Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4361

Search results for: adaptive distributed networks

4361 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu


This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

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4360 An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Daehyoung Kim, Pervez Khan, Hoon Kim


Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity. To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect, but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW) adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.

Keywords: spectrum sharing, adaptive opportunistic transmission, unlicensed bands, heterogeneous networks

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4359 Considering the Reliability of Measurements Issue in Distributed Adaptive Estimation Algorithms

Authors: Wael M. Bazzi, Amir Rastegarnia, Azam Khalili


In this paper we consider the issue of reliability of measurements in distributed adaptive estimation problem. To this aim, we assume a sensor network with different observation noise variance among the sensors and propose new estimation method based on incremental distributed least mean-square (IDLMS) algorithm. The proposed method contains two phases: I) Estimation of each sensors observation noise variance, and II) Estimation of the desired parameter using the estimated observation variances. To deal with the reliability of measurements, in the second phase of the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As our simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the performance of the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.

Keywords: adaptive filter, distributed estimation, sensor network, IDLMS algorithm

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4358 An Interactive Methodology to Demonstrate the Level of Effectiveness of the Synthesis of Local-Area Networks

Authors: W. Shin, Y. Kim


This study focuses on disconfirming that wide-area networks can be made mobile, highly-available, and wireless. This methodological test shows that IPv7 and context-free grammar are mismatched. In the cases of robots, a similar tendency is also revealed. Further, we also prove that public-private key pairs could be built embedded, adaptive, and wireless. Finally, we disconfirm that although hash tables can be made distributed, interposable, and autonomous, XML and DNS can interfere to realize this purpose. Our experiments soon proved that exokernelizing our replicated Knesis keyboards was more significant than interrupting them. Our experiments exhibited degraded average sampling rate.

Keywords: collaborative communication, DNS, local-area networks, XML

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4357 Optimal Simultaneous Sizing and Siting of DGs and Smart Meters Considering Voltage Profile Improvement in Active Distribution Networks

Authors: T. Sattarpour, D. Nazarpour


This paper investigates the effect of simultaneous placement of DGs and smart meters (SMs), on voltage profile improvement in active distribution networks (ADNs). A substantial center of attention has recently been on responsive loads initiated in power system problem studies such as distributed generations (DGs). Existence of responsive loads in active distribution networks (ADNs) would have undeniable effect on sizing and siting of DGs. For this reason, an optimal framework is proposed for sizing and siting of DGs and SMs in ADNs. SMs are taken into consideration for the sake of successful implementing of demand response programs (DRPs) such as direct load control (DLC) with end-side consumers. Looking for voltage profile improvement, the optimization procedure is solved by genetic algorithm (GA) and tested on IEEE 33-bus distribution test system. Different scenarios with variations in the number of DG units, individual or simultaneous placing of DGs and SMs, and adaptive power factor (APF) mode for DGs to support reactive power have been established. The obtained results confirm the significant effect of DRPs and APF mode in determining the optimal size and site of DGs to be connected in ADN resulting to the improvement of voltage profile as well.

Keywords: active distribution network (ADN), distributed generations (DGs), smart meters (SMs), demand response programs (DRPs), adaptive power factor (APF)

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4356 An Adaptive Distributed Incremental Association Rule Mining System

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Olusegun Folorunso, Adesina S. Sodiya


Most existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) systems are still facing several challenges. One of such challenges that have not received the attention of many researchers is the inability of existing systems to adapt to constantly changing databases and mining environments. In this work, an Adaptive Incremental Mining Algorithm (AIMA) is therefore proposed to address these problems. AIMA employed multiple mobile agents for the entire mining process. AIMA was designed to adapt to changes in the distributed databases by mining only the incremental database updates and using this to update the existing rules in order to improve the overall response time of the DARM system. In AIMA, global association rules were integrated incrementally from one data site to another through Results Integration Coordinating Agents. The mining agents in AIMA were made adaptive by defining mining goals with reasoning and behavioral capabilities and protocols that enabled them to either maintain or change their goals. AIMA employed Java Agent Development Environment Extension for designing the internal agents’ architecture. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the adaptive system, AIMA performed better than the non-adaptive systems with lower communication costs and higher task completion rates.

Keywords: adaptivity, data mining, distributed association rule mining, incremental mining, mobile agents

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4355 Reliability Improvement of Power System Networks Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Alesaadi


Reliability analysis is a powerful method for determining the weak points of the electrical networks. In designing of electrical network, it is tried to design the most reliable network with minimal system shutting down, but it is usually associated with increasing the cost. In this paper, using adaptive genetic algorithm, a method was presented that provides the most reliable system with a certain economical cost. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a sample network and results will be analyzed.

Keywords: reliability, adaptive genetic algorithm, electrical network, communication engineering

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4354 Genetic Algorithm Based Node Fault Detection and Recovery in Distributed Sensor Networks

Authors: N. Nalini, Lokesh B. Bhajantri


In Distributed Sensor Networks, the sensor nodes are prone to failure due to energy depletion and some other reasons. In this regard, fault tolerance of network is essential in distributed sensor environment. Energy efficiency, network or topology control and fault-tolerance are the most important issues in the development of next-generation Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs). This paper proposes a node fault detection and recovery using Genetic Algorithm (GA) in DSN when some of the sensor nodes are faulty. The main objective of this work is to provide fault tolerance mechanism which is energy efficient and responsive to network using GA, which is used to detect the faulty nodes in the network based on the energy depletion of node and link failure between nodes. The proposed fault detection model is used to detect faults at node level and network level faults (link failure and packet error). Finally, the performance parameters for the proposed scheme are evaluated.

Keywords: distributed sensor networks, genetic algorithm, fault detection and recovery, information technology

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4353 Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Adaptive Speed Control under ARDUINO

Authors: Javier Fernandez De Canete, Alvaro Fernandez-Quintero


Nowadays, adaptive control schemes are being used when model based control schemes are applied in presence of uncertainty and model mismatches. Artificial neural networks have been employed both in modelling and control of non-linear dynamic systems with unknown dynamics. In fact, these are powerful tools to solve this control problem when only input-output operational data are available. A neural network controller under SIMULINK together with the ARDUINO hardware platform has been used to perform real-time speed control of a computer case fan. Comparison of performance with a PID controller has also been presented in order to show the efficacy of neural control under different command signals tracking and also when disturbance signals are present in the speed control loops.

Keywords: neural networks, ARDUINO platform, SIMULINK, adaptive speed control

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4352 Some Results on Cluster Synchronization

Authors: Shahed Vahedi, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani


This paper investigates cluster synchronization phenomena between community networks. We focus on the situation where a variety of dynamics occur in the clusters. In particular, we show that different synchronization states simultaneously occur between the networks. The controller is designed having an adaptive control gain, and theoretical results are derived via Lyapunov stability. Simulations on well-known dynamical systems are provided to elucidate our results.

Keywords: cluster synchronization, adaptive control, community network, simulation

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4351 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz


This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: distributed generation, heuristic approach, optimization, planning

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4350 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Solving Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a distributed hybrid algorithm is proposed for solving the job shop scheduling problem. The suggested method executes different artificial neural networks, heuristics and meta-heuristics simultaneously on more than one machine. The neural networks are used to control the constraints of the problem while the meta-heuristics search the global space and the heuristics are used to prevent the premature convergence. To attain an efficient distributed intelligent method for solving big and distributed job shop scheduling problems, Apache Spark and Hadoop frameworks are used. In the algorithm implementation and design steps, new approaches are applied. Comparison between the proposed algorithm and other efficient algorithms from the literature shows its efficiency, which is able to solve large size problems in short time.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, Apache Spark, Hadoop, job shop scheduling, neural network

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4349 MULTI-FLGANs: Multi-Distributed Adversarial Networks for Non-Independent and Identically Distributed Distribution

Authors: Akash Amalan, Rui Wang, Yanqi Qiao, Emmanouil Panaousis, Kaitai Liang


Federated learning is an emerging concept in the domain of distributed machine learning. This concept has enabled General Adversarial Networks (GANs) to benefit from the rich distributed training data while preserving privacy. However, in a non-IID setting, current federated GAN architectures are unstable, struggling to learn the distinct features, and vulnerable to mode collapse. In this paper, we propose an architecture MULTI-FLGAN to solve the problem of low-quality images, mode collapse, and instability for non-IID datasets. Our results show that MULTI-FLGAN is four times as stable and performant (i.e., high inception score) on average over 20 clients compared to baseline FLGAN.

Keywords: federated learning, generative adversarial network, inference attack, non-IID data distribution

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4348 Diffusion Adaptation Strategies for Distributed Estimation Based on the Family of Affine Projection Algorithms

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Mohammad Ranjbar, Reza Ebrahimpour


This work presents the distributed processing solution problem in a diffusion network based on the adapt then combine (ATC) and combine then adapt (CTA)selective partial update normalized least mean squares (SPU-NLMS) algorithms. Also, we extend this approach to dynamic selection affine projection algorithm (DS-APA) and ATC-DS-APA and CTA-DS-APA are established. The purpose of ATC-SPU-NLMS and CTA-SPU-NLMS algorithm is to reduce the computational complexity by updating the selected blocks of weight coefficients at every iteration. In CTA-DS-APA and ATC-DS-APA, the number of the input vectors is selected dynamically. Diffusion cooperation strategies have been shown to provide good performance based on these algorithms. The good performance of introduced algorithm is illustrated with various experimental results.

Keywords: selective partial update, affine projection, dynamic selection, diffusion, adaptive distributed networks

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4347 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Engy A. Mohamed, Y. G. Hegazy


This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: comulative distribution function, distributed generation, Monte Carlo

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4346 An Experimental Testbed Using Virtual Containers for Distributed Systems

Authors: Parth Patel, Ying Zhu


Distributed systems have become ubiquitous, and they continue their growth through a range of services. With advances in resource virtualization technology such as Virtual Machines (VM) and software containers, developers no longer require high-end servers to test and develop distributed software. Even in commercial production, virtualization has streamlined the process of rapid deployment and service management. This paper introduces a distributed systems testbed that utilizes virtualization to enable distributed systems development on commodity computers. The testbed can be used to develop new services, implement theoretical distributed systems concepts for understanding, and experiment with virtual network topologies. We show its versatility through two case studies that utilize the testbed for implementing a theoretical algorithm and developing our own methodology to find high-risk edges. The results of using the testbed for these use cases have proven the effectiveness and versatility of this testbed across a range of scenarios.

Keywords: distributed systems, experimental testbed, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology

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4345 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad


File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol, DHT

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4344 Advanced Simulation and Enhancement for Distributed and Energy Efficient Scheduling for IEEE802.11s Wireless Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Networks

Authors: Fisayo G. Ojo, Shamala K. Subramaniam, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain


As technology is advancing and wireless applications are becoming dependable sources, while the physical layer of the applications are been embedded into tiny layer, so the more the problem on energy efficiency and consumption. This paper reviews works done in recent years in wireless applications and distributed computing, we discovered that applications are becoming dependable, and resource allocation sharing with other applications in distributed computing. Applications embedded in distributed system are suffering from power stability and efficiency. In the reviews, we also prove that discrete event simulation has been left behind untouched and not been adapted into distributed system as a simulation technique in scheduling of each event that took place in the development of distributed computing applications. We shed more lights on some researcher proposed techniques and results in our reviews to prove the unsatisfactory results, and to show that more work still have to be done on issues of energy efficiency in wireless applications, and congestion in distributed computing.

Keywords: discrete event simulation (DES), distributed computing, energy efficiency (EE), internet of things (IOT), quality of service (QOS), user equipment (UE), wireless mesh network (WMN), wireless sensor network (wsn), worldwide interoperability for microwave access x (WiMAX)

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4343 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li


The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

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4342 Condition Monitoring of Railway Earthworks using Distributed Rayleigh Sensing

Authors: Andrew Hall, Paul Clarkson


Climate change is predicted to increase the number of extreme weather events intensifying the strain on Railway Earthworks. This paper describes the use of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing to monitor low frequency activity on a vulnerable earthworks sectionprone to landslides alongside a railway line in Northern Spain. The vulnerable slope is instrumented with conventional slope stability sensors allowing an assessment to be conducted of the application of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing as an earthwork condition monitoring tool to enhance the resilience of railway networks.

Keywords: condition monitoring, railway earthworks, distributed rayleigh sensing, climate change

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4341 Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-based Industrial Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi


The use of wireless technology in industrial networks has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks (IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from the optimum performance due to the industrial application characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. An adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter respectively.

Keywords: average delay, contention window, distributed coordination function (DCF), jitter, industrial wireless network (IWN), maximum delay, reliability, retry limit

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4340 Mobility Management via Software Defined Networks (SDN) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Bilal Haider, Farhan Aadil


A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) provides various services to end-users traveling on the road at high speeds. However, this high-speed mobility of mobile nodes can cause frequent service disruptions. Various mobility management protocols exist for managing node mobility, but due to their centralized nature, they tend to suffer in the VANET environment. In this research, we proposed a distributed mobility management protocol using software-defined networks (SDN) for VANETs. Instead of relying on a centralized mobility anchor, the mobility functionality is distributed at multiple infrastructural nodes. The protocol is based on the classical Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (PMIPv6). It is evident from simulation results that this work has improved the network performance with respect to nodes throughput, delay, and packet loss.

Keywords: SDN, VANET, mobility management, optimization

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4339 Novel Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Based Approach for Short-Term Load Forecasting of Jordanian Power Grid

Authors: Eyad Almaita


In this paper, a novel adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) algorithm is used to forecast the hour by hour electrical load demand in Jordan. A small and effective RBFNN model is used to forecast the hourly total load demand based on a small number of features. These features are; the load in the previous day, the load in the same day in the previous week, the temperature in the same hour, the hour number, the day number, and the day type. The proposed adaptive RBFNN model can enhance the reliability of the conventional RBFNN after embedding the network in the system. This is achieved by introducing an adaptive algorithm that allows the change of the weights of the RBFNN after the training process is completed, which will eliminates the need to retrain the RBFNN model again. The data used in this paper is real data measured by National Electrical Power co. (Jordan). The data for the period Jan./2012-April/2013 is used train the RBFNN models and the data for the period May/2013- Sep. /2013 is used to validate the models effectiveness.

Keywords: load forecasting, adaptive neural network, radial basis function, short-term, electricity consumption

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4338 Identifying the Gap Between Adaptive Clothing Consumers and Brands

Authors: Lucky Farha, Martha L. Hall


The current adaptive clothing brands are limited to numbers and specific to categories. However, a few companies are focusing on consumers having Down syndrome, especially in children’s wear. This study explores clothing challenges for children with Down syndrome and factors that influence their perception of adaptive clothing brands. Another aim of this study was to explore brands challenges in the adaptive business and factors that influence their perceptions towards the adaptive market. In order to determine the market barriers affecting adaptive target market needs, researcher applied Technology Acceptance Model. After interviewing and surveying parents/caregivers having children with Down syndrome and current adaptive brands, the results found education as the significant gap in the adaptive clothing market yet to be overcome. Based on the finding, several recommendations were suggested to improve the current barriers in the adaptive clothing market.

Keywords: adaptive fashion, disability, functional clothing, clothing needs assessment, down syndrome, clothing challenge

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4337 End-to-End Control and Management of Multi-AS Virtual Service Networks Using SDN and Autonomic Computing Architecture

Authors: Yong Xue, Daniel A. Menascé


Automated and end-to-end network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks in a multiple autonomous systems (a.k.a multi-AS) environment is a challenging and open problem. This paper proposes a novel, scalable and interoperable high-level architecture that incorporates a number of emerging enabling technologies including Software Defined Network (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Autonomic Computing. The proposed architecture can be used to not only automate network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks across multiple autonomous substrate networks, but also provide an adaptive capability for achieving optimal network resource management and maintaining network-level end-to-end network performance as well. The paper argues that this SDN and autonomic computing based architecture lays a solid foundation that can facilitate the development of the future Internet based on the pluralistic paradigm.

Keywords: virtual network, software defined network, virtual service network, adaptive resource management, SOA, multi-AS, inter-domain

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4336 A Survey on Concurrency Control Methods in Distributed Database

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii


In the last years, remarkable improvements have been made in the ability of distributed database systems performance. A distributed database is composed of some sites which are connected to each other through network connections. In this system, if good harmonization is not made between different transactions, it may result in database incoherence. Nowadays, because of the complexity of many sites and their connection methods, it is difficult to extend different models in distributed database serially. The principle goal of concurrency control in distributed database is to ensure not interfering in accessibility of common database by different sites. Different concurrency control algorithms have been suggested to use in distributed database systems. In this paper, some available methods have been introduced and compared for concurrency control in distributed database.

Keywords: distributed database, two phase locking protocol, transaction, concurrency

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4335 Overview of Adaptive Spline interpolation

Authors: Rongli Gai, Zhiyuan Chang


At this stage, in view of various situations in the interpolation process, most researchers use self-adaptation to adjust the interpolation process, which is also one of the current and future research hotspots in the field of CNC machining. In the interpolation process, according to the overview of the spline curve interpolation algorithm, the adaptive analysis is carried out from the factors affecting the interpolation process. The adaptive operation is reflected in various aspects, such as speed, parameters, errors, nodes, feed rates, random Period, sensitive point, step size, curvature, adaptive segmentation, adaptive optimization, etc. This paper will analyze and summarize the research of adaptive imputation in the direction of the above factors affecting imputation.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, CNC machining, interpolation constraints, spline curve interpolation

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4334 Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Sani M. Lawal, Idris Musa, Aliyu D. Usman


The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.

Keywords: distributed generation, pareto, particle swarm optimization, power loss, voltage deviation

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4333 The Effective Use of the Network in the Distributed Storage

Authors: Mamouni Mohammed Dhiya Eddine


This work aims at studying the exploitation of high-speed networks of clusters for distributed storage. Parallel applications running on clusters require both high-performance communications between nodes and efficient access to the storage system. Many studies on network technologies led to the design of dedicated architectures for clusters with very fast communications between computing nodes. Efficient distributed storage in clusters has been essentially developed by adding parallelization mechanisms so that the server(s) may sustain an increased workload. In this work, we propose to improve the performance of distributed storage systems in clusters by efficiently using the underlying high-performance network to access distant storage systems. The main question we are addressing is: do high-speed networks of clusters fit the requirements of a transparent, efficient and high-performance access to remote storage? We show that storage requirements are very different from those of parallel computation. High-speed networks of clusters were designed to optimize communications between different nodes of a parallel application. We study their utilization in a very different context, storage in clusters, where client-server models are generally used to access remote storage (for instance NFS, PVFS or LUSTRE). Our experimental study based on the usage of the GM programming interface of MYRINET high-speed networks for distributed storage raised several interesting problems. Firstly, the specific memory utilization in the storage access system layers does not easily fit the traditional memory model of high-speed networks. Secondly, client-server models that are used for distributed storage have specific requirements on message control and event processing, which are not handled by existing interfaces. We propose different solutions to solve communication control problems at the filesystem level. We show that a modification of the network programming interface is required. Data transfer issues need an adaptation of the operating system. We detail several propositions for network programming interfaces which make their utilization easier in the context of distributed storage. The integration of a flexible processing of data transfer in the new programming interface MYRINET/MX is finally presented. Performance evaluations show that its usage in the context of both storage and other types of applications is easy and efficient.

Keywords: distributed storage, remote file access, cluster, high-speed network, MYRINET, zero-copy, memory registration, communication control, event notification, application programming interface

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4332 Utilization of Secure Wireless Networks as Environment for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammed A. M. Ibrahim


This paper investigate the utilization of wire and wireless networks to be platform for distributed educational monitoring system. Universities in developing countries suffer from a lot of shortages(staff, equipment, and finical budget) and optimal utilization of the wire and wireless network, so universities can mitigate some of the mentioned problems and avoid the problems that maybe humble the education processes in many universities by using our implementation of the examinations system as a test-bed to utilize the network as a solution to the shortages for academic staff in Taiz University. This paper selects a two areas first one quizzes activities is only a test bed application for wireless network learning environment system to be distributed among students. Second area is the features and the security of wireless, our tested application implemented in a promising area which is the use of WLAN in higher education for leering environment.

Keywords: networking wire and wireless technology, wireless network security, distributed computing, algorithm, encryption and decryption

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