Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Ahlam Guen-Bouazza

18 Providing Open Access for Scholarly Information in Libya

Authors: Mohamed Abolgasem Arteimi, Ahlam Al-Tajori


This paper describes an ongoing project at the Libyan Academy. The project aims to build digital library for thesis and dissertations (ETD). The researchers developed a system based on Greenstone open source systems for building ETD digital library. A metadata for theses and dissertations was developed. The paper addresses issues related to project design, development and user satisfaction. Conclusions highlighted some important lessons learned to date.

Keywords: digital library, electronic theses and dissertations, open access, ETD, metadata

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17 Thermal Effect in Power Electrical for HEMTs Devices with InAlN/GaN

Authors: Zakarya Kourdi, Mohammed Khaouani, Benyounes Bouazza, Ahlam Guen-Bouazza, Amine Boursali


In this paper, we have evaluated the thermal effect for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) heterostructure InAlN/GaN with a gate length 30nm high-performance. It also shows the analysis and simulated these devices, and how can be used in different application. The simulator Tcad-Silvaco software has used for predictive results good for the DC, AC and RF characteristic, Devices offered max drain current 0.67A; transconductance is 720 mS/mm the unilateral power gain of 180 dB. A cutoff frequency of 385 GHz, and max frequency 810 GHz These results confirm the feasibility of using HEMTs with InAlN/GaN in high power amplifiers, as well as thermal places.

Keywords: HEMT, Thermal Effect, Silvaco, InAlN/GaN

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16 A Tutorial on Network Security: Attacks and Controls

Authors: Belbahi Ahlam


With the phenomenal growth in the Internet, network security has become an integral part of computer and information security. In order to come up with measures that make networks more secure, it is important to learn about the vulnerabilities that could exist in a computer network and then have an understanding of the typical attacks that have been carried out in such networks. The first half of this paper will expose the readers to the classical network attacks that have exploited the typical vulnerabilities of computer networks in the past and solutions that have been adopted since then to prevent or reduce the chances of some of these attacks. The second half of the paper will expose the readers to the different network security controls including the network architecture, protocols, standards and software/ hardware tools that have been adopted in modern day computer networks.

Keywords: network security, attacks and controls, computer and information, solutions

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15 Resident-Aware Green Home

Authors: Ahlam Elkilani, Bayan Elsheikh Ali, Rasha Abu Romman, Amjed Al-mousa, Belal Sababha


The amount of energy the world uses doubles every 20 years. Green homes play an important role in reducing the residential energy demand. This paper presents a platform that is intended to learn the behavior of home residents and build a profile about their habits and actions. The proposed resident aware home controller intervenes in the operation of home appliances in order to save energy without compromising the convenience of the residents. The presented platform can be used to simulate the actions and movements happening inside a home. The paper includes several optimization techniques that are meant to save energy in the home. In addition, several test scenarios are presented that show how the controller works. Moreover, this paper shows the computed actual savings when each of the presented techniques is implemented in a typical home. The test scenarios have validated that the techniques developed are capable of effectively saving energy at homes.

Keywords: green home, resident aware, resident profile, activity learning, machine learning

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14 Applying Augmented Reality Technology for an E-Learning System

Authors: Fetoon K. Algarawi, Wejdan A. Alslamah, Ahlam A. Alhabib, Afnan S. Alfehaid, Dina M. Ibrahim


Over the past 20 years, technology was rapidly developed and no one expected what will come next. Advancements in technology open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. There is a need to transmit education to a level that makes it more effective for the student. Augmented reality is one of the most popular technologies these days. This paper is an experience of applying Augmented Reality (AR) technology using a marker-based approach in E-learning system to transmitting virtual objects into the real-world scenes. We present a marker-based approach for transmitting virtual objects into real-world scenes to explain information in a better way after we developed a mobile phone application. The mobile phone application was then tested on students to determine the extent to which it encouraged them to learn and understand the subjects. In this paper, we talk about how the beginnings of AR, the fields using AR, how AR is effective in education, the spread of AR these days and the architecture of our work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to prove how creating an interactive e-learning system using AR technology will encourage students to learn more.

Keywords: augmented reality, e-learning, marker-based, monitor-based

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13 Comparison of Real-Time PCR and FTIR with Chemometrics Technique in Analysing Halal Supplement Capsules

Authors: Mohd Sukri Hassan, Ahlam Inayatullah Badrul Munir, M. Husaini A. Rahman


Halal authentication and verification in supplement capsules are highly required as the gelatine available in the market can be from halal or non-halal sources. It is an obligation for Muslim to consume and use the halal consumer goods. At present, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common technique being used for the detection of porcine and bovine DNA in gelatine due to high sensitivity of the technique and higher stability of DNA compared to protein. In this study, twenty samples of supplements capsules from different products with different Halal logos were analyzed for porcine and bovine DNA using RT-PCR. Standard bovine and porcine gelatine from eurofins at a range of concentration from 10-1 to 10-5 ng/µl were used to determine the linearity range, limit of detection and specificity on RT-PCR (SYBR Green method). RT-PCR detected porcine (two samples), bovine (four samples) and mixture of porcine and bovine (six samples). The samples were also tested using FT-IR technique where normalized peak of IR spectra were pre-processed using Savitsky Golay method before Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the database. Scores plot of PCA shows three clusters of samples; bovine, porcine and mixture (bovine and porcine). The RT-PCR and FT-IR with chemometrics technique were found to give same results for porcine gelatine samples which can be used for Halal authentication.

Keywords: halal, real-time PCR, gelatine, chemometrics

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12 Sensitivity, Specificity and Efficiency Real-Time PCR Using SYBR Green Method to Determine Porcine and Bovine DNA Using Specific Primer Cytochrome B Gene

Authors: Ahlam Inayatullah Badrul Munir, M. Husaini A. Rahman, Mohd Sukri Hassan


Real-time PCR is a molecular biology technique that is currently being widely used for halal services to differentiating between porcine and bovine DNA. The useful of technique become very important for student or workers (who works in the laboratory) to learn how the technique could be run smoothly without fail. Same concept with conventional PCR, real-time PCR also needed DNA template, primer, enzyme polymerase, dNTP, and buffer. The difference is in real-time PCR, have additional component namely fluorescent dye. The most common use of fluorescent dye in real-time PCR is SYBR green. The purpose of this study was to find out how sensitive, specific and efficient real-time PCR technique was combined with SYBR green method and specific primers of CYT b. The results showed that real-time PCR technique using SYBR Green, capable of detecting porcine and bovine DNA concentrations up to 0.0001 µl/ng. The level of efficiency for both types of DNA was 91% (90-110). Not only that in specific primer CYT b bovine primer could detect only bovine DNA, and porcine primer could detect only porcine primer. So, from the study could be concluded that real-time PCR technique that was combined with specific primer CYT b and SYBR green method, was sensitive, specific and efficient to detect porcine and bovine DNA.

Keywords: sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, real-time PCR, SYBR green, Cytochrome b, porcine DNA, bovine DNA

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11 QTAIM View of Metal-Metal Bonding in Trinuclear Mixed-Metal Bridged Ligand Clusters Containing Ruthenium and Osmium

Authors: Nadia Ezzat Al-Kirbasee, Ahlam Hussein Hassan, Shatha Raheem Helal Alhimidi, Doaa Ezzat Al-Kirbasee, Muhsen Abood Muhsen Al-Ibadi


Through DFT/QTAIM calculations, we have provided new insights into the nature of the M-M, M-H, M-O, and M-C bonds of the (Cp*Ru)n(Cp*Os)3−n(μ3-O)2(μ-H)(Cp* = η5-C5Me5, n= 3,2,1,0). The topological analysis of the electron density reveals important details of the chemical bonding interactions in the clusters. Calculations confirm the absence of bond critical points (BCP) and the corresponding bond paths (BP) between Ru-Ru, Ru-Os, and Os-Os. The position of bridging hydrides and Oxo atoms coordinated to Ru-Ru, Ru-Os, and Os-Os determines the distribution of the electron densities and which strongly affects the formation of the bonds between these transition metal atoms. On the other hand, the results confirm that the four clusters contain a 6c–12e and 4c–2e bonding interaction delocalized over M3(μ-H)(μ-O)2 and M3(μ-H), respectively, as revealed by the non-negligible delocalization indexes calculations. The small values for electron density ρ(b) above zero, together with the small values, again above zero, for laplacian ∇2ρ(b) and the small negative values for total energy density H(b) are shown by the Ru-H, Os-H, Ru-O, and Os-O bonds in the four clusters are typical of open shell interactions. Also, the topological data for the bonds between Ru and Os atoms with the C atoms of the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) ring ligands are basically similar and show properties very consistent with open shell interactions in the QTAIM classification.

Keywords: metal-metal and metal-ligand interactions, organometallic complexes, topological analysis, DFT and QTAIM analyses

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10 Lead and Cadmium Residue Determination in Spices Available in Tripoli City Markets (Libya)

Authors: Mohamed Ziyaina, Ahlam Rajab, Khadija Alkhweldi, Wafia Algami, Omer Al. Toumi, Barbara Rasco1


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination in food products. Spices can improve the taste of food and can also be a source of many bioactive compounds but can unfortunately, also be contaminated with dangerous materials, potentially heavy metals. This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in selected spices commonly consumed in Libya including Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper) Piper nigrum, (black pepper), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and mixed spices (HRARAT) which consist of a combination of: Alpinia officinarum, Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Spices were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide. The highest level of lead (Pb) was found in Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens in wholesale markets (1.05 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.96 ± 0.06 mg/kg). Cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded FAO/WHO permissible limit. Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum sold in retail markets had a high concentration of Cd (0.36 ± 0.09, 0.35 ± 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) followed by (0.32 ± 0.04 mg/kg) for Capsicum frutescens. Mixed spices purchased from wholesale markets also had high levels of Cd (0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg). Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens may pose a food safety risk due to high levels of lead and cadmium. Cadmium levels exceeded FAO/WHO recommendations (0.2 ppm) for Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and mixed spices (HRARAT).

Keywords: heavy metals, lead, cadmium determination, spice

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9 Equity and Quality in Saudi Early Childhood Education: A Case Study on Inclusion School

Authors: Ahlam A. Alghamdi


For many years and until now, education based on gendered division is endorsed in the public Saudi schools starting from the primary grades (1,2, 3rd grades). Although preschool has no boys and girls segregation restrictions, children from first grade starting their first form of cultural ideology based on gender. Ensuring high-quality education serving all children -both boys and girls- is an aim for policymakers and early learning professionals in Saudi Arabia. The past five years have witnessed a major change in terms of shifting the paradigm to educating young children in the country. In May 2018, the Ministry of Education (MoE) had declared a commencement decision of inclusion schools serve both girls and boys in primary grades with a high-quality early learning opportunity. This study sought to shed light on one of the earliest schools that have implemented the inclusion experience. The methodological approach adopted is based on the qualitative inquiry of case study to investigate complex phenomena within the contexts of inclusion school. Data collection procedures included on-site visitations and semi-structured interviews with the teachers to document their thoughts, narratives, and living experiences. The findings of this study identified three themes based on cultural, educational, and professional interpretations. An overview of recommendations highlighted the benefits and possible challenges of future implementations of inclusion schools in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: early learning, gender division, inclusion school, Saudi Arabia

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8 Students and Teachers Perceptions about Interactive Learning in Teaching Health Promotion Course: Implication for Nursing Education and Practice

Authors: Ahlam Alnatour


Background: To our knowledge, there is lack of studies that describe the experience of studying health promotion courses using an interactive approach, and compare students’ and teachers perceptions about this method of teaching. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparison between student and teacher experiences and perspectives in learning health promotion course using interactive learning. Design: A descriptive qualitative design was used to provide an in-depth description and understanding of students’ and teachers experiences and perceptions of learning health promotion courses using an interactive learning. Study Participants: About 14 fourteen students (seven male, seven female) and eight teachers at governmental university in northern Jordan participated in this study. Data Analysis: Conventional content analysis approach was used for participants’ scripts to gain an in-depth description for both students' and teacher’s experiences. Results: The main themes emerged from the data analysis describing the students’ and teachers perceptions of the interactive health promotion class: teachers’ and students positive experience in adopting interactive learning, advantages and benefits of interactive teaching, barriers to interactive teaching, and suggestions for improvement. Conclusion: Both teachers and students reflected positive attitudes toward interactive learning. Interactive learning helped to engage in learning process physically and cognitively. Interactive learning enhanced learning process, promote student attention, enhanced final performance, and satisfied teachers and students accordingly. Interactive learning approach should be adopted in teaching graduate and undergraduate courses using updated and contemporary strategies. Nursing scholars and educators should be motivated to integrate interactive learning in teaching different nursing courses.

Keywords: interactive learning, nursing, health promotion, qualitative study

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7 An Analytical Study on the Impact of Cultural and Literary Heritage on the Contemporary Arabic Novel

Authors: Sharafat Karimi, Jamil Jafari


The impact of Western Literature on other nations' pieces of literature (including Arabic) has caused critics to ignore the importance of Arabic cultural & literary heritage in the formation of contemporary Arabic fiction; but on the contrary, an important part of literary genres in any society, especially fiction has been formed in the past and depends on ancient literary events. The current paper, utilizing the descriptive-analytical method and by means of library studies, tries to challenge those critics who regard Western Literature as the only effective factor on the appearance of Arabic fiction. Furthermore, this research tries to find out effective Islamic-Arabic elements on the development of Arabic novel by the investigation of some fictional works. The results show that in addition to regarding Western literature as an important factor, Arab novelists have applied their heritage, culture, and ancient history, either written or orally transmitted to the current generation, in their innovations. Among great historical works containing moral stories, allegorical legends, myths, tales of heroes, and folklore, we can refer to Arabian Nights, Kalila & Dimna, romantic stories, historical puzzles, history of Islam, history of ancient Egypt, Maqama, and Quranic stories. Famous novels like 'Hadith Isa ibn-Hisham', 'Layali Alif Layla', 'Abas al-Aqdar', 'Radoubis', 'Ahlam Shahrzad, and 'Alam Bela Kharaet' were compiled on the basis of ancient literary heritage not only in the theme but also in the structure; so one can conclude that the ancient literary-cultural heritage and Islamic-Arabian history have been influential on Arabic novel appearance and development.

Keywords: Arabic fictional literature, culture, heritage, history, language, novel

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6 The Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Dividend Policy

Authors: Tahar Tayachi, Ahlam Alrehaili


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the corporate board characteristics and the dividend policy among firms on the Saudi Stock Exchange. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper uses a sample of 103 nonfinancial firms over a time period of 4 years from 2015 to 2018. To investigate how corporate governance mechanisms such as board independence, the board size, frequency of meetings, and free cash flow impact dividends, the study uses Logit and Tobit models. Findings: This paper finds that board size, board independence, and frequency of board meetings have no influence on a firm’s decision to pay dividends, while board size has a significantly positive impact on the levels of cash dividends paid to investors. This study also finds that the level of free cash flows has a positively significant influence on both the decision to pay dividends and the magnitude of dividend payouts. Research Limitations/Implications: This paper attempts to study the effectiveness of dividend policy among some firms on the Saudi Stock Exchange. Practical Implications: The findings reveal that board characteristics, which represent one of the crucial mechanisms of corporate governance, were found to be complementary to corporate laws and regulations imposed on the Saudi market in 2015. The findings also imply that capital market authorities should revise their corporate regulations and ensure that protection laws are adequate and strong enough to protect the interests of all shareholders. Originality/Value: This paper is among the few studies focusing on dividend policy in Saudi Arabia. Finally, these findings suggest that the improvements in corporate laws in Saudi Arabia led to such an outcome, and it has become prevalent in dividend policy decisions and behaviors of Saudi firms.

Keywords: agency theory, Tobit, corporate governance, dividend payout, Logit

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5 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah


In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: spatial analysis, urban development, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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4 Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Efficacy of Salsola inermis Extract against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahlam H. Mahmoud, Samir F. Zohny, Ibrahim H. Boraia, Faten S. Bayoumic, Eman Eissa


Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the Salsola inermis extract as a novel chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DNE)/phenobarbital (PB)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: group1 rats were served as normal controls; group 2 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 20 weeks; group 3 rats were subjected to two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, 2 weeks later, the carcinogenic effect was promoted by supplementation of rats with 0.05% PB for 16 weeks); group 4 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract 2 weeks prior to the injection of DEN, the daily injection of S. inermis extract was then continued for 18 weeks along with two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (chemoprevention group); and group 5 rats were subjected to the two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen, and then, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract for 4 weeks (treatment group). The activities of serum liver enzymes and levels of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in serum were decreased in chemopreventive and treated rats compared with DEN/PB-administered rats. Interestingly, the serum levels of total protein and albumin were normalized in chemopreventive and treated rats. Moreover, the majority of chemopreventive and treated rats showed an almost normal histological pattern of liver. In conclusion, S. inermis extract possessed chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against hepatocarcinogenesis in rats partially through the inhibition of VEGF and sICAM-1.

Keywords: Salsola inermis extract, hepatocarcinogenesis, α–fetoprotein, VEGF, sICAM-1

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3 Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Secur (TVT Secur) versus Tension-Free Vaginal Tape-Obturator (TVT-O) from inside to outside in Surgical Management of Genuine Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim Hassanin, Hany Hassan Mostafa, Mona Mohamed Shaban, Ahlam El Said Kamel


Background: New so-called minimally invasive devices have been developed to limit groin pain after sling placement for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to minimize the risk of postoperative pain and organ perforation. A new generation of suburethral slings was described that avoided skin incision to pull out and tension the sling. Evaluation of this device through prospective short-term series has shown controversial results compared with other tension-free techniques. The aim of this study is to compare success rates and complications for tension-free vaginal tape secur (TVT secur) and trans-obturator sub urethral tape inside-out technique (TVT-O) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with genuine SUI were divided into two groups: group S (n=25) were operated upon using (TVT secur) and group O (n=25) were operated upon using trans-obturator suburethral tape inside-out technique (TVT-O). Success rate, quality of life and postoperative complications such as groin pain, urgency, urine retention and vaginal tape erosion were reported in both groups at one, three, and six months after surgery. Results: As regards objective cure rate at one, three, six months intervals; there was a significant difference between group S (56%, 64%, and 60%), and group O (80%, 88%, and 88%) respectively (P <0.05). As regards subjective cure rate at one, three, six months intervals; there was a significant difference between group S (44%, 44%, and 48%), and group O (76%, 80%, and 80%) respectively (P <0.05). Quality of life (QoL) parameters improved significantly in cured patients with no difference between both groups. As regards complications, group O had a higher frequency of complications than group S; groin pain (12% vs 12% p= 0.05), urgency (4% (1 case) vs 0%), urine retention (8% (2 cases) vs 0%), vaginal tape erosion (4% (1 case) vs 0%). No cases were complicated with wound infection. Conclusion: Compared to TVT secur, TVT-O showed higher subjective and objective cure rates after six months but higher rate of complications. Both techniques were comparable as regards improvement of quality of life after surgery.

Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, trans-vaginal tape-obturator, TVT Secur, TVT-O

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2 Combination Therapies Targeting Apoptosis Pathways in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Authors: Ahlam Ali, Katrina Lappin, Jaine Blayney, Ken Mills


Leukaemia is the most frequently (30%) occurring type of paediatric cancer. Of these, approximately 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases making up the remaining 20% alongside other leukaemias. Unfortunately, children with AML do not have promising prognosis with only 60% surviving 5 years or longer. It has been highlighted recently the need for age-specific therapies for AML patients, with paediatric AML cases having a different mutational landscape compared with AML diagnosed in adult patients. Drug Repurposing is a recognized strategy in drug discovery and development where an already approved drug is used for diseases other than originally indicated. We aim to identify novel combination therapies with the promise of providing alternative more effective and less toxic induction therapy options. Our in-silico analysis highlighted ‘cell death and survival’ as an aberrant, potentially targetable pathway in paediatric AML patients. On this basis, 83 apoptotic inducing compounds were screened. A preliminary single agent screen was also performed to eliminate potentially toxic chemicals, then drugs were constructed into a pooled library with 10 drugs per well over 160 wells, with 45 possible pairs and 120 triples in each well. Seven cell lines were used during this study to represent the clonality of AML in paediatric patients (Kasumi-1, CMK, CMS, MV11-14, PL21, THP1, MOLM-13). Cytotoxicity was assessed up to 72 hours using CellTox™ Green reagent. Fluorescence readings were normalized to a DMSO control. Z-Score was assigned to each well based on the mean and standard deviation of all the data. Combinations with a Z-Score <2 were eliminated and the remaining wells were taken forward for further analysis. A well was considered ‘successful’ if each drug individually demonstrated a Z-Score <2, while the combination exhibited a Z-Score >2. Each of the ten compounds in one well (155) had minimal or no effect as single agents on cell viability however, a combination of two or more of the compounds resulted in a substantial increase in cell death, therefore the ten compounds were de-convoluted to identify a possible synergistic pair/triple combinations. The screen identified two possible ‘novel’ drug pairing, with BCL2 inhibitor ABT-737, combined with either a CDK inhibitor Purvalanol A, or AKT/ PI3K inhibitor LY294002. (ABT-737- 100 nM+ Purvalanol A- 1 µM) (ABT-737- 100 nM+ LY294002- 2 µM). Three possible triple combinations were identified (LY2409881+Akti-1/2+Purvalanol A, SU9516+Akti-1/2+Purvalanol A, and ABT-737+LY2409881+Purvalanol A), which will be taken forward for examining their efficacy at varying concentrations and dosing schedules, across multiple paediatric AML cell lines for optimisation of maximum synergy. We believe that our combination screening approach has potential for future use with a larger cohort of drugs including FDA approved compounds and patient material.

Keywords: AML, drug repurposing, ABT-737, apoptosis

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1 Treatment with Triton-X 100: An Enhancement Approach for Cardboard Bioprocessing

Authors: Ahlam Said Al Azkawi, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Nasser Al Bahri


Diverse approaches and pathways are under development with the determination to develop cellulosic biofuels and other bio-products eventually at commercial scale in “bio-refineries”; however, the key challenge is mainly the high level of complexity in processing the feedstock which is complicated and energy consuming. To overcome the complications in utilizing the naturally occurring lignocellulose biomass, using waste paper as a feedstock for bio-production may solve the problem. Besides being abundant and cheap, bioprocessing of waste paper has evolved in response to the public concern from rising landfill cost from shrinking landfill capacity. Cardboard (CB) is one of the major components of municipal solid waste and one of the most important items to recycle. Although 50-70% of cardboard constitute is known to be cellulose and hemicellulose, the presence of lignin around them cause hydrophobic cross-link which physically obstructs the hydrolysis by rendering it resistant to enzymatic cleavage. Therefore, pretreatment is required to disrupt this resistance and to enhance the exposure of the targeted carbohydrates to the hydrolytic enzymes. Several pretreatment approaches have been explored, and the best ones would be those can influence cellulose conversion rates and hydrolytic enzyme performance with minimal or less cost and downstream processes. One of the promising strategies in this field is the application of surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants. In this study, triton-X 100 was used as surfactants to treat cardboard prior enzymatic hydrolysis and compare it with acid treatment using 0.1% H2SO4. The effect of the surfactant enhancement was evaluated through its effect on hydrolysis rate in respect to time in addition to evaluating the structural changes and modification by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and through compositional analysis. Further work was performed to produce ethanol from CB treated with triton-X 100 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The hydrolysis studies have demonstrated enhancement in saccharification by 35%. After 72 h of hydrolysis, a saccharification rate of 98% was achieved from CB enhanced with triton-X 100, while only 89 of saccharification achieved from acid pre-treated CB. At 120 h, the saccharification % exceeded 100 as reducing sugars continued to increase with time. This enhancement was not supported by any significant changes in the cardboard content as the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content remained same after treatment, but obvious structural changes were observed through SEM images. The cellulose fibers were clearly exposed with very less debris and deposits compared to cardboard without triton-X 100. The XRD pattern has also revealed the ability of the surfactant in removing calcium carbonate, a filler found in waste paper known to have negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose crystallinity without surfactant was 73.18% and reduced to 66.68% rendering it more amorphous and susceptible to enzymatic attack. Triton-X 100 has proved to effectively enhance CB hydrolysis and eventually had positive effect on the ethanol yield via SSF. Treating cardboard with only triton-X 100 was a sufficient treatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

Keywords: cardboard, enhancement, ethanol, hydrolysis, treatment, Triton-X 100

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