Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: aero-thermodynamics

8 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui


Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow

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7 Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics and Performance of 14-X B Inlet with Blunted Cowl-Lip

Authors: Sergio N. P. Laitón, Paulo G. P. Toro, João F. Martos


A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the flow characteristics and performance of the 14-X B inlet with blunted cowl-lip. The Brazilian aerospace hypersonic vehicle 14-X B is a technology demonstrator of a hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system, based on supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet). It is designed for Earth's atmospheric flight at Mach number of 6 and an altitude of 30 km. Currently, it is under development in the aerothermodynamics and hypersonic Professor Henry T. Nagamatsu laboratory at Advanced Studies Institute (IEAv). Numerical simulations were conducted at nominal freestream Mach number and altitude for two cowl-lip blunting radius and several angles of attack close to horizontal flight. The results show that the shock interference behavior on the blunted cowl-lip change with the angle of attack and blunted radius. The type VI or V together with III shock interferences are more likely to occur simultaneously at small negative angles of attack. When the inlet operates in positive angles of attack higher to 1, no shock interference occurs, only the bow shock conditions. The results indicate a high air pressure at beginning of the combustor and higher pressure recovery with 2 mm radius and positives angles of attack.

Keywords: blunted cowl-lip, hypersonic inlet, inlet unstart, shock interference

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6 Preliminary Design of an Aerodynamic Protection for the Scramjet Engine Inlet of the Brazilian Technological Demonstrator Scramjet 14-X S

Authors: Gustavo J. Costa, Felipe J. Costa, Bruno L. Coelho, Ronaldo L. Cardoso, Rafael O. Santos, Israel S. Rêgo, Marco A. S. Minucci, Antonio C. Oliveira, Paulo G. P. Toro


The Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hipersonics Laboratory, of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) conducts research and development (R&D) of the Technological Demonstrator scramjet 14-X S, aiming atmospheric flight at 30 km altitude with the speed correspondent to Mach number 7, using scramjet technology providing hypersonic propulsion system based on supersonic combustion. Hypersonic aerospace vehicles with air-breathing supersonic propulsion system face extremal environments for super/hypersonic flights in terms of thermal and aerodynamic loads. Thus, it is necessary to use aerodynamic protection at the scramjet engine inlet to face the thermal and aerodynamic loads without compromising the efficiency of scramjet engine, taking into account: i) inlet design (boundary layer, oblique shockwave and reflected oblique shockwave); ii) wall temperature of the cowl and of the compression ramp; iii) supersonic flow into the combustion chamber. The aerodynamic protection of the scramjet engine inlet will act to prevent the engine unstart and match the predictions made by theoretical-analytical, numerical analysis and experimental research, during the atmospheric flight of the Technological Demonstrator scramjet 14-X S.

Keywords: 14-X, hypersonic, scramjet, supersonic combustion

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5 Experimental Analysis for the Inlet of the Brazilian Aerospace Vehicle 14-X B

Authors: João F. A. Martos, Felipe J. Costa, Sergio N. P. Laiton, Bruno C. Lima, Israel S. Rêgo, Paulo P. G. Toro


Nowadays, the scramjet is a topic that has attracted the attention of several scientific communities (USA, Australia, Germany, France, Japan, India, China, Russia), that are investing in this in this type of propulsion system due its interest to facilitate access to space and reach hypersonic speed, who have invested in this type of propulsion due to the interest in facilitating access to space. The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) intended to be tested in flight into the Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) in Brazil. The IEAv Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, named T3, is a ground-test facility able to reproduce the flight conditions as the Mach number as well as pressure and temperature in the test section close to those encountered during the test flight of the vehicle 14-X B into design conditions. A 1-m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach number 7. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B model, along with high-speed schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data that were compared to the analytical-theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show a good qualitative agreement, and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: 14-X, CFD, hypersonic, hypersonic shock tunnel, scramjet

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4 Investigation of the Technological Demonstrator 14x B in Different Angle of Attack in Hypersonic Velocity

Authors: Victor Alves Barros Galvão, Israel Da Silveira Rego, Antonio Carlos Oliveira, Paulo Gilberto De Paula Toro


The Brazilian hypersonic aerospace vehicle 14-X B, VHA 14-X B, is a vehicle integrated with the hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on supersonic combustion (scramjet), developing in Aerothermodynamics and hypersonic Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory, to conduct demonstration in atmospheric flight at the speed corresponding to Mach number 7 at an altitude of 30km. In the experimental procedure the hypersonic shock tunnel T3 was used, installed in that laboratory. This device simulates the flow over a model is fixed in the test section and can also simulate different atmospheric conditions. The scramjet technology offers substantial advantages to improve aerospace vehicle performance which flies at a hypersonic speed through the Earth's atmosphere by reducing fuel consumption on board. Basically, the scramjet is an aspirated aircraft engine fully integrated that uses oblique/conic shock waves generated during hypersonic flight, to promote the deceleration and compression of atmospheric air in scramjet inlet. During the hypersonic flight, the vehicle VHA 14-X will suffer atmospheric influences, promoting changes in the vehicle's angles of attack (angle that the mean line of vehicle makes with respect to the direction of the flow). Based on this information, a study is conducted to analyze the influences of changes in the vehicle's angle of attack during the atmospheric flight. Analytical theoretical analysis, simulation computational fluid dynamics and experimental investigation are the methodologies used to design a technological demonstrator prior to the flight in the atmosphere. This paper considers analysis of the thermodynamic properties (pressure, temperature, density, sound velocity) in lower surface of the VHA 14-X B. Also, it considers air as an ideal gas and chemical equilibrium, with and without boundary layer, considering changes in the vehicle's angle of attack (positive and negative in relation to the flow) and bi-dimensional expansion wave theory at the expansion section (Theory of Prandtl-Meyer).

Keywords: angle of attack, experimental hypersonic, hypersonic airbreathing propulsion, Scramjet

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3 Aerothermal Analysis of the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle at Mach Number 7

Authors: Felipe J. Costa, João F. A. Martos, Ronaldo L. Cardoso, Israel S. Rêgo, Marco A. S. Minucci, Antonio C. Oliveira, Paulo G. P. Toro


The Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, at the Institute for Advanced Studies designed the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle, which is a technological demonstrator endowed with two innovative technologies: waverider technology, to obtain lift from conical shockwave during the hypersonic flight; and uses hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system called scramjet that is based on supersonic combustion, to perform flights on Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude at Mach numbers 7 and 10. The scramjet is an aeronautical engine without moving parts that promote compression and deceleration of freestream atmospheric air at the inlet through the conical/oblique shockwaves generated during the hypersonic flight. During high speed flight, the shock waves and the viscous forces yield the phenomenon called aerodynamic heating, where this physical meaning is the friction between the fluid filaments and the body or compression at the stagnation regions of the leading edge that converts the kinetic energy into heat within a thin layer of air which blankets the body. The temperature of this layer increases with the square of the speed. This high temperature is concentrated in the boundary-layer, where heat will flow readily from the boundary-layer to the hypersonic aerospace vehicle structure. Fay and Riddell and Eckert methods are applied to the stagnation point and to the flat plate segments in order to calculate the aerodynamic heating. On the understanding of the aerodynamic heating it is important to analyze the heat conduction transfer to the 14-X waverider internal structure. ANSYS Workbench software provides the Thermal Numerical Analysis, using Finite Element Method of the 14-X waverider unpowered scramjet at 30 km altitude at Mach number 7 and 10 in terms of temperature and heat flux. Finally, it is possible to verify if the internal temperature complies with the requirements for embedded systems, and, if is necessary to do modifications on the structure in terms of wall thickness and materials.

Keywords: aerodynamic heating, hypersonic, scramjet, thermal analysis

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2 Experimental Analysis of Supersonic Combustion Induced by Shock Wave at the Combustion Chamber of the 14-X Scramjet Model

Authors: Ronaldo de Lima Cardoso, Thiago V. C. Marcos, Felipe J. da Costa, Antonio C. da Oliveira, Paulo G. P. Toro


The 14-X is a strategic project of the Brazil Air Force Command to develop a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system based on supersonic combustion programmed to flight in the Earth's atmosphere at 30 km of altitude and Mach number 10. The 14-X is under development at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonic Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu of the Institute of Advanced Studies. The program began in 2007 and was planned to have three stages: development of the wave rider configuration, development of the scramjet configuration and finally the ground tests in the hypersonic shock tunnel T3. The install configuration of the model based in the scramjet of the 14-X in the test section of the hypersonic shock tunnel was made to proportionate and test the flight conditions in the inlet of the combustion chamber. Experimental studies with hypersonic shock tunnel require special techniques to data acquisition. To measure the pressure along the experimental model geometry tested we used 30 pressure transducers model 122A22 of PCB®. The piezoeletronic crystals of a piezoelectric transducer pressure when to suffer pressure variation produces electric current (PCB® PIEZOTRONIC, 2016). The reading of the signal of the pressure transducers was made by oscilloscope. After the studies had begun we observed that the pressure inside in the combustion chamber was lower than expected. One solution to improve the pressure inside the combustion chamber was install an obstacle to providing high temperature and pressure. To confirm if the combustion occurs was selected the spectroscopy emission technique. The region analyzed for the spectroscopy emission system is the edge of the obstacle installed inside the combustion chamber. The emission spectroscopy technique was used to observe the emission of the OH*, confirming or not the combustion of the mixture between atmospheric air in supersonic speed and the hydrogen fuel inside of the combustion chamber of the model. This paper shows the results of experimental studies of the supersonic combustion induced by shock wave performed at the Hypersonic Shock Tunnel T3 using the scramjet 14-X model. Also, this paper provides important data about the combustion studies using the model based on the engine of 14-X (second stage of the 14-X Program). Informing the possibility of necessaries corrections to be made in the next stages of the program or in other models to experimental study.

Keywords: 14-X, experimental study, ground tests, scramjet, supersonic combustion

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1 Computational Code for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes Applied to the Leading Edge of the Brazilian Hypersonic Scramjet 14-X

Authors: Jayme R. T. Silva, Paulo G. P. Toro, Angelo Passaro, Giannino P. Camillo, Antonio C. Oliveira


An in-house C++ code has been developed, at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics from the Institute of Advanced Studies (Brazil), to estimate the aerothermodynamic properties around the Hypersonic Vehicle Integrated to the Scramjet. In the future, this code will be applied to the design of the Brazilian Scramjet Technological Demonstrator 14-X B. The first step towards accomplishing this objective, is to apply the in-house C++ code at the leading edge of a flat plate, simulating the leading edge of the 14-X Hypersonic Vehicle, making possible the wave phenomena of oblique shock and boundary layer to be analyzed. The development of modern hypersonic space vehicles requires knowledge regarding the characteristics of hypersonic flows in the vicinity of a leading edge of lifting surfaces. The strong interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer, in a high supersonic Mach number 4 viscous flow, close to the leading edge of the plate, considering no slip condition, is numerically investigated. The small slip region is neglecting. The study consists of solving the fluid flow equations for unstructured meshes applying the SIMPLE algorithm for Finite Volume Method. Unstructured meshes are generated by the in-house software ‘Modeler’ that was developed at Virtual’s Engineering Laboratory from the Institute of Advanced Studies, initially developed for Finite Element problems and, in this work, adapted to the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the SIMPLE pressure-correction scheme for all-speed flows, Finite Volume Method based. The in-house C++ code is based on the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations considering non-steady flow, with nobody forces, no volumetric heating, and no mass diffusion. Air is considered as calorically perfect gas, with constant Prandtl number and Sutherland's law for the viscosity. Solutions of the flat plate problem for Mach number 4 include pressure, temperature, density and velocity profiles as well as 2-D contours. Also, the boundary layer thickness, boundary conditions, and mesh configurations are presented. The same problem has been solved by the academic license of the software Ansys Fluent and for another C++ in-house code, which solves the fluid flow equations in structured meshes, applying the MacCormack method for Finite Difference Method, and the results will be compared.

Keywords: boundary-layer, scramjet, simple algorithm, shock wave

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