Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1558

Search results for: Young Hoon Lee

1558 Structural Analysis and Detail Design of APV Module Structure Using Topology Optimization Design

Authors: Hyun Kyu Cho, Sang Hoon Kang, Young Hoon Lee, Young Chul Park, Jun Soo Kim

Abstract:

In the study, structure for one of offshore drilling system APV(Air Pressure Vessle) modules was designed by using topology optimum design and performed structural safety evaluation according to DNV rules. 3D model created base on design area and non-design area separated by using topology optimization for the environmental loads. This model separated 17 types for wind loads and dynamic loads and performed structural analysis evaluation for each model. As a result, the maximum stress occurred 181.25MPa.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, stress, APV, topology optimum design, DNV

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1557 Research for Hollow Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers in Korea

Authors: Ho Young Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Do Kyu Hwang, Im Jong Kwahk, Tae Hoon Kim, Seung Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Hollow section for bridge columns has some advantages. However, current seismic design codes do not provide design regulations for hollow bridge piers. There have been many experimental studied for hollow reinforced concrete piers in the world. But, Study for hollow section for bridge piers in Korea has been begun with approximately 2000s. There has been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of flexural controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Sung kyunkwan University, Korea Expressway Corporation in 2009. This study concluded that flexural controlled sections for hollow piers showed the similar behavior to solid sections. And there have been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of compression controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Korea Institute of Construction Technology in 2012. This study concluded that compression controlled sections for hollow piers showed compression fracture of concrete in inside wall face. Samsung C&T Engineering & Construction Group has been conducted study with Yeungnam University for reduce the quantity of reinforcement details about hollow piers. Reduce the quantity of reinforcement details are triangular cross tie. This study concluded that triangular reinforcement details showed the similar behavior as compared with existing reinforcement details.

Keywords: hollow pier, flexural controlled section, compression controlled section, reduce the quantity of reinforcement, details

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1556 Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Panel Based on Mori-Tanaka Scheme

Authors: Ji-Hwan Kim, Seok-In Bae, Young-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Due to the asymmetry of the material properties of the Functionally Graded Materials(FGMs) in the thickness direction, neutral surface of the model is not the same as the mid-plane of the symmetric structure. In order to investigate the thermal bucking behavior of FGMs, neutral surface is chosen as a reference plane. In the model, material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and varied continuously in the thickness direction of the plate. Further, the effective material properties such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are homogenized using Mori-Tanaka scheme which considers the interaction among adjacent inclusions. In this work, the finite element methods are used, and the first-order shear deformation theory of plate are accounted. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear and non-linear distribution through the thickness directions, respectively. Also, the effects of various parameters for thermal buckling behavior of FGM panel are discussed in detail.

Keywords: functionally graded plate, thermal buckling analysis, neutral surface

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1555 Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Echo Suppression for Barge-in Speech Recognition

Authors: Seung Ho Choi, Jong Han Joo, Young Sun Kim, Jae Young Kang, Jung Hoon Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a novel technique for acoustic echo suppression (AES) during speech recognition under barge-in conditions. Conventional AES methods based on spectral subtraction apply fixed weights to the estimated echo path transfer function (EPTF) at the current signal segment and to the EPTF estimated until the previous time interval. We propose a new approach that adaptively updates weight parameters in response to abrupt changes in the acoustic environment due to background noises or double-talk. Furthermore, we devised a voice activity detector and an initial time-delay estimator for barge-in speech recognition in communication networks. The initial time delay is estimated using log-spectral distance measure, as well as cross-correlation coefficients. The experimental results show that the developed techniques can be successfully applied in barge-in speech recognition systems.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, acoustic echo suppression, barge-in, echo path transfer function, initial delay estimator, voice activity detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1554 Improved Structure and Performance by Shape Change of Foam Monitor

Authors: Hyun Kyu Cho, Young Hoon Lee, Young Chul Park, Tae Gwan Kim

Abstract:

Foam monitors are devices that are installed on cargo tank decks to suppress cargo area fires in oil tankers or hazardous chemical ship cargo ships. In general, the main design parameter of the foam monitor is the distance of the projection through the foam monitor. In this study, the relationship between flow characteristics and projection distance, depending on the shape was examined. Numerical techniques for fluid analysis of foam monitors have been developed for prediction. The flow pattern of the fluid varies depending on the shape of the flow path of the foam monitor, as the flow losses affecting projection distance were calculated through numerical analysis. The basic shape of the foam monitor was an L shape designed by N Company. The modified model increased the length of the flow path and used the S shape model. The calculation result shows that the L shape, which is the basic shape, has a problem that the force is directed to one side and the vibration and noise are generated there. In order to solve the problem, S-shaped model, which is a change model, was used. As a result, the problem is solved, and the projection distance from the nozzle is improved.

Keywords: CFD, moment, foam monitor, Projection distance

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1553 Biomimetic Adhesive Pads for Precision Manufacturing Robots

Authors: Hoon Yi, Minho Sung, Hangil Ko, Moon Kyu Kwak, Hoon Eui Jeong

Abstract:

Inspired by the remarkable adhesion properties of gecko lizards, bio-inspired dry adhesives with smart adhesion properties have been developed in the last decade. Compared to earlier dry adhesives, the recently developed ones exhibit excellent adhesion strength, smart directional adhesion, and structural robustness. With these unique adhesion properties, bio-inspired dry adhesive pads have strong potential for use in precision industries such as semiconductor or display manufacturing. In this communication, we present a new manufacturing technology based on advanced dry adhesive systems that enable precise manipulation of large-area substrates over repeating cycles without any requirement for external force application. This new manufacturing technique is also highly accurate and environment-friendly, and thus has strong potential as a next-generation clean manufacturing technology.

Keywords: Precision Manufacturing, gecko, manufacturing robot

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1552 Influences of Victimization Experiences on Delinquency: Comparison between Young Offenders and Non-Offenders

Authors: Yoshihiro Horio

Abstract:

Many young offenders grow up in difficult environments. It has often been suggested that many young offenders are victims of abuse. However, there were restricted to abuse or family’s problem. Little research has examined data on ‘multiple victimization’ experiences of young offenders. Thus, this study investigated the victimization experiences of young offenders, including child abuse at home, bullying at school, and crime in the community. Specifically, the number of victimization experiences of young offenders was compared with those of non-delinquents at home, school, and in the community. It was found that young offenders experienced significantly more victimization than non-delinquents. Additionally, the influence of childhood victimization on later misconduct and/or delinquency was examined, then it was founded that victimization experiences to be a risk factor for subsequent delinquency. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that young offenders who had a strong emotional reaction to their experience of abuse began their misconduct at an earlier age. If juveniles start their misconduct early, the degree of delinquency will increase. The anger of young offenders was stronger than that of non-delinquents. A strong emotion of anger may be related to juvenile delinquency.

Keywords: Delinquency, Bullying, victimization, abuse, young offenders

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1551 Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Kyung-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Song, Ki-Won Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation (FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation systems for various languages are needed as so many international conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable FM transmission system.

Keywords: FM transmission, simultaneous translation system, portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded control SW

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1550 Comparison of Phenolic and Urushiol Contents of Different Parts of Rhus verniciflua and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Jae Young Jang, Jong Hoon Ahn, Jae-Woong Lim, So Young Kang, Mi Kyeong Lee

Abstract:

Rhus verniciflua is commonly known as a lacquer tree in Korea. Stem barks of R. verniciflua have been used as an immunostimulator in traditional medicine. It contains phenolic compounds and is known for diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, it also causes allergic dermatitis due to urushiols derivatives. For the development of active natural resources with less toxicity, the content of phenolic compounds and urushiols of different parts of R. verniciflua such as stem barks, lignum and leaves were quantitated by colorimetric assay and HPLC analysis. The urushiols content were the highest in stem barks, and followed by leaves. The lignum contained trace amount of urushiols. The phenolic contents, however, were the most abundant in lignum, and followed by leaves and stem barks. These results clear showed that the content of urushiols and phenolic differs depending on the parts of R. verniciflua. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of R. verniciflua against fish pathogenic bacteria was also investigated using Edwardsiella tarda. Lignum of R. verniciflua was the most effective in antimicrobial activity against E. tarda and phenolic constituents are suggested to be active constituents for activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of R. verniciflua. The lignum of R. verniciflua contains high content of phenolic compounds with less urushiols, which suggests efficient antimicrobial activity with less toxicity. Therefore, lignum of R. verniciflua are suggested as good sources for antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial diseases.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, different parts, Rhus verniciflua, urushiols

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1549 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Laser Cladding in Various Tilting Pad Bearing Materials

Authors: Jin-Young Park, Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Jin-Ho Lim, Joo-Young Oh, Jae-Il Jeong Seock-Sam Kim, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim

Abstract:

The tilting pad bearing is a kind of the fluid film bearing and it can contribute to the high speed and the high load performance compared to other bearings including the rolling element bearing. Furthermore, the tilting bearing has many advantages such as high stability at high-speed performance, long life, high damping, high impact resistance and low noise. Therefore, it mostly used in mid to large size turbomachines, despite the high price disadvantage. Recently, manufacture and process employing laser techniques advancing at a fast-growing rate in mechanical industry, the dissimilar metal weld process employing laser techniques is actively studied. Moreover, also, Industry fields try to apply for welding the white metal and the back metal using laser cladding method for high durability. Furthermore, it has followed that laser cladding method has a lot better bond strength, toughness, anti-abrasion and environment-friendly than centrifugal casting method through preceding research. Therefore, the laser cladding method has a lot better quality, cost reduction, eco-friendliness and permanence of technology than the centrifugal casting method or the gravity casting method. In this study, we compare the mechanical properties of different bearing materials by evaluating the behavior of laser cladding layer with various materials (i.e. SS400, SCM440, S20C) under the same parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the porosity of various tilting pad bearing materials which white metal treated on samples. SEM, EDS analysis and hardness tests of three materials are shown to understand the mechanical properties and tribological behavior. W/D ratio, surface roughness results with various materials are performed in this study.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Laser Cladding, tilting pad bearing, white metal

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1548 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell

Abstract:

The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: quasi-static test, shape factor, bonded rubber, apparent Young’s modulus

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1547 A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA

Authors: Junghwa An, Sungkyoung Choi, Eun Ye, San Hoon Han, Young-Gun Choi, Chul Oun Jung

Abstract:

The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.

Keywords: Population Genetics, microsatellite, South Korea, copper-winged bat

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1546 Comparison of Tribological and Mechanical Properties of White Metal Produced by Laser Cladding and Conventional Methods

Authors: Jin-Young Park, Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Joo-Young Oh, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim, Jae-Il Jeong, Yang-Gon Kim, Seock-Sam Kim

Abstract:

Bearing component has strongly required to decrease vibration and wear to achieve high durability and life time. In the industry field, bearing durability is improved by surface treatment on the bearing surface by centrifugal casting or gravity casting production method. However, this manufacturing method has caused problems such as long processing time, defect rate, and health harmful effect. To solve this problem, there is a laser cladding deposition treatment, which provides fast processing and food adhesion. Therefore, optimum conditions of white metal laser deposition should be studied to minimize bearing contact axis wear using laser cladding techniques. In this study, we deposit a soft white metal layer on SCM440, which is mainly used for shaft and bolt. On laser deposition process, the laser power and powder feed rate and laser head speed factors are controlled to find out the optimal conditions. We also measure hardness using micro Vickers, analyze FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) to study the mechanical properties and surface characteristics with various parameters change. Furthermore, this paper suggests the optimum condition of laser cladding deposition to apply in industrial fields. This work was supported by the Industrial Innovation Project of the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (Research no. 10051653).

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, bearing, white metal, laser deposition

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1545 Evaluation of Hepatic Metabolite Changes for Differentiation Between Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Simple Hepatic Steatosis Using Long Echo-Time Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Tae-Hoon Kim, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Hong Young Jun, Ki-Jong Kim, Young Hwan Lee, Myeung Su Lee, Keum Ha Choi, Ki Jung Yun, Eun Young Cho, Yong-Yeon Jeong, Chung-Hwan Jun

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the changes of hepatic metabolite for differentiation between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and simple steatosis on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in both humans and animal model. Methods: The local institutional review board approved this study and subjects gave written informed consent. 1H-MRS measurements were performed on a localized voxel of the liver using a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence and hepatic metabolites of alanine (Ala), lactate/triglyceride (Lac/TG), and TG were analyzed in NASH, simple steatosis and control groups. The group difference was tested with the ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests, and diagnostic accuracy was tested by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The associations between metabolic concentration and pathologic grades or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) activity scores were assessed by the Pearson’s correlation. Results: Patient with NASH showed the elevated Ala(p<0.001), Lac/TG(p < 0.001), TG(p < 0.05) concentration when compared with patients who had simple steatosis and healthy controls. The NASH patients were higher levels in Ala(mean±SEM, 52.5±8.3 vs 2.0±0.9; p < 0.001), Lac/TG(824.0±168.2 vs 394.1±89.8; p < 0.05) than simple steatosis. The area under the ROC curve to distinguish NASH from simple steatosis was 1.00 (95% confidence interval; 1.00, 1.00) with Ala and 0.782 (95% confidence interval; 0.61, 0.96) with Lac/TG. The Ala and Lac/TG levels were well correlated with steatosis grade, lobular inflammation, and NAFLD activity scores. The metabolic changes in human were reproducible to a mice model induced by streptozotocin injection and a high-fat diet. Conclusion: 1H-MRS would be useful for differentiation of patients with NASH and simple hepatic steatosis.

Keywords: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic metabolites

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1544 A Comparative Research on the Development Level of Left-Behind and Non-Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas of Henan Province

Authors: Yuying Zhu

Abstract:

Left-behind children in rural areas are vulnerable groups with the course of our country’s urbanization. Left-behind young children in rural area separate from their parents in their early childhood, vicegerent guardian’s care are less sensitive and careful than children’s parents; they give less concern to children’s verbal development, this makes the verbal problem of the left-behind children to be ubiquitous problem. This study chooses four kindergartens from the east the middle and the west of the Henan Province, explore the verbal development differences between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children through the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and self-made questionnaires. The study shows that there is no significant difference between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children in the verbal development, though the marks in primary class and middle class the non-left-behind young rural children is higher, but, the top class in the kindergarten is not. What’s more, the emergent reading and the economy have significant influence on young children’s verbal ability.

Keywords: left-behind children, non-left-behind children, regional difference, verbal development

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1543 The Correlation between of Medicine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Dian Ariyawati, Romi Sukoco, Sinung Agung Joko

Abstract:

Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance caused by autonomic dysfunction. POTS predominantly occurs in young women. Regular exercise has proven to improve the organ system functions, including autonomous systems. The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Method: 510 young women (16-23 years of age) were screened. They were obtained by interview and physical examination. The diagnosis of POTS was performed with Active Stand Test (AST) and heart rate measurement using a pulsemeter. There were 29 young women who suffered from POTS. The exercise frequency was obtained by interview. Data was statistically analyzed using Spearman Correlation test. Result: The subjects’, who tested positive for POTS didn’t perform regular exercise. The Spearman correlation test showed there was a moderate negative correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women (r = -0.487, p < 0.00). Conclusion: There is a moderate reverse correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Further studies are suggested to develop an exercise program for young who suffered from POTS.

Keywords: POTS, autonomic dysfunction, exercise frequency, young woman

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1542 Rheological Properties of Cellulose/TBAF/DMSO Solutions and Their Application to Fabrication of Cellulose Hydrogel

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Chul Soo Shin, Jae Eun Nam, Young Hoon Roh

Abstract:

The development of hydrogels with a high mechanical strength is important for numerous applications of hydrogels. As a material for tough hydrogels, cellulose has attracted much interest. However, cellulose cannot be melted and is very difficult to be dissolved in most solvents. Therefore, its dissolution in tetrabutylammonium fluoride/dimethyl sulfoxide (TBAF/DMSO) solvents has attracted researchers for chemical processing of cellulose. For this reason, studies about rheological properties of cellulose/TBAF/DMSO solution will provide useful information. In this study, viscosities of cellulose solutions prepared using different amounts of cellulose and TBAF in DMSO were measured. As expected, the viscosity of cellulose solution decreased with respect to the increasing volume of DMSO. The most viscose cellulose solution was achieved at a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF regardless of their contents in DMSO. At a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF, the formation of cellulose nanoparticles (467 nm) resulted in a dramatic increase in the viscosity, which led to the fabrication of 3D cellulose hydrogels.

Keywords: viscosity, Hydrogel, Cellulose, TBAF/DMSO

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1541 A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver’s Behavior towards Road Safety

Authors: Sadia Afroza, Rakiba Rouf

Abstract:

Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers in UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young driver’s at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies such as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.

Keywords: Road Safety, young drivers, driving behavior, Graduated Driver Licensing System (GLDS), UAE drivers

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1540 An Overview of the Risk for HIV/AIDS among Young Women in South Africa: Gender Based Violence

Authors: Shaneil Taylor

Abstract:

Gender-based violence is a reflection of the inequalities that are associated within a society between the men and women that affects the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims. There are various determinants that contribute to the health risk of young women who have experienced sexual violence, in countries that have a high prevalence rate for HIV. For instance, in South Africa, where the highest prevalence rate for HIV is among young women, their susceptibility to the virus has been increased by sexual violence and cultural inequalities. Therefore, this study is a review of literature that explores how gender-based violence increases the possibility for HIV/AIDS among young women in South Africa.

Keywords: gender-based violence, HIV/AIDS transmission, risky sexual behavior, young women

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1539 Assessing the Seismic Performance of Threaded Rebar Coupler System

Authors: Ho-Young Kim, Do-Kyu Hwang, Ho-Hyeoung Choi, Gi-Beom Park, Jae-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Currently there are many use of threaded reinforcing bars in construction fields because those do not need additional screw processing when connecting reinforcing bar by threaded coupler. In this study, reinforced concrete bridge piers using threaded rebar coupler system at the plastic hinge area were tested to evaluate seismic performance. The test results showed that threads of the threaded rebar coupler system could be loosened while under tension-compression cyclic loading because tolerance and rib face angle of a threaded rebar coupler system are greater than that of a conventional ribbed rebar coupler system. As a result, cracks were concentrated just outside of the mechanical coupler and stiffness of reinforced concrete bridge pier decreased. Therefore, it is recommended that connection ratio of mechanical couplers in one section shall be below 50% in order that cracks are not concentrated just outside of the mechanical coupler. Also, reduced stiffness of the specimen should be considered when using the threaded rebar coupler system.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, reinforced concrete column, threaded rebar coupler, threaded reinforcing bar

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1538 Active Surface Tracking Algorithm for All-Fiber Common-Path Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Bang Young Kim, Sang Hoon Park, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

A conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has limited imaging depth, which is 1-2 mm, and suffers unwanted noise such as speckle noise. The motorized-stage-based OCT system, using a common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (CP-FD-OCT) configuration, provides enhanced imaging depth and less noise so that we can overcome these limitations. Using this OCT systems, OCT images were obtained from an onion, and their subsurface structure was observed. As a result, the images obtained using the developed motorized-stage-based system showed enhanced imaging depth than the conventional system, since it is real-time accurate depth tracking. Consequently, the developed CP-FD-OCT systems and algorithms have good potential for the further development of endoscopic OCT for microsurgery.

Keywords: common-path OCT, FD-OCT, OCT, tracking algorithm

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1537 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

Abstract:

In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Leadership, Gender Inequality, glass ceiling, stereotypes

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1536 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Young Hoon Roh, Keonwook Nam

Abstract:

Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: Fermentation, Bioethanol, wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone

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1535 Nanoenergetic Materials as Effective Heat Energy Sources for Enhanced Gas Generators

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Soo Hyung Kim, Sang Beom Kim, Kyung Ju Kim, Myung Hoon Cho

Abstract:

In this study, we systematically investigated the effect of nanoscale energetic materials in formulations of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs; heat source)/copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs; oxidizer) on the combustion and gas-generating properties of sodium azide microparticles (NaN3 MPs; gas-generating agent) for potential applications in gas generators. The burn rate of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.3 m/s. However, the addition of Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP matrix caused the rates to reach ~5.3 m/s, respectively. In addition, the N2 gas volume flow rate generated by the ignition of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.6 L/s, which was significantly increased to ~3.9 L/s by adding Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder. This suggested that the highly reactive NPs, with the assistance of CuO NPs, were effective heat-generating sources enabling the complete thermal decomposition of NaN3 MPs upon ignition. Al NPs were highly effective in the gas generators because of the increased reactivity induced by the reduced particle size. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that a homemade airbag with a specific volume of ~140 mL could be rapidly and fully inflated by the thermal activation of nanoscale energetic material-added gas-generating agents (i.e., NaN3 MP/Al NP/CuO NP composites) within the standard time of ~50 ms for airbag inflation.

Keywords: gas generators, nanoenergetic materials, aluminum nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles

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1534 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

Abstract:

Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: Spatial Problem Solving, young children, adaptive difficulty, tactile tablet

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1533 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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1532 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

Abstract:

The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: ideal self, young adult, false self, middle adult, real self, self presentation

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1531 EPD as Technical Competencies Acceleration Program in Developing New Talent at HR Directorate, Pertamina Ltd.

Authors: A. A. A. Indira Pratyaksa, Achmad Zaki

Abstract:

In every organization, there would be a demographic of young employees. They see themselves are the future leaders of the company. A special program needs to be prepared for them as a form of retention programs. Early Professional Program (EPD) must address challenges in the future. Aspects of the development of competence of young employees also become one of the answers in accelerating existing business processes. The role of the supervisor is the key success of EPD. Pertamina, thus, is better prepared to realize the vision and mission.

Keywords: Development, Coaching, Competencies, young employee, leader

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1530 Factors Influencing the Uptake of Family Planning Services among Young People (18-24 Years) at Community Level in Rural Budaka District, Uganda

Authors: Mathew Nyashanu, George K Kiggundu, Mandu S Ekpenyong

Abstract:

There is an increased number of young people engaging in early sexual relationships worldwide. Furthermore, statistics for early pregnancy among young people have also increased, especially in low and middle-income countries. This has health implications for both the parents and the baby. High uptake in family planning contraception among young people can reduce early pregnancy and subsequent negative health outcomes on the young parents and the baby. This study was set to explore the factors influencing the uptake of family planning contraceptive services among young people (18-24 years) at a community level in rural Budaka district, Uganda. The study utilised an explorative qualitative approach. The study found out that religion, partner resistance; perceived loss of libido, perceived barren, long waiting time and distance from the health facility, lack of privacy/confidentiality, excessive menstrual bleeding, cancer, and fear of having disabled babies, limited the utilisation of family planning contraceptive services while contraception as HIV prevention and child spacing encouraged young people to use family planning contraceptive services. There is a need for a culturally orientated community-based contraceptive health promotion approach to increase the uptake of family planning contraception services among young people.

Keywords: Family planning, contraceptives, Young People, Black sub-Sahara African

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1529 A Study of Language Choice and Use among Young Thai in Malaysia

Authors: Din Eak Arathai

Abstract:

The purpose of this research report is to investigate the language choice and use among the young generation of Malaysian Thais community. Besides that, it aims to investigate if there is a difference in language choice across the different domains. It will also examine if there has been a language shift from Thai to other languages by the young generation of Thai community in Malaysia. First the study focuses on the proficiency of Thai and other languages used by hundred (100) respondents belonging to young generation of Malaysian Thais aged range from 18-35. Next, language use and choice will be presented with a focus on the domains of family, friendship, entertainment and social. Finally, based on the findings and data collected, we will be able to see if language shift from Thai to other languages has occurred among the young Thai generation in Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was a 30-item questionnaire and the findings of the data analysis were presented in the form of frequency counts and percentages. The findings found that Thai language remains the most preferred language of choice among young Malaysian Thais but usage of other languages, such as Malay, English and Mandarin has increased and begun to influence the language choice of young Malaysian Thais and their proficiency of their mother tongue.In all the domains studied, Thai is almost exclusively the preferred language used when communicating with family. Malay is the most preferred language in communicating with friends while English is the most preferred language when communicating with colleagues. With regards to social and entertainment activities, young Malaysian Thais show great affinity for entertainment in the Thai language. In conclusion, the result of the study showed the beginning of young Malaysian Thais shifting to other languages, especially English and Malay through their daily choices when communicating with friends and family and especially through their language preferences in entertainment.

Keywords: Language shift, language maintenance, language choice, language use, young Malaysian Thais, code switching, code mixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 339