Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: CBCT

21 Accuracy of Small Field of View CBCT in Determining Endodontic Working Length

Authors: N. L. S. Ahmad, Y. L. Thong, P. Nambiar


An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of small field of view (FOV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining endodontic working length. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of CBCT in measuring the estimated preoperative working lengths (EPWL), endodontic working lengths (EWL) and file lengths. Access cavities were prepared in 27 molars. For each root canal, the baseline electronic working length was determined using an EAL (Raypex 5). The teeth were then divided into overextended, non-modified and underextended groups and the lengths were adjusted accordingly. Imaging and measurements were made using the respective software of the RVG (Kodak RVG 6100) and CBCT units (Kodak 9000 3D). Root apices were then shaved and the apical constrictions viewed under magnification to measure the control working lengths. The paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference between CBCT EPWL and control length but the difference was too small to be clinically significant. From the Bland Altman analysis, the CBCT method had the widest range of 95% limits of agreement, reflecting its greater potential of error. In measuring file lengths, RVG had a bigger window of 95% limits of agreement compared to CBCT. Conclusions: (1) The clinically insignificant underestimation of the preoperative working length using small FOV CBCT showed that it is acceptable for use in the estimation of preoperative working length. (2) Small FOV CBCT may be used in working length determination but it is not as accurate as the currently practiced method of using the EAL. (3) It is also more accurate than RVG in measuring file lengths.

Keywords: accuracy, CBCT, endodontics, measurement

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20 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji


Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: CBCT, cone beam CT, effective dose, field of view, mandible, maxilla, resolution, voxel

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19 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour


Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME).

Keywords: curvelet transform, CBCT, image enhancement, image denoising

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18 Incidental Findings in the Maxillofacial Region Detected on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Zeena Dcosta, Junaid Ahmed, Ceena Denny, Nandita Shenoy


In the field of dentistry, there are many conditions which warrant the requirement of three-dimensional imaging that can aid in diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is considered highly accurate in producing a three-dimensional image of an object and provides a complete insight of various findings in the captured volume. But, most of the clinicians focus primarily on the teeth and jaws and numerous unanticipated clinically significant incidental findings may be missed out. Rapid integration of CBCT into the practice of dentistry has led to the detection of various incidental findings. However, the prevalence of these incidental findings is still unknown. Thus, the study aimed to discern the reason for referral and to identify incidental findings on the referred CBCT scans. Patient’s demographic data such as age and gender was noted. CBCT scans of multiple fields of views (FOV) were considered. The referral for CBCT scans was broadly classified into two major categories: diagnostic scan and treatment planning scan. Any finding on the CBCT volumes, other than the area of concern was recorded as incidental finding which was noted under airway, developmental, pathological, endodontics, TMJ, bone, soft tissue calcifications and others. Few of the incidental findings noted under airway were deviated nasal septum, nasal turbinate hypertrophy, mucosal thickening and pneumatization of sinus. Developmental incidental findings included dilaceration, impaction, pulp stone and gubernacular canal. Resorption of teeth and periapical pathologies were noted under pathological incidental findings. Root fracture along with over and under obturation was noted under endodontics. Incidental findings under TMJ were flattening, erosion and bifid condyle. Enostosis and exostosis were noted under bone lesions. Tonsillolth, sialolith and calcified styloid ligament were noted under soft tissue calcifications. Incidental findings under others included foreign body, fused C1- C2 vertebrae, nutrient canals, and pneumatocyst. Maxillofacial radiologists should be aware of possible incidental findings and should be vigilant about comprehensively evaluating the entire captured volume, which can help in early diagnosis of any potential pathologies that may go undetected. Interpretation of CBCT is truly an art and with the experience, we can unravel the secrets hidden in the grey shades of the radiographic image.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, incidental findings, maxillofacial region, radiologist

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17 Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Useful Diagnostic Tool to Determine Root Canal Morphology in a Sample of Egyptian Population

Authors: H. El-Messiry, M. El-Zainy, D. Abdelkhalek


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-quality 3-dimensional images of dental structures because of its high spatial resolution. The study of dental morphology is important in research as it provides information about diversities within a population. Many studies have shown different shapes and numbers of roots canals among different races, especially in molars. The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of root canals of mandibular first and third molars in a sample of Egyptian population using CBCT scanning. Fifty mandibular first Molars (M1) and fifty mandibular third (M3) extracted molars were collected. Thick rectangular molds were made using pink wax to hold the samples. Molars were embedded in the wax mold by aligning them in rows leaving arbitrary 0.5cm space between them. The molds with the samples in were submitted for CBCT scan. The number and morphology of root canals were assessed and classified according to Vertucci's classification. The mesial and the distal roots were examined separately. Finally, data was analyzed using Fisher exact test. The most prevalent mesial root canal frequency in M1 was type IV (60%) and type II (40 %), while M3 showed prevalence of type I (40%) and II (40%). Distal root canal morphology showed prevalence of type I in both M1 (66%) and M3 (86%). So, it can be concluded that CBCT scanning provides supplemental information about the root canal configurations of mandibular molars in a sample of Egyptian population. This study may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of mandibular molars.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular first molar, mandibular third molar, root canal morphology

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16 MR-Implantology: Exploring the Use for Mixed Reality in Dentistry Education

Authors: Areej R. Banjar, Abraham G. Campbell


The use of Mixed Reality (MR) in teaching and training is growing popular and can improve students’ ability to perform technical procedures. This short paper outlines the creation of an interactive educational MR 3D application that aims to improve the quality of instruction for dentistry students. This application is called MRImplantology and aims to teach the fundamentals and preoperative planning of dental implant placement. MRImplantology uses cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images as the source for 3D dental models that dentistry students will be able to freely manipulate within a 3D MR world to aid their learning process.

Keywords: augmented reality, education, dentistry, cone-beam computed tomography CBCT, head mounted display HMD, mixed reality

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15 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra


Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

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14 Replacement of the Distorted Dentition of the Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scan Models for Orthognathic Surgery Planning

Authors: T. Almutairi, K. Naudi, N. Nairn, X. Ju, B. Eng, J. Whitters, A. Ayoub


Purpose: At present Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging does not record dental morphology accurately due to the scattering produced by metallic restorations and the reported magnification. The aim of this pilot study is the development and validation of a new method for the replacement of the distorted dentition of CBCT scans with the dental image captured by the digital intraoral camera. Materials and Method: Six dried skulls with orthodontics brackets on the teeth were used in this study. Three intra-oral markers made of dental stone were constructed which were attached to orthodontics brackets. The skulls were CBCT scanned, and occlusal surface was captured using TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner. Marker based and surface based registrations were performed to fuse the digital intra-oral scan(IOS) into the CBCT models. This produced a new composite digital model of the skull and dentition. The skulls were scanned again using the commercially accurate Laser Faro® arm to produce the 'gold standard' model for the assessment of the accuracy of the developed method. The accuracy of the method was assessed by measuring the distance between the occlusal surfaces of the new composite model and the 'gold standard' 3D model of the skull and teeth. The procedure was repeated a week apart to measure the reproducibility of the method. Results: The results showed no statistically significant difference between the measurements on the first and second occasions. The absolute mean distance between the new composite model and the laser model ranged between 0.11 mm to 0.20 mm. Conclusion: The dentition of the CBCT can be accurately replaced with the dental image captured by the intra-oral scanner to create a composite model. This method will improve the accuracy of orthognathic surgical prediction planning, with the final goal of the fabrication of a physical occlusal wafer without to guide orthognathic surgery and eliminate the need for dental impression.

Keywords: orthognathic surgery, superimposition, models, cone beam computed tomography

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13 Quality Assurances for an On-Board Imaging System of a Linear Accelerator: Five Months Data Analysis

Authors: Liyun Chang, Cheng-Hsiang Tsai


To ensure the radiation precisely delivering to the target of cancer patients, the linear accelerator equipped with the pretreatment on-board imaging system is introduced and through it the patient setup is verified before the daily treatment. New generation radiotherapy using beam-intensity modulation, usually associated the treatment with steep dose gradients, claimed to have achieved both a higher degree of dose conformation in the targets and a further reduction of toxicity in normal tissues. However, this benefit is counterproductive if the beam is delivered imprecisely. To avoid shooting critical organs or normal tissues rather than the target, it is very important to carry out the quality assurance (QA) of this on-board imaging system. The QA of the On-Board Imager® (OBI) system of one Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator was performed through our procedures modified from a relevant report and AAPM TG142. Two image modalities, 2D radiography and 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), of the OBI system were examined. The daily and monthly QA was executed for five months in the categories of safety, geometrical accuracy and image quality. A marker phantom and a blade calibration plate were used for the QA of geometrical accuracy, while the Leeds phantom and Catphan 504 phantom were used in the QA of radiographic and CBCT image quality, respectively. The reference images were generated through a GE LightSpeed CT simulator with an ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system. Finally, the image quality was analyzed via an OsiriX medical imaging system. For the geometrical accuracy test, the average deviations of the OBI isocenter in each direction are less than 0.6 mm with uncertainties less than 0.2 mm, while all the other items have the displacements less than 1 mm. For radiographic image quality, the spatial resolution is 1.6 lp/cm with contrasts less than 2.2%. The spatial resolution, low contrast, and HU homogenous of CBCT are larger than 6 lp/cm, less than 1% and within 20 HU, respectively. All tests are within the criteria, except the HU value of Teflon measured with the full fan mode exceeding the suggested value that could be due to itself high HU value and needed to be rechecked. The OBI system in our facility was then demonstrated to be reliable with stable image quality. The QA of OBI system is really necessary to achieve the best treatment for a patient.

Keywords: CBCT, image quality, quality assurance, OBI

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12 Source-Detector Trajectory Optimization for Target-Based C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: S. Hatamikia, A. Biguri, H. Furtado, G. Kronreif, J. Kettenbach, W. Birkfellner


Nowadays, three dimensional Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has turned into a widespread clinical routine imaging modality for interventional radiology. In conventional CBCT, a circular sourcedetector trajectory is used to acquire a high number of 2D projections in order to reconstruct a 3D volume. However, the accumulated radiation dose due to the repetitive use of CBCT needed for the intraoperative procedure as well as daily pretreatment patient alignment for radiotherapy has become a concern. It is of great importance for both health care providers and patients to decrease the amount of radiation dose required for these interventional images. Thus, it is desirable to find some optimized source-detector trajectories with the reduced number of projections which could therefore lead to dose reduction. In this study we investigate some source-detector trajectories with the optimal arbitrary orientation in the way to maximize performance of the reconstructed image at particular regions of interest. To achieve this approach, we developed a box phantom consisting several small target polytetrafluoroethylene spheres at regular distances through the entire phantom. Each of these spheres serves as a target inside a particular region of interest. We use the 3D Point Spread Function (PSF) as a measure to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed image. We measured the spatial variance in terms of Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) of the local PSFs each related to a particular target. The lower value of FWHM shows the better spatial resolution of reconstruction results at the target area. One important feature of interventional radiology is that we have very well-known imaging targets as a prior knowledge of patient anatomy (e.g. preoperative CT) is usually available for interventional imaging. Therefore, we use a CT scan from the box phantom as the prior knowledge and consider that as the digital phantom in our simulations to find the optimal trajectory for a specific target. Based on the simulation phase we have the optimal trajectory which can be then applied on the device in real situation. We consider a Philips Allura FD20 Xper C-arm geometry to perform the simulations and real data acquisition. Our experimental results based on both simulation and real data show our proposed optimization scheme has the capacity to find optimized trajectories with minimal number of projections in order to localize the targets. Our results show the proposed optimized trajectories are able to localize the targets as good as a standard circular trajectory while using just 1/3 number of projections. Conclusion: We demonstrate that applying a minimal dedicated set of projections with optimized orientations is sufficient to localize targets, may minimize radiation.

Keywords: CBCT, C-arm, reconstruction, trajectory optimization

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11 The Correlation between Three-Dimensional Implant Positions and Esthetic Outcomes of Single-Tooth Implant Restoration

Authors: Pongsakorn Komutpol, Pravej Serichetaphongse, Soontra Panmekiate, Atiphan Pimkhaokham


Statement of Problem: The important parameter of esthetic assessment in anterior maxillary implant include pink esthetic of gingiva and white esthetic of restoration. While the 3 dimensional (3D) implant position are recently concerned as a key for succeeding in implant treatment. However, to our knowledge, the authors did not come across any publication that demonstrated the relations of esthetic outcome and 3D implant position. Objectives: To investigate the correlation between positional accuracy of single-tooth implant restoration (STIR) in all 3 dimensions and their esthetic outcomes. Materials and Methods: 17 patients’ data who had a STIR at central incisor with pristine contralateral tooth were included in this study. Intraoral photographs, dental models, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were retrieved. The esthetic outcome was assessed in accordance with pink esthetic score and white esthetic score (PES/WES). While the number of correct position in each dimension (mesiodistal, labiolingual, apicocoronal) of the implant were evaluated and defined as 'right' or 'wrong' according to ITI consensus conference by one investigator using CBCT data. The different mean score between right and wrong position in all dimensions was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test with 0.05 was the significant level of the study. Results: The average score of PES/WES was 15.88 ± 1.65 which was considered as clinically acceptable. The average PES/WES score in 1, 2 and 3 right dimension of the implant position were 16.71, 15.75 and 15.17 respectively. None of the implants placed wrongly in all three dimensions. Statistically significant difference of the PES/WES score was found between the implants that placed right in 3 dimensions and 1 dimension (p = 0.041). Conclusion: This study supported the principle of 3D position of implant. The more properly implant was placed, the higher esthetic outcome was found.

Keywords: accuracy, dental implant, esthetic, 3D implant position

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10 Comparative Analysis of Canal Centering Ratio, Apical Transportation, and Remaining Dentin Thickness between Single File System Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography: An in vitro Study

Authors: Aditi Jain


Aim: To compare the canal transportation, centering ability and remaining dentin thickness of OneShape and WaveOne system using CBCT. Objective: To identify rotary system which respects original canal anatomy. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human single-rooted premolars were used in the present study. Pre-instrumentation scans of all teeth were taken, canal curvatures were calculated, and the samples were randomly divided into two groups with twenty samples in each group, where Group 1 included WaveOne system and Group 2 Protaper rotary system. Post-instrumentation scans were performed, and the two scans were compared to determine canal transportation, centering ability and remaining dentin thickness at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex. Results: Using Student’s unpaired t test results were as follows; for canal transportation Group 1 showed statistical significant difference at 3mm, 6mm and non-significant difference was obtained at 9mm but for Group 2 non-statistical significant difference was obtained at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm. For centering ability and remaining dentin thickness Group 1 showed non-statistical significant difference at 3mm and 9mm, while statistical significant difference at 6mm was obtained. When comparison of remaining dentin thickness was done at three levels using two groups WaveOne and ProTaper. There was non-statistical significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: WaveOne single reciprocation file respects original canal anatomy better than ProTaper. WaveOne depicted the best centering ability.

Keywords: ShapeOne, WaveOne, transportation, centering ability, dentin thickness, CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography)

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9 Comparative Study of Various Treatment Positioning Technique: A Site Specific Study-CA. Breast

Authors: Kamal Kaushik, Dandpani Epili, Ajay G. V., Ashutosh, S. Pradhaan


Introduction: Radiation therapy has come a long way over a period of decades, from 2-dimensional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or VMAT. For advanced radiation therapy, we need better patient position reproducibility to deliver precise and quality treatment, which raises the need for better image guidance technologies for precise patient positioning. This study presents a two tattoo simulation with roll correction technique which is comparable to other advanced patient positioning techniques. Objective: This is a site-specific study is aimed to perform a comparison between various treatment positioning techniques used for the treatment of patients of Ca- Breast undergoing radiotherapy. In this study, we are comparing 5 different positioning methods used for the treatment of ca-breast, namely i) Vacloc with 3 tattoos, ii) Breast board with three tattoos, iii) Thermoplastic cast with three fiducials, iv) Breast board with a thermoplastic mask with 3 tattoo, v) Breast board with 2 tattoos – A roll correction method. Methods and material: All in one (AIO) solution immobilization was used in all patient positioning techniques for immobilization. The process of two tattoo simulations includes positioning of the patient with the help of a thoracic-abdomen wedge, armrest & knee rest. After proper patient positioning, we mark two tattoos on the treatment side of the patient. After positioning, place fiducials as per the clinical borders markers (1) sternum notch (lower border of clavicle head) (2) 2 cm below from contralateral breast (3) midline between 1 & 2 markers (4) mid axillary on the same axis of 3 markers (Marker 3 & 4 should be on the same axis). During plan implementation, a roll depth correction is applied as per the anterior and lateral positioning tattoos, followed by the shifts required for the Isocentre position. The shifts are then verified by SSD on the patient surface followed by radiographic verification using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Results: When all the five positioning techniques were compared all together, the produced shifts in Vertical, Longitudinal and lateral directions are as follows. The observations clearly suggest that the Longitudinal average shifts in two tattoo roll correction techniques are less than every other patient positioning technique. Vertical and lateral Shifts are also comparable to other modern positioning techniques. Concluded: The two tattoo simulation with roll correction technique provides us better patient setup with a technique that can be implemented easily in most of the radiotherapy centers across the developing nations where 3D verification techniques are not available along with delivery units as the shifts observed are quite minimal and are comparable to those with Vacloc and modern amenities.

Keywords: Ca. breast, breast board, roll correction technique, CBCT

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8 A Prospective Study of a Clinically Significant Anatomical Change in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Transit Electronic Portal Imaging Device Images

Authors: Wilai Masanga, Chirapha Tannanonta, Sangutid Thongsawad, Sasikarn Chamchod, Todsaporn Fuangrod


The major factors of radiotherapy for head and neck (HN) cancers include patient’s anatomical changes and tumour shrinkage. These changes can significantly affect the planned dose distribution that causes the treatment plan deterioration. A measured transit EPID images compared to a predicted EPID images using gamma analysis has been clinically implemented to verify the dose accuracy as part of adaptive radiotherapy protocol. However, a global gamma analysis dose not sensitive to some critical organ changes as the entire treatment field is compared. The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the dosimetric response to patient anatomical changes during the treatment course in HN IMRT (Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) using a novel comparison method; organ-of-interest gamma analysis. This method provides more sensitive to specific organ change detection. Random replanned 5 HN IMRT patients with causes of tumour shrinkage and patient weight loss that critically affect to the parotid size changes were selected and evaluated its transit dosimetry. A comprehensive physics-based model was used to generate a series of predicted transit EPID images for each gantry angle from original computed tomography (CT) and replan CT datasets. The patient structures; including left and right parotid, spinal cord, and planning target volume (PTV56) were projected to EPID level. The agreement between the transit images generated from original CT and replanned CT was quantified using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm criteria. Moreover, only gamma pass-rate is calculated within each projected structure. The gamma pass-rate in right parotid and PTV56 between predicted transit of original CT and replan CT were 42.8%( ± 17.2%) and 54.7%( ± 21.5%). The gamma pass-rate for other projected organs were greater than 80%. Additionally, the results of organ-of-interest gamma analysis were compared with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) and the rational of replan by radiation oncologists. It showed that using only registration of 3D-CBCT to original CT does not provide the dosimetric impact of anatomical changes. Using transit EPID images with organ-of-interest gamma analysis can provide additional information for treatment plan suitability assessment.

Keywords: re-plan, anatomical change, transit electronic portal imaging device, EPID, head, and neck

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7 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez


Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: radicular cyst, jaws, CBCT, treatment

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6 Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Upper Airway

Authors: Ramkumar Gunasekaran, John Cater, Vinod Suresh, Haribalan Kumar


The main objective of this project is to develop a statistical shape model using principal component analysis that could be used for analyzing the shape of the human airway. The ultimate goal of this project is to identify geometric risk factors for diagnosis and management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Anonymous CBCT scans of 25 individuals were obtained from the Otago Radiology Group. The airways were segmented between the hard-palate and the aryepiglottic fold using snake active contour segmentation. The point data cloud of the segmented images was then fitted with a bi-cubic mesh, and pseudo landmarks were placed to perform PCA on the segmented airway to analyze the shape of the airway and to find the relationship between the shape and OSA risk factors. From the PCA results, the first four modes of variation were found to be significant. Mode 1 was interpreted to be the overall length of the airway, Mode 2 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the retroglossal region, Mode 3 was related to the lateral dimension of the oropharyngeal region and Mode 4 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the oropharyngeal region. All these regions are subjected to the risk factors of OSA.

Keywords: medical imaging, image processing, FEM/BEM, statistical modelling

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5 Detection of Resistive Faults in Medium Voltage Overhead Feeders

Authors: Mubarak Suliman, Mohamed Hassan


Detection of downed conductors occurring with high fault resistance (reaching kilo-ohms) has always been a challenge, especially in countries like Saudi Arabia, on which earth resistivity is very high in general (reaching more than 1000 Ω-meter). The new approaches for the detection of resistive and high impedance faults are based on the analysis of the fault current waveform. These methods are still under research and development, and they are currently lacking security and dependability. The other approach is communication-based solutions which depends on voltage measurement at the end of overhead line branches and communicate the measured signals to substation feeder relay or a central control center. However, such a detection method is costly and depends on the availability of communication medium and infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to utilize the available standard protection schemes to increase the probability of detection of downed conductors occurring with a low magnitude of fault currents and at the same time avoiding unwanted tripping in healthy conditions and feeders. By specifying the operating region of the faulty feeder, use of tripping curve for discrimination between faulty and healthy feeders, and with proper selection of core balance current transformer (CBCT) and voltage transformers with fewer measurement errors, it is possible to set the pick-up of sensitive earth fault current to minimum values of few amps (i.e., Pick-up Settings = 3 A or 4 A, …) for the detection of earth faults with fault resistance more than (1 - 2 kΩ) for 13.8kV overhead network and more than (3-4) kΩ fault resistance in 33kV overhead network. By implementation of the outcomes of this study, the probability of detection of downed conductors is increased by the utilization of existing schemes (i.e., Directional Sensitive Earth Fault Protection).

Keywords: sensitive earth fault, zero sequence current, grounded system, resistive fault detection, healthy feeder

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4 The Bone Remodeling of Mandible in Bruxers

Authors: Eni Rahmi, Rasmi Rikmasari, Taufik Soemarsongko


Background: One of the bad habits that requires a treatment and viewed as a risk factor of the temporomandibular disorder is bruxism. Bruxism defined as an awake and/or asleep parafunctional activities include grinding, gnashing, bracing or clenching of the teeth. In particular circumstances such as an increased frequency of episode, duration and the intensity of masseter contractions, caused phenomenon with pathological consequences, i.e., mandibular remodeling. The remodeling in mandibular angle was associated with the masseter and pterygoid medial muscles attachment which in its insertion area. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular remodeling between bruxers and non-bruxers with ramus height, gonial angle and bigonial width as parameters, and to identify correlation among those parameters in bruxers, using panoramic radiographic. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 bruxers (10 phasic bruxism patients, 6 tonic bruxism patients, and 19 mixed bruxism patients) and 20 non-bruxers as control group. The data were obtained by using questionary, clinical examination, and radiographic measurement. Panoramic radiograph measurement was done using soft CBCT EPX Impla (E-Woo Korea). The data was analyzed by using Paired T-Test to see differences between parameters in both group and Pearson Correlation Test to evaluate correlation among parameters. Result: There was significant differences between bruxers and non-bruxers in ramus heights (p=0,04), bigonial widths (p=0,001), and gonial angles(p=0,015). The bruxers showed increased ramus heights and bigonial widths, in other hand, the gonial angles decreased. This study also found that there was highly correlation among ramus height, gonial angles, and bigonial widths. Conclusion: the bone remodeling occurred on inferior and posterior border of mandibular angle in bruxism patient, indicated by the form and size differences between bruxers (phasic bruxism, tonic bruxism, and mixed bruxism) with non-bruxers, which shown by panoramic radiograph.

Keywords: bruxism, ramus height, gonial angle, bigonial width

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3 Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Split-Crest Technique by Ultrasonic Bone Surgery Combined with Platelet Concentrates Prior to Dental Implant Placement

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed El-Shamy, Akram Abbas El-Awady, Mahmoud Taha Eldestawy


Background: The present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the combined effect of split crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery and platelet concentrates in implant site development. Methods: Forty patients with narrow ridge were participated in this study. Patients were assigned randomly into one of the following four groups according to treatment: Group 1: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement. Group 2: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and PRF. Group 3: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and PRP. Group 4: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and collagen membrane. Modified plaque index, modified sulcus bleeding index, and implant stability were recorded as a baseline and measured again at 3 and 6 months. CBCT scans were taken immediately after surgery completion and at 9 months to evaluate bone density at the bone-implant interface. Results after 6 months; collagen group showed statistically significantly lower mean modified bleeding index than the other groups. After 3 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean implant stability with ostell ISQ units' than the other groups. After 6 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean implant stability with ostell ISQ units' than the other groups. After 6 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean bone density than the collagen group. Conclusion: Ultrasonic bone surgery in split-crest technique can be a successful option for increasing implant stability values throughout the healing period. The use of a combined technique of ultrasonic bone surgery with PRF and simultaneous implant placement potentially improves osseointegration (bone density). PRF membranes represent advanced technology for the stimulation and acceleration of bone regeneration.

Keywords: dental implants, split-crest, PRF, PRP

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2 Self-Inflating Soft Tissue Expander Outcome for Alveolar Ridge Augmentation a Randomized Controlled Clinical and Histological Study

Authors: Alaa T. Ali, Nevine H. Kheir El Din, Ehab S. Abdelhamid, Ahmed E. Amr


Objective: Severe alveolar bone resorption is usually associated with a deficient amount of soft tissues. soft tissue expansion is introduced to provide an adequate amount of soft tissue over the grafted area. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sub-periosteal self-inflating osmotic tissue expanders used as preparatory surgery before horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation using autogenous onlay block bone graft. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Sixteen partially edentulous patients demanding horizontal bone augmentation in the anterior maxilla were randomly assigned to horizontal ridge augmentation with autogenous bone block grafts harvested from the mandibular symphysis. For the test group, soft tissue expanders were placed sub-periosteally before horizontal ridge augmentation. Impressions were taken before and after STE, and the cast models were optically scanned and superimposed to be used for volumetric analysis. Horizontal ridge augmentation was carried out after STE completion. For the control group, a periosteal releasing incision was performed during bone augmentation procedures. Implants were placed in both groups at re-entry surgery after six months period. A core biopsy was taken. Histomorphometric assessment for newly formed bone surface area, mature collagen area fraction, the osteoblasts count, and blood vessel count were performed. The change in alveolar ridge width was evaluated through bone caliper and CBCT. Results: Soft tissue expander successfully provides a Surplus amount of soft tissues in 5 out of 8 patients in the test group. Complications during the expansion period were perforation through oral mucosa occurred in two patients. Infection occurred in one patient. The mean soft tissue volume gain was 393.9 ± 322mm. After 6 months. The mean horizontal bone gains for the test and control groups were 3.14 mm and 3.69 mm, respectively. Conclusion: STE with a sub-periosteal approach is an applicable method to achieve an additional soft tissue and to reduce bone block graft exposure and wound dehiscence.

Keywords: soft tissue expander, ridge augmentation, block graft, symphysis bone block

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1 Radiographic Evaluation of Odontogenic Keratocyst: A 14 Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Nor Hidayah Reduwan, Jira Chindasombatjaroen, Suchaya Pornprasersuk-Damrongsri, Sopee Pomsawat


INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remain as a controversial pathologic entity under the scrutiny of many researchers and maxillofacial surgeons alike. The high recurrence rate and relatively aggressive nature of this lesion demand a meticulous analysis of the radiographic characteristic of OKC leading to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the radiographic characteristic of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) using conventional radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients histopathologically diagnosed as OKC from 2003 to 2016 by Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs of these cases from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University were retrieved. Assessment of the location, shape, border, cortication, locularity, the relationship of lesion to embedded tooth, displacement of adjacent tooth, root resorption and bony expansion of the lesion were conducted. RESULTS: Radiographs of 91 patients (44 males, 47 females) with the mean age of 31 years old (10 to 84 years) were analyzed. Among all patients, 5 cases were syndromic patients. Hence, a total of 103 OKCs were studied. The most common location was at the ramus of mandible (32%) followed by posterior maxilla (29%). Most cases presented as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated border. The lesion was in associated with embedded tooth in 48 lesions (47%). Eighty five percent of embedded tooth are impacted 3rd molar. Thirty-seven percentage of embedded tooth were entirely encapsulated in the lesion. The lesion attached to the embedded tooth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 40% and extended to part of root in 23% of cases. Teeth displacement and root resorption were found in 29% and 6% of cases, respectively. Bony expansion in bucco-lingual dimension was seen in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: OKCs were predominant in the posterior region of the mandible with radiographic features of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated margin. The lesions might relate to an embedded tooth by surrounding an entire tooth, attached to the CEJ level or extending to part of root. Bony expansion could be found but teeth displacement and root resorption were not common. These features might help in giving the differential diagnosis.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, imaging dentistry, odontogenic keratocyst, radiographic features

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