Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6390

Search results for: image comparison

6390 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha


One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
6389 Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression Based on the Radon Transform and Linear Predictive Coding: Comparison and Performance

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


Image compression is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. The Meteosat Second Generation satellite (MSG) allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes. Which results a large databases sizes. The transform selected in the images compression should contribute to reduce the data representing the images. The Radon transform retrieves the Radon points that represent the sum of the pixels in a given angle for each direction. Linear predictive coding (LPC) with filtering provides a good decorrelation of Radon points using a Predictor constitute by the Symmetric Nearest Neighbor filter (SNN) coefficients, which result losses during decompression. Finally, Run Length Coding (RLC) gives us a high and fixed compression ratio regardless of the input image. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the Radon transform and linear predictive coding (LPC) for MSG images is proposed. MSG image compression based on the Radon transform and the LPC provides a good compromise between compression and quality of reconstruction. A comparison of our method with other whose two based on DCT and one on DWT bi-orthogonal filtering is evaluated to show the power of the Radon transform in its resistibility against the quantization noise and to evaluate the performance of our method. Evaluation criteria like PSNR and the compression ratio allows showing the efficiency of our method of compression.

Keywords: image compression, radon transform, linear predictive coding (LPC), run lengthcoding (RLC), meteosat second generation (MSG)

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
6388 Perceived and Projected Images of Algeria: A Comparison Study

Authors: Nour-Elhouda Lecheheb


Destination image is one of the main factors that influence potential visitors' decision choice. This study aims to explore the pre-visit perception of prior British tourists and compare them to the actual projected images of the Algerian tourism suppliers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with both prior British tourists to Algeria and the Algerian tourism suppliers in 2019. The findings of this study suggest how the Algerian tourism suppliers might benefit from understanding the perceived image of prior tourists to match tourists' expectations and better plan their projected images.

Keywords: Algeria, destination choice, destination image, perceived image, projected image

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6387 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6386 Contrast Enhancement in Digital Images Using an Adaptive Unsharp Masking Method

Authors: Z. Mortezaie, H. Hassanpour, S. Asadi Amiri


Captured images may suffer from Gaussian blur due to poor lens focus or camera motion. Unsharp masking is a simple and effective technique to boost the image contrast and to improve digital images suffering from Gaussian blur. The technique is based on sharpening object edges by appending the scaled high-frequency components of the image to the original. The quality of the enhanced image is highly dependent on the characteristics of both the high-frequency components and the scaling/gain factor. Since the quality of an image may not be the same throughout, we propose an adaptive unsharp masking method in this paper. In this method, the gain factor is computed, considering the gradient variations, for individual pixels of the image. Subjective and objective image quality assessments are used to compare the performance of the proposed method both with the classic and the recently developed unsharp masking methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a better performance in comparison to the other existing methods.

Keywords: unsharp masking, blur image, sub-region gradient, image enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
6385 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou


Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
6384 Assessment of Planet Image for Land Cover Mapping Using Soft and Hard Classifiers

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi


Planet image is a new data source from planet lab. This research is concerned with the assessment of Planet image for land cover mapping. Two pixel based classifiers and one subpixel based classifier were compared. Firstly, rectification of Planet image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between minimum distance, maximum likelihood and neural network classifications for classification of Planet image was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa coefficient were calculated. Results indicate that neural network classification is best followed by maximum likelihood classifier then minimum distance classification for land cover mapping.

Keywords: planet image, land cover mapping, rectification, neural network classification, multilayer perceptron, soft classifiers, hard classifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
6383 A Comparative Study of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) for Airflow Measurement

Authors: Sijie Fu, Pascal-Henry Biwolé, Christian Mathis


Among modern airflow measurement methods, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), as visualized and non-instructive measurement techniques, are playing more important role. This paper conducts a comparative experimental study for airflow measurement employing both techniques with the same condition. Velocity vector fields, velocity contour fields, voticity profiles and turbulence profiles are selected as the comparison indexes. The results show that the performance of both PIV and PTV techniques for airflow measurement is satisfied, but some differences between the both techniques are existed, it suggests that selecting the measurement technique should be based on a comprehensive consideration.

Keywords: airflow measurement, comparison, PIV, PTV

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
6382 Clothes Identification Using Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Badal Shrestha, Suni Thapa, Ashutosh Chauhan, Saugat Adhikari


To tackle our problem of clothes identification, we used different architectures of Convolutional Neural Networks. Among different architectures, the outcome from Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2 seemed promising. On comparison of the metrices, we observed that the Inception ResNet V2 slightly outperforms MobileNet V2 for this purpose. So this paper of ours proposes the cloth identifier using Inception ResNet V2 and also contains the comparison between the outcome of ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2. The document here contains the results and findings of the research that we performed on the DeepFashion Dataset. To improve the dataset, we used different image preprocessing techniques like image shearing, image rotation, and denoising. The whole experiment was conducted with the intention of testing the efficiency of convolutional neural networks on cloth identification so that we could develop a reliable system that is good enough in identifying the clothes worn by the users. The whole system can be integrated with some kind of recommendation system.

Keywords: inception ResNet, convolutional neural net, deep learning, confusion matrix, data augmentation, data preprocessing

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
6381 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: image enhancement, motion analysis, motion detection, motion estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6380 Image Retrieval Based on Multi-Feature Fusion for Heterogeneous Image Databases

Authors: N. W. U. D. Chathurani, Shlomo Geva, Vinod Chandran, Proboda Rajapaksha


Selecting an appropriate image representation is the most important factor in implementing an effective Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system. This paper presents a multi-feature fusion approach for efficient CBIR, based on the distance distribution of features and relative feature weights at the time of query processing. It is a simple yet effective approach, which is free from the effect of features' dimensions, ranges, internal feature normalization and the distance measure. This approach can easily be adopted in any feature combination to improve retrieval quality. The proposed approach is empirically evaluated using two benchmark datasets for image classification (a subset of the Corel dataset and Oliva and Torralba) and compared with existing approaches. The performance of the proposed approach is confirmed with the significantly improved performance in comparison with the independently evaluated baseline of the previously proposed feature fusion approaches.

Keywords: feature fusion, image retrieval, membership function, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
6379 A Comparison of Image Data Representations for Local Stereo Matching

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem


The stereo matching problem, while having been present for several decades, continues to be an active area of research. The goal of this research is to find correspondences between elements found in a set of stereoscopic images. With these pairings, it is possible to infer the distance of objects within a scene, relative to the observer. Advancements in this field have led to experimentations with various techniques, from graph-cut energy minimization to artificial neural networks. At the basis of these techniques is a cost function, which is used to evaluate the likelihood of a particular match between points in each image. While at its core, the cost is based on comparing the image pixel data; there is a general lack of consistency as to what image data representation to use. This paper presents an experimental analysis to compare the effectiveness of more common image data representations. The goal is to determine the effectiveness of these data representations to reduce the cost for the correct correspondence relative to other possible matches.

Keywords: colour data, local stereo matching, stereo correspondence, disparity map

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6378 Deployment of Matrix Transpose in Digital Image Encryption

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E J. D.


Encryption is used to conceal information from prying eyes. Presently, information and data encryption are common due to the volume of data and information in transit across the globe on daily basis. Image encryption is yet to receive the attention of the researchers as deserved. In other words, video and multimedia documents are exposed to unauthorized accessors. The authors propose image encryption using matrix transpose. An algorithm that would allow image encryption is developed. In this proposed image encryption technique, the image to be encrypted is split into parts based on the image size. Each part is encrypted separately using matrix transpose. The actual encryption is on the picture elements (pixel) that make up the image. After encrypting each part of the image, the positions of the encrypted images are swapped before transmission of the image can take place. Swapping the positions of the images is carried out to make the encrypted image more robust for any cryptanalyst to decrypt.

Keywords: image encryption, matrices, pixel, matrix transpose

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
6377 Image Features Comparison-Based Position Estimation Method Using a Camera Sensor

Authors: Jinseon Song, Yongwan Park


In this paper, propose method that can user’s position that based on database is built from single camera. Previous positioning calculate distance by arrival-time of signal like GPS (Global Positioning System), RF(Radio Frequency). However, these previous method have weakness because these have large error range according to signal interference. Method for solution estimate position by camera sensor. But, signal camera is difficult to obtain relative position data and stereo camera is difficult to provide real-time position data because of a lot of image data, too. First of all, in this research we build image database at space that able to provide positioning service with single camera. Next, we judge similarity through image matching of database image and transmission image from user. Finally, we decide position of user through position of most similar database image. For verification of propose method, we experiment at real-environment like indoor and outdoor. Propose method is wide positioning range and this method can verify not only position of user but also direction.

Keywords: positioning, distance, camera, features, SURF(Speed-Up Robust Features), database, estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6376 Performance of Hybrid Image Fusion: Implementation of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform Technique

Authors: Manoj Gupta, Nirmendra Singh Bhadauria


Most of the applications in image processing require high spatial and high spectral resolution in a single image. For example satellite image system, the traffic monitoring system, and long range sensor fusion system all use image processing. However, most of the available equipment is not capable of providing this type of data. The sensor in the surveillance system can only cover the view of a small area for a particular focus, yet the demanding application of this system requires a view with a high coverage of the field. Image fusion provides the possibility of combining different sources of information. In this paper, we have decomposed the image using DTCWT and then fused using average and hybrid of (maxima and average) pixel level techniques and then compared quality of both the images using PSNR.

Keywords: image fusion, DWT, DT-CWT, PSNR, average image fusion, hybrid image fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
6375 On Dynamic Chaotic S-BOX Based Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm for Image Encryption

Authors: Ajish Sreedharan


Security in transmission and storage of digital images has its importance in today’s image communications and confidential video conferencing. Due to the increasing use of images in industrial process, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a well known block cipher that has several advantages in data encryption. However, it is not suitable for real-time applications. This paper presents modifications to the Advanced Encryption Standard to reflect a high level security and better image encryption. The modifications are done by adjusting the ShiftRow Transformation and using On Dynamic chaotic S-BOX. In AES the Substitute bytes, Shift row and Mix columns by themselves would provide no security because they do not use the key. In Dynamic chaotic S-BOX Based AES the Substitute bytes provide security because the S-Box is constructed from the key. Experimental results verify and prove that the proposed modification to image cryptosystem is highly secure from the cryptographic viewpoint. The results also prove that with a comparison to original AES encryption algorithm the modified algorithm gives better encryption results in terms of security against statistical attacks.

Keywords: advanced encryption standard (AES), on dynamic chaotic S-BOX, image encryption, security analysis, ShiftRow transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
6374 Ice Load Measurements on Known Structures Using Image Processing Methods

Authors: Azam Fazelpour, Saeed R. Dehghani, Vlastimil Masek, Yuri S. Muzychka


This study employs a method based on image analyses and structure information to detect accumulated ice on known structures. The icing of marine vessels and offshore structures causes significant reductions in their efficiency and creates unsafe working conditions. Image processing methods are used to measure ice loads automatically. Most image processing methods are developed based on captured image analyses. In this method, ice loads on structures are calculated by defining structure coordinates and processing captured images. A pyramidal structure is designed with nine cylindrical bars as the known structure of experimental setup. Unsymmetrical ice accumulated on the structure in a cold room represents the actual case of experiments. Camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are used to define structure coordinates in the image coordinate system according to the camera location and angle. The thresholding method is applied to capture images and detect iced structures in a binary image. The ice thickness of each element is calculated by combining the information from the binary image and the structure coordinate. Averaging ice diameters from different camera views obtains ice thicknesses of structure elements. Comparison between ice load measurements using this method and the actual ice loads shows positive correlations with an acceptable range of error. The method can be applied to complex structures defining structure and camera coordinates.

Keywords: camera calibration, ice detection, ice load measurements, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
6373 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
6372 A Novel Combination Method for Computing the Importance Map of Image

Authors: Ahmad Absetan, Mahdi Nooshyar


The importance map is an image-based measure and is a core part of the resizing algorithm. Importance measures include image gradients, saliency and entropy, as well as high level cues such as face detectors, motion detectors and more. In this work we proposed a new method to calculate the importance map, the importance map is generated automatically using a novel combination of image edge density and Harel saliency measurement. Experiments of different type images demonstrate that our method effectively detects prominent areas can be used in image resizing applications to aware important areas while preserving image quality.

Keywords: content-aware image resizing, visual saliency, edge density, image warping

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
6371 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg


In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
6370 Self-Image of Police Officers

Authors: Leo Carlo B. Rondina


Self-image is an important factor to improve the self-esteem of the personnel. The purpose of the study is to determine the self-image of the police. The respondents were the 503 policemen assigned in different Police Station in Davao City, and they were chosen with the used of random sampling. With the used of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), latent construct variables of police image were identified as follows; professionalism, obedience, morality and justice and fairness. Further, ordinal regression indicates statistical characteristics on ages 21-40 which means the age of the respondent statistically improves self-image.

Keywords: police image, exploratory factor analysis, ordinal regression, Galatea effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6369 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang


The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

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6368 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha


The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

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6367 An Image Stitching Approach for Scoliosis Analysis

Authors: Siti Salbiah Samsudin, Hamzah Arof, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris


Standard X-ray spine images produced by conventional screen-film technique have a limited field of view. This limitation may obstruct a complete inspection of the spine unless images of different parts of the spine are placed next to each other contiguously to form a complete structure. Another solution to producing a whole spine image is by assembling the digitized x-ray images of its parts automatically using image stitching. This paper presents a new Medical Image Stitching (MIS) method that utilizes Minimum Average Correlation Energy (MACE) filters to identify and merge pairs of x-ray medical images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in two sets of experiments involving two databases which contain a total of 40 pairs of overlapping and non-overlapping spine images. The experimental results are compared to those produced by the Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Phase Only Correlation (POC) methods for comparison. It is found that the proposed method outperforms those of the NCC and POC methods in identifying both the overlapping and non-overlapping medical images. The efficacy of the proposed method is further vindicated by its average execution time which is about two to five times shorter than those of the POC and NCC methods.

Keywords: image stitching, MACE filter, panorama image, scoliosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
6366 Size Reduction of Images Using Constraint Optimization Approach for Machine Communications

Authors: Chee Sun Won


This paper presents the size reduction of images for machine-to-machine communications. Here, the salient image regions to be preserved include the image patches of the key-points such as corners and blobs. Based on a saliency image map from the key-points and their image patches, an axis-aligned grid-size optimization is proposed for the reduction of image size. To increase the size-reduction efficiency the aspect ratio constraint is relaxed in the constraint optimization framework. The proposed method yields higher matching accuracy after the size reduction than the conventional content-aware image size-reduction methods.

Keywords: image compression, image matching, key-point detection and description, machine-to-machine communication

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6365 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti


The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

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6364 Development of Intelligent Construction Management System Using Web-Camera Image and 3D Object Image

Authors: Hyeon-Seung Kim, Bit-Na Cho, Tae-Woon Jeong, Soo-Young Yoon, Leen-Seok Kang


Recently, a construction project has been large in the size and complicated in the site work. The web-cameras are used to manage the construction site of such a large construction project. They can be used for monitoring the construction schedule as compared to the actual work image of the planned work schedule. Specially, because the 4D CAD system that the construction appearance is continually simulated in a 3D CAD object by work schedule is widely applied to the construction project, the comparison system between the real image of actual work appearance by web-camera and the simulated image of planned work appearance by 3D CAD object can be an intelligent construction schedule management system (ICON). The delayed activities comparing with the planned schedule can be simulated by red color in the ICON as a virtual reality object. This study developed the ICON and it was verified in a real bridge construction project in Korea. To verify the developed system, a web-camera was installed and operated in a case project for a month. Because the angle and zooming of the web-camera can be operated by Internet, a project manager can easily monitor and assume the corrective action.

Keywords: 4D CAD, web-camera, ICON (intelligent construction schedule management system), 3D object image

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
6363 A Review on Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing

Authors: B. Afsharipoor, E. Nazemi


Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful tool for prediction which can be trained based on a set of examples and thus, it would be useful for nonlinear image processing. The present paper reviews several paper regarding applications of ANN in image processing to shed the light on advantage and disadvantage of ANNs in this field. Different steps in the image processing chain including pre-processing, enhancement, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization by using ANN are summarized. Furthermore, results on using multi artificial neural networks are presented.

Keywords: neural networks, image processing, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding, optimization, MANN

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6362 Definition, Structure, and Core Functions of the State Image

Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova


Humanity is entering an era when 'virtual reality' as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown 'global space'. According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays, image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology. Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception. Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the countries can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.

Keywords: image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components

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6361 Changing Body Ideals of Ethnically Diverse Gay and Heterosexual Men and the Proliferation of Social and Entertainment Media

Authors: Cristina Azocar, Ivana Markova


A survey of 565 male undergraduates examined the effects of exposure to social networking sites and entertainment media on young men’s body image. Exposure to social and to entertainment media was found to have negative effects on men’s body satisfaction, social comparison, and thin ideal internalization. Findings indicated significant differences in those men who were more exposed to social and to entertainment media than those who were not as exposed. Consistent with past studies, gay men were found to be more dissatisfied with their bodies than straight men. Gay men compared themselves to other better-looking individuals and internalized ideal body types seen in media significantly more than their straight counterparts. Surprisingly, straight men seem to care as much about their physical attractiveness/appearance as gay men do, but only in public settings such as at the beach, at athletic events (including gyms) and social events. Although on average ethnic groups were more similar than different, small but significant differences occurred with Asian men indicating significantly higher body dissatisfaction than White/European men and Middle Eastern/Arab men their counterparts. The study increases our knowledge about SNS and entertainment use and its associated body image, and body satisfaction affects among low-income ethnic minority men.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, body image, entertainment media, gay men, race and ethnicity, social economic status, social comparison, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 63