Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Asmaa Khafaga

26 Histopathological and Biochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyurea-Induced Hepato-Pulmonary Toxicity and Lymphoid Necrosis in Rats

Authors: Samah Oda, Asmaa Khafaga, Mohammed Hashim, Asmaa Khamis


Toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU), a treatment for certain tumors, polycythemia, and thrombocytosis, was evaluated in rats in one-month toxicity study. Sixty male albino rats were equally classified into four groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of HU in 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.wt. Chemical and histopathological assessment of liver, lung, spleen, and bone marrow was performed at 10, 20, and 30 days of the experiment. No significant change was reported in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and albumin/ globulin ratio during the experiment. Significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total albumin were reported in rats received 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt of HU. In addition, total cholesterol level increased significantly after 10 days; however, it significantly decreased after 20 and 30 days of the experiment. Moreover, hepatocytic vacuolation and necrosis with portal inflammatory infiltrates were reported along experimental periods. Pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, interstitial mononuclear infiltration, peribronchitis, and bronchial epithelial necrosis were also reported. Severe lymphocytic necrosis in spleen and severe loss of hematopoietic cells and replacement with corresponding adipose tissue in bone marrow tissues was demonstrated. In conclusion, HU could be able to induce severe dose and time-dependent hepato-pulmonary toxicity and lymphoid depression in rats.

Keywords: Histopathology, hydroxyurea, hepato-pulmonary toxicity, lymphoid depression

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25 An UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Norfloxacin, Metronidazole, and Tinidazole Using Monolithic Column-Stability Indicating Application

Authors: Asmaa Mandour, Ramzia El-Bagary, Asmaa El-Zaher, Ehab Elkady


Background: An UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) method for the simultaneous determination of norfloxacin (NOR), metronidazole (MET) and tinidazole (TNZ) using monolithic column is presented. Purpose: The method is considered an environmentally friendly method with relatively low organic composition of the mobile phase. Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed using Phenomenex® Onyex Monolithic C18 (50mmx 20mm) column. An elution program of mobile phase consisted of 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid : methanol (85:15, v/v). Where elution of all drugs was completed within 3.5 min with 1µL injection volume. The UHPLC method was applied for the stability indication of NOR in the presence of its acid degradation product ND. Results: Retention times were 0.69, 1.19 and 3.23 min for MET, TNZ and NOR, respectively. While ND retention time was 1.06 min. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were acceptable over the concentration range of 5-50µg mL-1for all drugs. Conclusions: The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of the three drugs and can also be used for the stability indication of NOR in the presence of its acid degradation product.

Keywords: Antibacterial, monolithic cilumn, simultaneous determination, UHPLC

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24 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Planning in the United States: Evidences from North Carolina

Authors: Asmaa Benbaba


This paper aims to reconsider relationships between animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and planning. It stresses the idea of the necessity for a methodological revolution in order to increase the chances for dialogue between different actors and various planning agencies and create possibilities to manage conflicts. The explored case of North Carolina shows limitations in environmental agencies’ actions and methods. It also calls for a more integrated approach among agencies including the local agencies.

Keywords: Planning, CAFOs, North Carolina, United States

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23 The Impact of Varying the Detector and Modulation Types on Inter Satellite Link (ISL) Realizing the Allowable High Data Rate

Authors: Moustafa H. Aly, Asmaa Zaki M., Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed


ISLs are the most popular choice for deep space communications because these links are attractive alternatives to present day microwave links. This paper explored the allowable high data rate in this link over different orbits, which is affected by variation in modulation scheme and detector type. Moreover, the objective of this paper is to optimize and analyze the performance of ISL in terms of Q-factor and Minimum Bit Error Rate (Min-BER) based on different detectors comprising some parameters.

Keywords: free space optics (FSO), field of view (FOV), inter satellite link (ISL), optical wireless communication (OWC)

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22 Crystal Structures and High-Temperature Phase Transitions of the New Ordered Double Perovskites SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6

Authors: Asmaa Zaraq


In the present work we report X-ray powder diffraction measurements of SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, at different temperatures. The crystal structures at room temperature of both compounds are determined; and results showing the existence of high-temperature phase transitions in them are presented. Both compounds have double perovskite structure with 1:1 ordered arrangement of the B site cations. At room temperature their symmetries are described with the P21/n space group, that correspond to the (a+b-b-) tilt system. The evolution with temperature of the structure of both compounds shows the presence of three phase transitions: a continuous one, at 450 and 500 K, a discontinuous one, at 700 and 775 K, and a continuous one at 900 and 950 K for SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, respectively with the following phase-transition sequence: P21/n → I2/m → I4/m → Fm-3m.

Keywords: double perovskites, caracterisation DRX, transition de phase

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21 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Computational Study of (E)-2-Cyano-3-(Dimethylamino)-N-(2,4-Dioxo-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydropyrimidin-5-Yl)Acrylam-Ide and Its Applications in Industrial Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Fahim


In this investigation, the (E)-2-cyano-3-(dimethylamino)-N-(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)acrylam-ide (4) which used TAM as a template which interacts with Methacrylic Acid (MAA) monomer, in the presence of CH₃CN as progen. The TAM-MMA complex interactions are dependent on stable hydrogen bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid group of TAM(Template) and the hydroxyl group of MMA(methyl methacrylate) with minimal interference of porogen CH₃CN. The physical computational studies were used to optimize their structures and frequency calculations. The binding energies between TAM with different monomers showed the most stable molar ratio of 1:4, which was confirmed through experimental analysis. The optimized polymers were investigated in industrial applications.

Keywords: Industrial Applications, Spectral Analysis, Computational Studies, SEM, molecular imprinted polymer

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20 Effects of Unfamiliar Orthography on the Lexical Encoding of Novel Phonological Features

Authors: Asmaa Shehata


Prior research indicates that second language (L2) learners encounter difficulty in the distinguishing novel L2 contrasting sounds that are not contrastive in their native languages. L2 orthographic information, however, is found to play a positive role in the acquisition of non-native phoneme contrasts. While most studies have mainly involved a familiar written script (i.e., the Roman script), the influence of a foreign, unfamiliar script is still unknown. Therefore, the present study asks: Does unfamiliar L2 script play a role in creating distinct phonological representations of novel contrasting phonemes? It is predicted that subjects’ performance in the unfamiliar orthography group will outperform their counterparts’ performance in the control group. Thus, training that entails orthographic inputs can yield a significant improvement in L2 adult learners’ identification and lexical encoding of novel L2 consonant contrasts. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the type of input introduced to L2 learners to improve their language learning.

Keywords: Orthography, Arabic, consonant contrasts, foreign script, lexical encoding, word learning

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19 Cytotoxic Effect of Purified and Crude Hyaluronidase Enzyme on Hep G2 Cell Line

Authors: Furqan M. Kadhum, Asmaa A. Hussein, Maysaa Ch. Hatem


Hyaluronidase enzyme was purified from the clinical isolate Staphyloccus aureus in three purification steps, first by precipitation with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, and gel filtration chromatography throughout Sephacryl S-300. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was reached 930 U/mg protein with 7.4 folds of purification and 46.5% recovery. The enzyme has an average molecular weight of about 69 kDa, with an optimum pH of enzyme activity and stability at pH 7, also the optimum temperature for activity was 37oC. The enzyme was stable with full activity at a temperature ranged between 30-40 oC. Metal ions showed variable inhibitory degree with the strongest effect for Fe+3, however, the chelating and reducing agents had no or little effects. Cytotoxic studies for purified and crude hyaluronidase against cancer cell Hep G2 type at different enzyme concentrations and exposure times showed that the inhibition effect of both crude and purified enzyme increased by increasing the enzyme concentration with no change was observed at 24hr, while at 48 and 72 hrs the same inhibition rate were observed for purified enzyme and differ for the crude filtrate.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, metal ions, hyaluronidase, S. aureus

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18 Investigation of the Capability of REALP5 to Solve Complex Fuel Geometry

Authors: D. Abdelrazek, M. NaguibAly, A. A. Badawi, Asmaa G. Abo Elnour, A. A. El-Kafas


This work is developed within IAEA Coordinated Research Program 1496, “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal-hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors.” The study investigates the capability of Code RELAP5/Mod3.4 to solve complex geometry complexity. Its results are compared to the results of PARET, a common code in thermal hydraulic analysis for research reactors, belonging to MTR-PC groups. The WWR-SM reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in the Republic of Uzbekistan is simulated using both PARET and RELAP5 at steady state. Results from the two codes are compared. REALP5 code succeeded in solving the complex fuel geometry. The PARET code needed some calculations to obtain the final result. Although the final results from the PARET are more accurate, the small differences in both results makes using RELAP5 code recommended in case of complex fuel assemblies.

Keywords: complex fuel geometry, PARET, RELAP5, WWR-SM reactor

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17 Educating on Historic Preservation in the Alabama Gulf Coast: The Case of the Peninsula of Mobile

Authors: Asmaa Benbaba


A series of action plans motivated this work within the city of mobile as the big category and the Peninsula more particularly. Most of the projects sought to educate about the historical and environmental assets of the place, to improve aesthetics, to preserve the natural resources on the Bayou, spread awareness, and reach out to the community. This study was conducted to preserve significant heritage landscapes, and significant historic buildings in the neighborhood of the Peninsula of Mobile at the state of Alabama, while simultaneously strengthen the cultural and historical resources. The purpose of this planning action was to provide planning regulations for the suburban areas of Mobile in Alabama. The plan attempted to overlap three main layers: community, environment, and history. The method that was used to collect data and conduct research was mainly qualitative. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the tool used to represent this complexity. Results from this study revealed several interventions made to 'neighborhood marina.' The interventions were strategic scenarios to preserve the water landscape, create affordable leisure, connect the Dauphin Island Parkway to the water, preserve all the environmental layers, and add value to the neighborhoods of the Peninsula.

Keywords: Education, Historic Preservation, community outreach, peninsula

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16 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun


Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: Algeria, intensive care units, epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, teaching hospital of Oran

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15 Atomic Layer Deposition of MoO₃ on Mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ Prepared by Sol-Gel Method as Efficient Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Refractory Dibenzothiophene Compound

Authors: S. Said, Asmaa A. Abdulrahman


MoOₓ/Al₂O₃ based catalyst has long been widely used as an active catalyst in oxidative desulfurization reaction due to its high stability under severe reaction conditions and high resistance to sulfur poisoning. In this context, 4 & 9wt.% MoO₃ grafted on mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ has been synthesized using the modified atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Another MoO₃/Al₂O₃ sample was prepared by the conventional wetness impregnation (IM) method, for comparison. The effect of the preparation methods on the metal-support interaction was evaluated using different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N₂-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H₂- temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of the model fuel oil was used as a probe reaction to examine the catalytic efficiency of the prepared catalysts. ALD method led to samples with much better physicochemical properties than those of the prepared one via the impregnation method. However, the 9 wt.%MoO₃/Al₂O₃ (ALD) catalyst in the ODS reaction of model fuel oil shows enhanced catalytic performance with ~90%, which has been attributed to the more Mo⁶⁺ surface concentrations relative to Al³⁺ with large pore diameter and surface area. The kinetic study shows that the ODS of DBT follows a pseudo first-order rate reaction.

Keywords: DBT, atomic layer deposition, ODS, mesoporous Al₂O₃, xMoO₃/Al₂O₃, wetness impregnation

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14 Effect of Temperature on Pervaporation Performance of Ag-Poly Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membranes

Authors: Asmaa Selim, Peter Mizsey


Bio-ethanol is considered of higher potential as a green renewable energy source owing to its environmental benefits and its high efficiency. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were in-situ generated in a poly (vinyl alcohol) in order to improve its potentials for pervaporation of ethanol-water mixture using solution-casting. Effect of silver content on the pervaporation separation index and the enrichment factor of the membrane at 15 percentage mass water at 40ᵒC was reported. Pervaporation data for nanocomposite membranes showed around 100% increase in the water permeance values while the intrinsic selectivity decreased. The water permeances of origin crosslinked PVA membrane, and the 2.5% silver loaded PVA membrane are 26.65 and 70.45 (g/m².kPa.h) respectively. The values of total flux and water flux are closed to each other, indicating that membranes could be effectively used to break the azeotropic point of ethanol-water. Effect of temperature on the pervaporation performance, permeation parameter and diffusion coefficient of both water and ethanol was discussed. The negative heat of sorption ∆Hs values calculated on the basis of the estimated Arrhenius activation energy values indicating that the sorption process was controlled by Langmuir’s mode. The overall results showed that the membrane containing 0.5 mass percentage of Ag salt exhibited excellent PV performance.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Silver Nanoparticles, Pervaporation, diffusion coefficient, bio-ethanol, poly (vinyl alcohol)

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13 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji


Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: Field of view, Resolution, mandible, effective dose, CBCT, voxel, cone beam CT, maxilla

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12 Study on the Effect Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extracts on Rat Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

Authors: Asmaa F. Hamouda, Randa M Shrourou


Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) constitute apportion of regular human diet. The effect of Cabbage(CE) and Ginger extracts(GE) separately on liver nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(T.G), high density lipoprotein(HDL cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) in rats treated and untreated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied. The levels of NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, LDLand TSH showed an elevation and decline in HDL, T3, and T4 in rats treated with CCl4 as compared to control. Treatment of rats with GE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration improved NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, HDL, LDL, TSH, T3, T4 as compared to CCl4, indicates that GE improve thyroid function and reduced oxidative stress as well as injuries induced by CCl4. Treatment of rats with CE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration did not improved in the thyroid hormones and lipid profile levels as compared to CCl4. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a protective effect on metabolic disorders by decreasing oxidative stress.

Keywords: liver injuries, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), ginger (Zingiber officinale), thyroid function

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11 Chemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of Isolated Compounds and Essential Oil from Callistemon citrinus Leaf

Authors: Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Manal M. Hamed, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Abdel-Aleem H. Abdel-Aleem, Amal M. Saad, Asmaa H. Hadad


Natural products derived from medicinal plants provide unlimited opportunities for a new medication leads because of the unmatched accessibility of chemical variation. Six compounds were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Callistemon citrinus (Family Myrtaceae), they were identified as; nepetolide (1), callislignan A (2), 6,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dimethyl-3-methyleneisochroman-1-one (3), 3-methyl-7-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), 5, 7, 3', 5'-tetrahydroxy-6, 8-di-C-methyl flavanone (5), and (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-tetrahydropyran (6). The isolated compounds were evaluated as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were determined using DPPH-radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. The results indicated that compound (5) was most active in its capacity to scavenge free radicals in the DPPH assay [SC50 value, 4.65 ± 0.74μg/mL] compared to the standard ascorbic acid and exhibited the highest activity in the TAC assay (610.45 ± 1.67mg AAE/g compound). The pure isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Also, the GC/MS analysis of its leaves essential oil presented nine identified compounds representing 91% of the total oil constituents. The outcomes got from this study give a reasonable justification for the medicinal uses of Callistemon citrinus plant.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential Oil, antioxidant activity, flavanone, Callistemon citrinus, Myrtaceae

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10 Efficacy of Biofeedback-Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy, Afaf M. Botla, Ghada E. El-Refaye, Hassan O. Ghareeb


Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults. Its incidence increases with age and it is more frequent in women. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) either alone or combined with biofeedback-assisted PFMT. The aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback-assisted PFMT in postoperative stress urinary incontinence. Settings and Design: A single blind controlled trial design was. Methods and Material: This study was carried out in 30 volunteer patients diagnosed as severe degree of stress urinary incontinence and they were admitted to surgical treatment. They were divided randomly into two equal groups: (Group A) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with post-operative biofeedback-assisted PFMT and home exercise program (Group B) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with home exercise program only. Assessment of all patients in both groups (A) and (B) was carried out before and after the treatment program by measuring intra-vaginal pressure in addition to the visual analog scale. Results: At the end of the treatment program, there was a highly statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) in the intra-vaginal pressure and the visual analog scale favoring the group (A). Conclusion: biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective method for the symptomatic relief of post-operative female stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: biofeedback, stress urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor exercises

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9 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Identifying Water Catechements Areas in the Northwest Coast of Egypt for Sustainable Agricultural Development

Authors: Mohamed Aboelghar, Ayman Abou Hadid, Usama Albehairy, Asmaa Khater


Sustainable agricultural development of the desert areas of Egypt under the pressure of irrigation water scarcity is a significant national challenge. Existing water harvesting techniques on the northwest coast of Egypt do not ensure the optimal use of rainfall for agricultural purposes. Basin-scale hydrology potentialities were studied to investigate how available annual rainfall could be used to increase agricultural production. All data related to agricultural production included in the form of geospatial layers. Thematic classification of Sentinal-2 imagery was carried out to produce the land cover and crop maps following the (FAO) system of land cover classification. Contour lines and spot height points were used to create a digital elevation model (DEM). Then, DEM was used to delineate basins, sub-basins, and water outlet points using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (Arc SWAT). Main soil units of the study area identified from Land Master Plan maps. Climatic data collected from existing official sources. The amount of precipitation, surface water runoff, potential, and actual evapotranspiration for the years (2004 to 2017) shown as results of (Arc SWAT). The land cover map showed that the two tree crops (olive and fig) cover 195.8 km2 when herbaceous crops (barley and wheat) cover 154 km2. The maximum elevation was 250 meters above sea level when the lowest one was 3 meters below sea level. The study area receives a massive variable amount of precipitation; however, water harvesting methods are inappropriate to store water for purposes.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, sustainable agricultural development, water catchements

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8 A Comparative, Epidemiological Study of Acute Renal Colic Presentations to Major Academic Emergency Departments in Doha, Qatar and Melbourne, Australia

Authors: Sameer A. Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Zain A. Bhutta, Isma Qureshi, Elle Spencer, Asmaa A. Hameed, Sana Nadeem, Ramsha Tahir, Shahzad Anjum, Peter A. Cameron


Background: This study aimed to compare epidemiology, clinical presentations, management and outcomes of renal colic presentations in two major academic centers and discuss potential implications of these results for the applicability of current evidence in the management of renal colic. Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with renal colic who presented to the Hamad General Hospital Emergency Department (HGH-ED), Qatar, and The Alfred ED, Melbourne, Australia, during a period of one year from August 1, 2012, to July 3, 2013. Cases were identified using ICD-9-CM codes, and an electronic template was used to record the data on predefined clinical variables. Results: A total of 12,223 from the HGH-ED and 384 from The Alfred ED were identified as renal colic presentations during the study period. The rate of renal colic presentations at the HGH-ED was 27.9 per 1000 ED visits compared to 6.7 per 1000 ED visits at The Alfred ED. Patients presenting to the HGH-ED were significantly younger [34.9 years (29.0- 43.4) than The Alfred ED [48 years (37-60); P < 0.001]. The median stone size was larger in the HGH-ED group [6 (4-8) mm] versus The Alfred ED group [4 (3-6) mm, P < 0.001]. The intervention rate in the stone-positive population was significantly higher in the HGH-ED group as opposed to The Alfred ED group (38.7% versus 11.9%, p<0.001). At the time of discharge, The Alfred ED group received less analgesic prescriptions (55.8% versus 83.5%, P < 0.001) and more tamsulosin prescriptions (25.3% versus 11.7%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Renal colic presentations to the HGH-ED, Qatar, were younger, with larger stone size, compared to The Alfred ED, whereas, medical expulsion therapy use was higher at the Alfred ED. Differences in epidemiology should be considered while tailoring strategies for effective management of patients with renal colic in the given setting.

Keywords: Epidemiology, urolithiasis, Kidney Stones, nephrolithiasis, renal colic

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7 Innovation Management: A Comparative Analysis among Organizations from United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and China

Authors: Asmaa Abazaid, Maram Al-Ostah, Nadeen Abu-Zahra, Ruba Bawab, Refaat Abdel-Razek


Innovation audit is defined as a tool that can be used to reflect on how the innovation is managed in an organization. The aim of this study is to audit innovation in the second top Engineering Firms in the world, and one of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) companies that are working in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The obtained results are then compared with four international companies from China and Brazil. The Diamond model has been used for auditing innovation in the two companies in UAE to evaluate their innovation management and to identify each company’s strengths and weaknesses from an innovation perspective. The results of the comparison between the two companies (Jacobs and Hyper General Contracting) revealed that Jacobs has support for innovation, its innovation processes are well managed, the company is committed to the development of its employees worldwide and the innovation system is flexible. Jacobs was doing best in all innovation management dimensions: strategy, process, organization, linkages and learning, while Hyper General Contracting did not score as Jacobs in any of the innovation dimensions. Furthermore, the audit results of both companies were compared with international companies to examine how well the two construction companies in UAE manage innovation relative to SABIC (Saudi company), Poly Easy and Arnious (Brazilian companies), Huagong tools and Guizohou Yibai (Chinese companies). The results revealed that Jacobs is doing best in learning and organization dimensions, while PolyEasy and Jacobs are equal in the linkage dimension. Huagong Tools scored the highest score in process dimension among all the compared companies. However, the highest score of strategy dimension was given to PolyEasy. On the other hand, Hyper General Contracting scored the lowest in all of the innovation management dimensions. It needs to improve its management of all the innovation management dimensions with special attention to be given to strategy, process, and linkage as they got scores below 4 out of 7 comparing with other dimensions. Jacobs scored the highest in three innovation management dimensions related to the six companies. However, the strategy dimension is considered low, and special attention is needed in this dimension.

Keywords: Innovation Management, Saudi Arabia, China, United Arab Emirates, Brazil, innovation audit, innovation evaluation

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6 Impact of Water Courses Lining on Water Quality and Distribution of Aquatic Vegetations in Two Egyptian Governorates

Authors: Nahed M. M. Ismail, Bayoumy B. Mostafa, Ahmed Abdel-Kader, Khalil M. El-Said, Asmaa Abdel-Motleb, Hoda M. Abu Taleb


This study was carried out in lined and unlined watercourses in Beheira and Giza governorates to investigate the effect of water canals lining on water quality and aquatic vegetations. Samples of water and aquatic plants were collected from the examining sites during four seasons in two successive years. The main ecological parameters were recorded and water quality was measured. Results showed that the mean value of water conductivity and total dissolved salts in lined sites was significantly lower than those of unlined ones (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). In Beheira, the dissolved oxygen concentrations during autumn and winter were higher in lined sites (3.93±1.3 and 9.6±1.1 ppm, respectively) than those of unlined ones (the same values of 1.2±0.6 ppm). However, it represented by lower values of 5.77±6.05 and 4.9±1.8 ppm in lined watercourses in spring and summer, respectively, comparing with those in unlined ones (14.05±5.59 and 5.83±0.8 ppm, respectively). Generally, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cd were higher in both lined and unlined sites during summer than the other seasons. However, Zn and Fe were higher in lined sites (0.78±0.37 and 17.4±4.3 ppb, respectively) during summer than that of unlined ones (0.4±0.1 and 10.95±1.93 ppb, respectively). Cu was absent during summer in lined and unlined sites and only in unlined ones during spring. Regarding to Giza sites, Cu and Pb were absent in both lined and unlined sites during summer and only in unlined ones during spring. Whereas, Fe recorded higher values in autumn in both lined (8.8±20.1 ppb) and unlined sites (15.16±3 ppb) than the other seasons. Present survey study revealed that 13 species of aquatic plants were collected from lined and unlined sites in Beheira and Giza governorates. Eichhornia crassipes, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Potamogeton sp. were the only plant species infested the examined sites during autumn and winter in Beheira. In autumn C. demersum was the only plant found in lined sites represented by highly lower significant percentage (12.5% of the all examined sites) compared to the unlined sites (50%). E. crassipes was completely absent in the lined sites during the two seasons. In spring, there is only 3 plant species in lined sites compared to 6 ones in unlined. Also, in summer, there is only 2 species in lined sites comparing with 5 in unlined. The percentage of occurrence and density of these plants was highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones during all seasons. A diversity of plant species, E. crassipes, C. demersum, Jussias repens, Lemma giba, and Polygonum serr were the most abundant in many examined sites during all seasons in Giza. In summer, the percentage of sites containing the two plants E. crassipes (83.3%) and C. demersum (50%) was highly significant (p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones (50% and 0.0%, respectively). It concluded from the results that watercourses lining may play a significant role in preserving water with a good quality and reduces the distribution of aquatic vegetation which rendered the current of water.

Keywords: Water Quality, Aquatic Plants, physicochemical parameters, lining of watercourses

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5 Correlation between Sleeping Disturbance and Academic Achievement in University Female Students

Authors: Amel Fayed, Shaden AlSubaih, Nouf Al-Qahtani, Asmaa Gosty, Asma Aljuhaimi


Introduction: Sleep difficulties are vastly predominant among adults and affect different aspects of their life. Many literatures found out that females are more liable to suffer from sleeping problems. College students are typical example of people dealing with daily pressure and stress to fulfill the daily tasks and responsibilities. In addition to their ultimate goal of achieving excellent academic records which require their full concentration and effort. Consequently, many of them start complaining of sleep deprivations which can undesirably affect their academic achievements. This study was aiming to investigate how prevalent is sleeping disorders among different colleges in the university and its relation their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female university students at Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess different grades of insomnia. Students were requested to answer the questions evaluating their sleeping habits over the last two weeks. Participants reported their latest Grade Point Average (GPA). According to ISI, insomnia severity is reported as ‘No clinically significant’, ‘Subthreshold ‘,’ Clinical moderate insomnia’ and ‘Clinical severe’. Results: In the current study, 228 students participated; 172(75.4%) from medical colleges and 56 (24.6%) from non-medical colleges. About 80% of them claimed to have never taken any medications to help them sleep while only three students confirmed their regular use of sleep-inducing medications. About 16% of the students drink milk or other hot drinks to help them fall asleep. None of the students was suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea or apparent psychiatric disorder. According to ISI, 182 (79.8%) students suffered from subthreshold insomnia, 37 (16.2%) had clinical insomnia (moderate severity) and 9 (3.9%) of students had sleeping problems of non-clinically significance level. However, none of students was found to have severe clinical insomnia. Clinical moderate insomnia was reported in 15.1% of medical students and 19.6% of non-medical students. Moreover, about 82% of medical students suffered from subthreshold insomnia compared to 73.2% of non-medical students. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.24). About 63% of medical students and 48% of non-medical students believed that high percentage of their colleagues are suffering from insomnias (p-value 0.08) The association between GPA and insomnia revealed that; 19.5% of low GPA group compared to 9.3% of high GPA group had clinical moderate insomnia. This association was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The correlation between the GPA and the ISI score was negative but not conclusive (r=-0.08, p-value = 0.29). More than 92% of all students agreed that sleeping problems affect their academic achievement to varying degrees. Conclusion: our results suggest that insomnia is commonly prevalent among female university students and might affect the students’ achievement. This study provides preliminary data about the quality of sleep among medical and non-medical university students which may be used to promote the healthy sleeping habits among female students.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, insomnia, females, university student

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4 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia


This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: Heat Stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

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3 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Asmaa Abdelaty, Hebatalla I. Ahmed


Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: rats, Caffeine, bisphenol A, manganese, neurotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, behavioral tests

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2 Influence of Protein Malnutrition and Different Stressful Conditions on Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Focus on the Possible Protection Using Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh, Asmaa Abdelaty, Mona G. Khalil


Background: Aluminium (Al) is known as a neurotoxin environmental pollutant that can cause certain diseases as Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinsonism. It is widely used in antacid drugs as well as in food additives and toothpaste. Stresses have been linked to cognitive impairment; Social isolation (SI) may exacerbate memory deficits while protein malnutrition (PM) increases oxidative damage in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The risk of cognitive decline may be lower by maintaining social connections. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects as well as health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To study the influence of different stressful conditions as social isolation, electric shock (EC) and inadequate Nutritional condition as PM on neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to investigate the possible protective effect of EGCG in these stressful and PM conditions. Methods: Rats were divided into two major groups; protected group which was daily treated during three weeks of the experiment by EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) or non-treated. Protected and non-protected groups included five subgroups as following: One normal control received saline and four Al toxicity groups injected daily for three weeks by ALCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP). One of them served as Al toxicity model, two groups subjected to different stresses either by isolation as mild stressful condition (SI-associated Al toxicity model) or by electric shock as high stressful condition (EC- associated Al toxicity model). The last was maintained on 10% casein diet (PM -associated Al toxicity model). Isolated rats were housed individually in cages covered with black plastic. Biochemical changes in the brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups. Histopathological changes in different brain regions were also evaluated. Results: Rats exposed to Al for three weeks showed brain neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations. Both mild (SI) and high (EC) stressful conditions as well as inadequate nutrition (PM) enhanced Al-induced neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations; the enhancement induced by stresses especially in its higher conditions (ES) was more pronounced than that of inadequate nutritional conditions (PM) as indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF. On the other hand, EGCG showed more pronounced protection against hazards of Al in both stressful conditions (SI and EC) rather than in PM .The protective effects of EGCG were indicated by the significant decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by brain histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations induced by Al were more severe with stresses than with PM. EGCG can protect against Al-induced brain neuronal degenerations in all conditions. Consequently, administration of EGCG together with socialization as well as adequate protein nutrition is advised especially on excessive Al-exposure to avoid the severity of its neuronal toxicity.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, rats, Aluminum, social isolation, neuronal degeneration, protein malnutrition, epigallocatechin-3-gallate

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1 Seroprevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) Infection among Healthy and High Risk Individuals in Qatar

Authors: Gheyath Nasrallah, Raham El-Kahlout, Hadi Yassin, Asmaa Athani, Marwan Abou Madi


Background: Since its first isolation in September 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has diffused across 27 countries infecting more than two thousand individuals with a high case fatality rate. MERS-CoV–specific antibodies are widely found in Dromedary camel along with viral shedding of similar viruses detected in human at same region, suggesting that MERS epidemiology may be central role by camel. Interestingly, MERS-CoV has also been also reported to be asymptomatic or to cause influenza-like mild illnesses. Therefore, in a country like Qatar (bordered Saudi Arabia), where camels are widely spread, serological surveys are important to explore the role of camels in MERS-CoV transmission. However, widespread strategic serological surveillances of MERS-CoV among populations, particularly in endemic country, are infrequent. In the absence of clear epidemiological view, cross-sectional MERS antibody surveillances in human populations are of global concern. Method: We performed a comparative serological screening of 4719 healthy blood donors, 135 baseline case contacts (high risk individual), and four MERS confirmed patients (by PCR) for the presence of anti-MERS IgG. Initially, samples were screened using Euroimmune anti- MERS-CoV IgG ELISA kit, the only commercial kit available in the market and recommended by the CDC as a screening kit. To confirm ELISA test results, farther serological testing was performed for all borderline and positive samples using two assays; the anti MERS-CoV IgG and IgM Euroimmune indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT) and pseudoviral particle neutralizing assay (PPNA). Additionally, to test cross reactivity of anti-MERS-CoV antibody with other family members of coronavirus, borderline and positive samples were tested for the presence of the of IgG antibody of the following viruses; SARS, HCoV-229E, HKU1 using the Euroimmune IIFT for SARS and HCoV-229E and ELISA for HKU1. Results: In all of 4858 screened 15 samples [10 donors (0.21%, 10/4719), 1 case contact (0.77 %, 1/130), 3 patients (75%, 3/4)] anti-MERS IgG reactive/borderline samples were seen in ELISA. However, only 7 (0.14%) of them gave positive with in IIFT and only 3 (0.06%) was confirmed by the specific anti-MERS PPNA. One of the interesting findings was, a donor, who was selected in the control group as a negative anti-MERS IgG ELISA, yield reactive for anti-MERS IgM IIFT and was confirmed with the PPNA. Further, our preliminary results showed that there was a strong cross reactivity between anti- MERS-COV IgG with both HCoV-229E or anti-HKU1 IgG, yet, no cross reactivity of SARS were found. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MERS-CoV is not heavily circulated among the population of Qatar and this is also indicated by low number of confirmed cases (only 18) since 2012. Additionally, the presence of antibody of other pathogenic human coronavirus may cause false positive results of both ELISA and IIFT, which stress the need for more evaluation studies for the available serological assays. Conclusion: this study provides an insight about the epidemiological view for MERS-CoV in Qatar population. It also provides a performance evaluation for the available serologic tests for MERS-CoV in a view of serologic status to other human coronaviruses.

Keywords: Qatar, seroprevalence, MERS-CoV, healthy individuals

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