding the relationship among the quality measures and among the design quality aspects considered by these measures is important to interpreting the impact of a measure for a quality aspect on other potentially related aspects. In addition, exploring the relationship between quality measures helps to explain the impact of different quality measures on external quality aspects, such as reliability and maintainability. In this paper, we report a replication study that empirically explores the correlation between six well known and commonly applied design quality measures. These measures consider several quality aspects, including complexity, cohesion, coupling, and inheritance. The results indicate that inheritance measures are weakly correlated to other measures, whereas complexity, coupling, and cohesion measures are mostly strongly correlated.  

Keywords: quality attribute, quality measure, software design quality, Spearman correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
136 The Effect of Annual Weather and Sowing Date on Different Genotype of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Germination and Yield

Authors: Ákos Tótin


In crop production the most modern hybrids are available for us, therefore the yield and yield stability is determined by the agro-technology. The purpose of the experiment is to adapt the modern agrotechnology to the new type of hybrids. The long-term experiment was set up in 2015-2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The plots were set up in 75 thousand ha-1 plant density. We examined some mainly use hybrids of Hungary. The conducted studies are: germination dynamic, growing dynamic and the effect of annual weather for the yield. We use three different sowing date as early, average and late, and measure how many plant germinated during the germination process. In the experiment, we observed the germination dynamics in 6 hybrid in 4 replication. In each replication, we counted the germinated plants in 2m long 2 row wide area. Data will be shown in the average of the 6 hybrid and 4 replication. Growing dynamics were measured from the 10cm (4-6 leaf) plant highness. We measured 10 plants’ height in two weeks replication. The yield was measured buy a special plot harvester - the Sampo Rosenlew 2010 – what measured the weight of the harvested plot and also took a sample from it. We determined the water content of the samples for the water release dynamics. After it, we calculated the yield (t/ha) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them. We evaluated the data using Microsoft Excel 2015. The annual weather in each crop year define the maize germination dynamics because the amount of heat is determinative for the plants. In cooler crop year the weather is prolonged the germination. At the 2015 crop year the weather was cold in the beginning what prolonged the first sowing germination. But the second and third sowing germinated faster. In the 2016 crop year the weather was much favorable for plants so the first sowing germinated faster than in the previous year. After it the weather cooled down, therefore the second and third sowing germinated slower than the last year. The statistical data analysis program determined that there is a significant difference between the early and late sowing date growing dynamics. In 2015 the first sowing date had the highest amount of yield. The second biggest yield was in the average sowing time. The late sowing date has lowest amount of yield.

Keywords: germination, maize, sowing date, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
135 Simulation of a Cost Model Response Requests for Replication in Data Grid Environment

Authors: Kaddi Mohammed, A. Benatiallah, D. Benatiallah


Data grid is a technology that has full emergence of new challenges, such as the heterogeneity and availability of various resources and geographically distributed, fast data access, minimizing latency and fault tolerance. Researchers interested in this technology address the problems of the various systems related to the industry such as task scheduling, load balancing and replication. The latter is an effective solution to achieve good performance in terms of data access and grid resources and better availability of data cost. In a system with duplication, a coherence protocol is used to impose some degree of synchronization between the various copies and impose some order on updates. In this project, we present an approach for placing replicas to minimize the cost of response of requests to read or write, and we implement our model in a simulation environment. The placement techniques are based on a cost model which depends on several factors, such as bandwidth, data size and storage nodes.

Keywords: response time, query, consistency, bandwidth, storage capacity, CERN

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134 Prerequisites for the Acquisition of Mammalian Pathogenicity by Influenza A Virus with a Prototypic Avian PB2 Gene

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Ilhwan Kim, Du-Min Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon


The polymerase of avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a heterotrimer composed of PB2, PB1 and PA. PB2 plays a role in overcoming the host barrier; however, the genetic prerequisites for avian PB2 to acquire mammalian pathogenic mutations have not been well elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that key amino acid mutations (I66M, I109V and I133V, collectively referred to as MVV) of prototypic avian PB2 increase the replication efficiency of recombinant PR8 virus carrying the mutated PB2 in both avian and mammalian hosts. The MVV mutations caused no weight loss in mice, but they did allow replication in infected lungs, and the viruses acquired fatal mammalian pathogenic mutations such as Q591R/K, E627K, or D701N in the infected lungs. The MVV mutations are located at the interfaces of the trimer and are predicted to increase the strength of this structure. Thus, gaining MVV mutations might be the first step for AIV to acquire mammalian pathogenicity. These results provide new insights into the evolution of AIV in birds and mammals.

Keywords: avian influenza A virus, prototypic PB2, polymerase activity, mammalian pathogenicity, first-step mutations

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
133 Analysis of Fault Tolerance on Grid Computing in Real Time Approach

Authors: Parampal Kaur, Deepak Aggarwal


In the computational Grid, fault tolerance is an imperative issue to be considered during job scheduling. Due to the widespread use of resources, systems are highly prone to errors and failures. Hence, fault tolerance plays a key role in the grid to avoid the problem of unreliability. Scheduling the task to the appropriate resource is a vital requirement in computational Grid. The fittest resource scheduling algorithm searches for the appropriate resource based on the job requirements, in contrary to the general scheduling algorithms where jobs are scheduled to the resources with best performance factor. The proposed method is to improve the fault tolerance of the fittest resource scheduling algorithm by scheduling the job in coordination with job replication when the resource has low reliability. Based on the reliability index of the resource, the resource is identified as critical. The tasks are scheduled based on the criticality of the resources. Results show that the execution time of the tasks is comparatively reduced with the proposed algorithm using real-time approach rather than a simulator.

Keywords: computational grid, fault tolerance, task replication, job scheduling

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132 Identification of Analogues to EGCG for the Inhibition of HPV E7: A Fundamental Insights through Structural Dynamics Study

Authors: Murali Aarthy, Sanjeev Kumar Singh


High risk human papillomaviruses are highly associated with the carcinoma of the cervix and the other genital tumors. Cervical cancer develops through the multistep process in which increasingly severe premalignant dysplastic lesions called cervical intraepithelial neoplastic progress to invasive cancer. The oncoprotein E7 of human papillomavirus expressed in the lower epithelial layers drives the cells into S-phase creating an environment conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. The replication of the virus occurs in the terminally differentiating epithelium and requires the activation of cellular DNA replication proteins. To date, no suitable drug molecule is available to treat HPV infection whereas identification of potential drug targets and development of novel anti-HPV chemotherapies with unique mode of actions are expected. Hence, our present study aimed to identify the potential inhibitors analogous to EGCG, a green tea molecule which is considered to be safe to use for mammalian systems. A 3D similarity search on the natural small molecule library from natural product database using EGCG identified 11 potential hits based on their similarity score. The structure based docking strategies were implemented in the potential hits and the key interacting residues of protein with compounds were identified through simulation studies and binding free energy calculations. The conformational changes between the apoprotein and the complex were analyzed with the simulation and the results demonstrated that the dynamical and structural effects observed in the protein were induced by the compounds and indicated the dominance to the oncoprotein. Overall, our study provides the basis for the structural insights of the identified potential hits and EGCG and hence, the analogous compounds identified can be potent inhibitors against the HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein.

Keywords: EGCG, oncoprotein, molecular dynamics simulation, analogues

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131 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat


Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: availability, fault detection, replication, fault tolerance, marine application

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130 Biochemical and Antiviral Study of Peptides Isolated from Amaranthus hypochondriacus on Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Replication

Authors: José Silvestre Mendoza Figueroa, Anders Kvarnheden, Jesús Méndez Lozano, Edgar Antonio Rodríguez Negrete, Manuel Soriano García


Agroindustrial plants such as cereals and pseudo cereals offer a substantial source of biomacromolecules, as they contain large amounts per tissue-gram of proteins, polysaccharides and lipids in comparison with other plants. In particular, Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds have high levels of proteins in comparison with other cereal and pseudo cereal species, which makes the plant a good source of bioactive molecules such as peptides. Geminiviruses are one principal class of pathogens that causes important economic losses in crops, affecting directly the development and production of the plant. One such virus is the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects mainly Solanacea family plants such as tomato species. The symptoms of the disease are curling of leaves, chlorosis, dwarfing and floral abortion. The aim of this work was to get peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of globulins and albumins from amaranth seeds with specific recognition of the replication origin in the TYLCV genome, and to test the antiviral activity on host plants with the idea to generate a direct control of this viral infection. Globulins and albumins from amaranth were extracted, the fraction was enzymatically digested with papain, and the aromatic peptides fraction was selected for further purification. Six peptides were tested against the replication origin (OR) using affinity assays, surface resonance plasmon and fluorescent titration, and two of these peptides showed high affinity values to the replication origin of the virus, dissociation constant values were calculated and showed specific interaction between the peptide Ampep1 and the OR. An in vitro replication test of the total TYLCV DNA was performed, in which the peptide AmPep1 was added in different concentrations to the system reaction, which resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis when the peptide concentration increased. Also, we showed that the peptide can decrease the complementary DNA chain of the virus in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, confirming that the peptide binds to the OR and that its expected mechanism of action is to decrease the replication rate of the viral genome. In an infection assay, N. benthamiana plants were agroinfected with TYLCV-Israel and TYLCV-Guasave. After confirming systemic infection, the peptide was infiltrated in new infected leaves, and the plants treated with the peptide showed a decrease of virus symptoms and viral titer. In order to confirm the antiviral activity in a commercial crop, tomato plants were infected with TYLCV. After confirming systemic infection, plants were infiltrated with peptide solution as above, and the symptom development was monitored 21 days after treatment, showing that tomato plants treated with peptides had lower symptom rates and viral titer. The peptide was also tested against other begomovirus such as Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV-Guasave), showing a decrease of symptoms in N. benthamiana infected plants. The model of direct biochemical control of TYLCV infection shown in this work can be extrapolated to other begomovirus infections, and the methods reported here can be used for design of antiviral agrochemicals for other plant virus infections.

Keywords: agrochemical screening, antiviral, begomovirus, geminivirus, peptides, plasmon, TYLCV

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129 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri


This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: biology, perceived difficulty, post-secondary, study habits

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128 Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mosquito Cells to Survive Dengue 2 Virus Infection

Authors: Jiun-Nan Hou, Tien-Huang Chen, Wei-June Chen


Dengue viruses (DENVs) are naturally transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors. Mosquito cells usually survive DENV infection, allowing infected mosquitoes to retain an active status for virus transmission. In this study, we found that DENV2 virus infection in mosquito cells causes the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signal pathway, leading to shutdown of global protein translation in infected cells which was apparently regulated by the PERK signal pathway. According to observation in this study, the PERK signal pathway in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells alleviates ER stress, and reduces initiator and effector caspases, as well as the apoptosis rate via shutdown of cellular proteins. In fact, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ) by the PERK signal pathway may impair recruitment of ribosomes that bind to the mRNA 5’-cap structure, resulting in an inhibitory effect on canonical cap-dependent cellular protein translation. The resultant pro-survival “byproduct” of infected mosquito cells is undoubtedly advantageous for viral replication. This finding provides insights into elucidating the PERK-mediated modulating web that is actively involved in dynamic protein synthesis, cell survival, and viral replication in mosquito cells.

Keywords: cap-dependent protein translation, dengue virus, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mosquito cells, PERK signal pathway

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127 Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Puree on Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Level in White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induced with Toxic Doses of Meloxicam

Authors: Amelia R. Anshar, Dini Kurnia, Muh A. Bahar


Nowadays, there are so many incidences had been reported in pet animals regarding drug overdose caused by incorrect doses of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), for instance, meloxicam. As supporting treatment, the avocado is used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent some health cases. The study was aimed at providing the basis for the antioxidant activity of avocado puree in animal medicine. Experimental animals used in this study were 24 male rats that were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6). Control Group I got 1 ml CMC 1% and control II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and 1 ml CMC 1%. Treatment group I got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 5 g/kgBB/day and treatment II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 10 g/kgBB/day. The study was conducted over 8 days, then the level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine of the white rats were examined in 1st day and 8th day. The results were analyzed by ANOVA Two Way With Replication, then followed by T-test (α = 0,05) if there were a difference. Comparison test among the four groups after treatment with avocado using Anova Two Way With Replication test showed that there were significant differences between the mean of the four groups either decreased levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine with p < 0,05. Treatment group I and II received treatment showed remarkable (p < 0,05) decreases ini Blood Urea Nitrogen level by 27,17 mg/dl and 17,83 mg/dl respectively. There was also significant decrease in the values of creatinine in Treatment group I and treatment group II by 0,983 mg/dl and 0,713 mg/dl respectively. The conclusion of this study was that avocado decreases level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine in white rats which are exposed to toxic doses of meloxicam.

Keywords: avocado, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, meloxicam

Procedia PDF Downloads 134