Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Mosad A. Ghareeb

10 Chemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of Isolated Compounds and Essential Oil from Callistemon citrinus Leaf

Authors: Manal M. Hamed, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Abdel-Aleem H. Abdel-Aleem, Amal M. Saad, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Asmaa H. Hadad


Natural products derived from medicinal plants provide unlimited opportunities for a new medication leads because of the unmatched accessibility of chemical variation. Six compounds were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Callistemon citrinus (Family Myrtaceae), they were identified as; nepetolide (1), callislignan A (2), 6,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dimethyl-3-methyleneisochroman-1-one (3), 3-methyl-7-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), 5, 7, 3', 5'-tetrahydroxy-6, 8-di-C-methyl flavanone (5), and (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-tetrahydropyran (6). The isolated compounds were evaluated as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were determined using DPPH-radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. The results indicated that compound (5) was most active in its capacity to scavenge free radicals in the DPPH assay [SC50 value, 4.65 ± 0.74μg/mL] compared to the standard ascorbic acid and exhibited the highest activity in the TAC assay (610.45 ± 1.67mg AAE/g compound). The pure isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Also, the GC/MS analysis of its leaves essential oil presented nine identified compounds representing 91% of the total oil constituents. The outcomes got from this study give a reasonable justification for the medicinal uses of Callistemon citrinus plant.

Keywords: Callistemon citrinus, flavanone, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Myrtaceae

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9 Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure

Authors: Nader H. Ghareeb, Mohamed S. Gaith, Sayed M. Soleimani


In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.

Keywords: active linear control, lyapunov stability theorem, piezoelectricity, smart structure, static deflection

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8 Implementation of State-Space and Super-Element Techniques for the Modeling and Control of Smart Structures with Damping Characteristics

Authors: Nader Ghareeb, Rüdiger Schmidt


Minimizing the weight in flexible structures means reducing material and costs as well. However, these structures could become prone to vibrations. Attenuating these vibrations has become a pivotal engineering problem that shifted the focus of many research endeavors. One technique to do that is to design and implement an active control system. This system is mainly composed of a vibrating structure, a sensor to perceive the vibrations, an actuator to counteract the influence of disturbances, and finally a controller to generate the appropriate control signals. In this work, two different techniques are explored to create two different mathematical models of an active control system. The first model is a finite element model with a reduced number of nodes and it is called a super-element. The second model is in the form of state-space representation, i.e. a set of partial differential equations. The damping coefficients are calculated and incorporated into both models. The effectiveness of these models is demonstrated when the system is excited by its first natural frequency and an active control strategy is developed and implemented to attenuate the resulting vibrations. Results from both modeling techniques are presented and compared.

Keywords: damping coefficients, finite element analysis, super-element, state-space model

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7 Genetic Determinants of Ovarian Response to Gonadotropin Stimulation in Women Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Treatment

Authors: D. Tohlob, E. Abo Hashem, N. Ghareeb, M. Ghanem, R. Elfarahaty, S. A. Roberts, P. Pemberton, L. Mohiyiddeen, W. G. Newman


Gonadotropin stimulation is used in females undergoing assisted reproductive treatment for ovulation induction, but ovarian response is variable and unpredictable in these women. More effective protocols and individualization of treatment are needed to increase the success rate of IVF/ICSI cycles. We genotyped seven variants reported in previous studies to be associated with ovarian response (number of ova retrieved and total gonadotropin dose) in women undergoing IVF treatment including FSHR variants Asn 680 Ser (c.2039 A > G), Thr 307 Ala (c. 919 > A), -29 G > A, HRG c.610 C > T gene, BMP15 -9 C > G, AMH Ile 49 Ser (c.146 G > T), and AMHR -489A˃G in 118 Egyptian females attending Mansoura Integrated Fertility Center in Egypt, these females were undergoing their first cycle of controlled ovarian hyper stimulation for IVF/ICSI treatment. They were analyzed by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay in Manchester Center of Genomic Medicine. We found no evidence of any significant difference (p value < 0.05) in the number of eggs retrieved or the gonadotropin dose used between individuals in all genotypes except for HRG c.610 C > T gene polymorphism where regression analysis gives a p value of 0.04 with a fewer eggs number in TT genotyped females. These results indicate that these variants do not provide sufficient clinically relevant data to individualize the treatment protocols.

Keywords: controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, gene variants, ovarian response, assisted reproduction

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6 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori


In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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5 A Machine Learning Based Framework for Education Levelling in Multicultural Countries: UAE as a Case Study

Authors: Shatha Ghareeb, Rawaa Al-Jumeily, Thar Baker


In Abu Dhabi, there are many different education curriculums where sector of private schools and quality assurance is supervising many private schools in Abu Dhabi for many nationalities. As there are many different education curriculums in Abu Dhabi to meet expats’ needs, there are different requirements for registration and success. In addition, there are different age groups for starting education in each curriculum. In fact, each curriculum has a different number of years, assessment techniques, reassessment rules, and exam boards. Currently, students that transfer curriculums are not being placed in the right year group due to different start and end dates of each academic year and their date of birth for each year group is different for each curriculum and as a result, we find students that are either younger or older for that year group which therefore creates gaps in their learning and performance. In addition, there is not a way of storing student data throughout their academic journey so that schools can track the student learning process. In this paper, we propose to develop a computational framework applicable in multicultural countries such as UAE in which multi-education systems are implemented. The ultimate goal is to use cloud and fog computing technology integrated with Artificial Intelligence techniques of Machine Learning to aid in a smooth transition when assigning students to their year groups, and provide leveling and differentiation information of students who relocate from a particular education curriculum to another, whilst also having the ability to store and access student data from anywhere throughout their academic journey.

Keywords: admissions, algorithms, cloud computing, differentiation, fog computing, levelling, machine learning

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4 Efficacy of Biofeedback-Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy, Afaf M. Botla, Ghada E. El-Refaye, Hassan O. Ghareeb


Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults. Its incidence increases with age and it is more frequent in women. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) either alone or combined with biofeedback-assisted PFMT. The aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback-assisted PFMT in postoperative stress urinary incontinence. Settings and Design: A single blind controlled trial design was. Methods and Material: This study was carried out in 30 volunteer patients diagnosed as severe degree of stress urinary incontinence and they were admitted to surgical treatment. They were divided randomly into two equal groups: (Group A) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with post-operative biofeedback-assisted PFMT and home exercise program (Group B) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with home exercise program only. Assessment of all patients in both groups (A) and (B) was carried out before and after the treatment program by measuring intra-vaginal pressure in addition to the visual analog scale. Results: At the end of the treatment program, there was a highly statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) in the intra-vaginal pressure and the visual analog scale favoring the group (A). Conclusion: biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective method for the symptomatic relief of post-operative female stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback

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3 Modeling and Simulation of Honeycomb Steel Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

Authors: Sayed M. Soleimani, Nader H. Ghareeb, Nourhan H. Shaker, Muhammad B. Siddiqui


Honeycomb sandwich panels have been widely used as protective structural elements against blast loading. The main advantages of these panels include their light weight due to the presence of voids, as well as their energy absorption capability. Terrorist activities have imposed new challenges to structural engineers to design protective measures for vital structures. Since blast loading is not usually considered in the load combinations during the design process of a structure, researchers around the world have been motivated to study the behavior of potential elements capable of resisting sudden loads imposed by the detonation of explosive materials. One of the best candidates for this objective is the honeycomb sandwich panel. Studying the effects of explosive materials on the panels requires costly and time-consuming experiments. Moreover, these type of experiments need permission from defense organizations which can become a hurdle. As a result, modeling and simulation using an appropriate tool can be considered as a good alternative. In this research work, the finite element package ABAQUS® is used to study the behavior of hexagonal and squared honeycomb steel sandwich panels under the explosive effects of different amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The results of finite element modeling of a specific honeycomb configuration are initially validated by comparing them with the experimental results from literature. Afterwards, several configurations including different geometrical properties of the honeycomb wall are investigated and the results are compared with the original model. Finally, the effectiveness of the core shape and wall thickness are discussed, and conclusions are made.

Keywords: Abaqus, blast loading, finite element modeling, steel honeycomb sandwich panel

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2 The Effect of Different Exercise Intensities on Plasma Endostatin in Healthy Volunteers

Authors: Inayat Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Ghareeb Alshuwaier, Ronald H. Baxendale


Background: The balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis is important in growth and developmental processes in the body. Angiogenic and angiostatic mediators control this balance. Endostatin is one of the prominent angiostatic mediators. The marked angiostatic effect of endostatin includes inhibiting endothelial cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Physical activity decreases the risk and development of many angiogenesis related health problems including atherosclerosis and numerous cancers. Physiological influences of different physical activities on plasma endostatin concentration are controversial and not completely clear. Moreover, correlation of physical characteristics and metabolic predictors during physical activity on circulating endostatin is indistinct and poorly speculated. The study aimed to determine the effects of mild, moderate and vigorous exercise on the concentration of endostatin in plasma. Methodology: 22 participants, 16 males (age = 30.6 ± 7.8 years) and 6 females (age = 26.5 ± 5 years) were recruited. Weekly session of different intensities exercise based on the predicted maximum heart of the participants [60%(low), 70% (moderate) and 80% (vigorous)] were carried out. The duration and work rate for each participant was determined through sub-maximal exercise. Standardization of the session was done on total energy expenditure of the participants per session. One pre exercise and two post exercise samples were taken at intervals of 10 and 60 minutes. Results: Pre-exercise mean endostatin was 101 ± 20 ng/dl. Low intensity exercise insignificantly decreased the endostatin concentration in plasma at 10 and 60 minutes 97 ± 20 ng/dl (p= 0.5), 98 ± 23 ng/dl (p= 0.8)). However, moderate (p= 0.022, 0.004) and vigorous intensities (p ≤ 0.001, 0.02) increased the endostatin concentrations significantly at both 10 and 60 minutes intervals respectively. The effects were not significantly influenced by gender, exercise mode (walking vs. running), components of exercise (HR, Speed, Gradients, distance, duration) or metabolism during exercise (VO₂ max, VCO₂, RER, energy expenditure, rate of carbohydrate or fats oxidation). Conclusion: Low intensity exercises did not influence endostatin concentration. However, moderate to high intensity exercises significantly increase endostatin concentration and may have potential benefits.

Keywords: angiogenesis, exercise, endostatin, physical activity

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1 Drug Design Modelling and Molecular Virtual Simulation of an Optimized BSA-Based Nanoparticle Formulation Loaded with Di-Berberine Sulfate Acid Salt

Authors: Eman M. Sarhan, Doaa A. Ghareeb, Gabriella Ortore, Amr A. Amara, Mohamed M. El-Sayed


Drug salting and nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations are considered to be an effective means for rendering the hydrophobic drugs’ nano-scale dispersion in aqueous media, and thus circumventing the pitfalls of their poor solubility as well as enhancing their membrane permeability. The current study aims to increase the bioavailability of quaternary ammonium berberine through acid salting and biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanoparticulate drug formulation. Berberine hydroxide (BBR-OH) that was chemically synthesized by alkalization of the commercially available berberine hydrochloride (BBR-HCl) was then acidified to get Di-berberine sulfate (BBR)₂SO₄. The purified crystals were spectrally characterized. The desolvation technique was optimized for the preparation of size-controlled BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, and BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄ nanoparticles. Particle size, zeta potential, drug release, encapsulation efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tandem MS-MS spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning and transmitting electron microscopic examination (SEM, TEM), in vitro bioactivity, and in silico drug-polymer interaction were determined. BSA (PDB ID; 4OR0) protonation state at different pH values was predicted using Amber12 molecular dynamic simulation. Then blind docking was performed using Lamarkian genetic algorithm (LGA) through AutoDock4.2 software. Results proved the purity and the size-controlled synthesis of berberine-BSA-nanoparticles. The possible binding poses, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of berberine on BSA at different pH values were predicted. Antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, and cell differentiated ability of tested drugs and their nano-formulations were evaluated. Thus, drug salting and the potentially effective albumin berberine nanoparticle formulations can be successfully developed using a well-optimized desolvation technique and exhibiting better in vitro cellular bioavailability.

Keywords: berberine, BSA, BBR-OH, BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, (BBR)₂SO₄, BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄, FTIR, AutoDock4.2 Software, Lamarkian genetic algorithm, SEM, TEM, EDX

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