Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 556

Search results for: Antalya basin

556 Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Füsun Kılçık, Hatice Gülboy Akyıldırım, Aynur Özen, Mehmet Acar, Nur Yoluk


For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.

Keywords: Antalya basin, biomonitoring, BMWP, water quality

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555 Seismic Hazard Analysis for a Multi Layer Fault System: Antalya (SW Turkey) Example

Authors: Nihat Dipova, Bulent Cangir


This article presents the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Antalya (SW Turkey). South west of Turkey is characterized by large earthquakes resulting from the continental collision between the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and crustal faults. Earthquakes around the study area are grouped into two; crustal earthquakes (D=0-50 km) and subduction zone earthquakes (50-140 km). Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw=6.0. Maximum magnitude of crustal earthquakes is Mw=6.6. Sources for crustal earthquakes are faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. A new earthquake catalogue for Antalya, with unified moment magnitude scale has been prepared and seismicity of the area around Antalya city has been evaluated by defining ‘a’ and ‘b’ parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. The Standard Cornell-McGuire method has been used for hazard computation utilizing CRISIS2007 software. Attenuation relationships proposed by Chiou and Youngs (2008) has been used for 0-50 km earthquakes and Youngs et. al (1997) for deep subduction earthquakes. Finally, Seismic hazard map for peak horizontal acceleration on a uniform site condition of firm rock (average shear wave velocity of about 1130 m/s) at a hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years has been prepared.

Keywords: Antalya, peak ground acceleration, seismic hazard assessment, subduction

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554 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman


Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

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553 Study of Effects of 3D Semi-Spheriacl Basin-Shape-Ratio on the Frequency Content and Spectral Amplitudes of the Basin-Generated Surface Waves

Authors: Kamal, J. P. Narayan


In the present wok the effects of basin-shape-ratio on the frequency content and spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the associated spatial variation of ground motion amplification and differential ground motion in a 3D semi-spherical basin has been studied. A recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on the parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of the 3D viscoelastic wave equations was used to estimate seismic responses. The simulated results demonstrated the increase of both the frequency content and the spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the duration of ground motion in the basin with the increase of shape-ratio of semi-spherical basin. An increase of the average spectral amplification (ASA), differential ground motion (DGM) and the average aggravation factor (AAF) towards the centre of the semi-spherical basin was obtained.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, basin-shape-ratio effects, average spectral amplification, aggravation factors and differential ground motion

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552 Runoff Estimation in the Khiyav River Basin by Using the SCS_ CN Model

Authors: F. Esfandyari Darabad, Z. Samadi


The volume of runoff caused by rainfall in the river basin has enticed the researchers in the fields of the water management resources. In this study, first of the hydrological data such as the rainfall and discharge of the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city in the northwest of Iran collected and then the process of analyzing and reconstructing has been completed. The soil conservation service (scs) has developed a method for calculating the runoff, in which is based on the curve number specification (CN). This research implemented the following model in the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city by the GIS techniques and concluded the following fact in which represents the usage of weight model in calculating the curve numbers that provides the possibility for the all efficient factors which is contributing to the runoff creation such as; the geometric characteristics of the basin, the basin soil characteristics, vegetation, geology, climate and human factors to be considered, so an accurate estimation of runoff from precipitation to be achieved as the result. The findings also exposed the accident-prone areas in the output of the Khiyav river basin so it was revealed that the Khiyav river basin embodies a high potential for the flood creation.

Keywords: curve number, khiyav river basin, runoff estimation, SCS

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551 The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch

Authors: Cenkmen R. Begburs


In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.

Keywords: reef trap, Antalya, environment, damage

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550 Agricultural Water Consumption Estimation in the Helmand Basin

Authors: Mahdi Akbari, Ali Torabi Haghighi


Hamun Lakes, located in the Helmand Basin, consisting of four water bodies, were the greatest (>8500 km2) freshwater bodies in Iran plateau but have almost entirely desiccated over the last 20 years. The desiccation of the lakes caused dust storm in the region which has huge economic and health consequences on the inhabitants. The flow of the Hirmand (or Helmand) River, the most important feeding river, has decreased from 4 to 1.9 km3 downstream due to anthropogenic activities. In this basin, water is mainly consumed for farming. Due to the lack of in-situ data in the basin, this research utilizes remote-sensing data to show how croplands and consequently consumed water in the agricultural sector have changed. Based on Landsat NDVI, we suggest using a threshold of around 0.35-0.4 to detect croplands in the basin. Croplands of this basin has doubled since 1990, especially in the downstream of the Kajaki Dam (the biggest dam of the basin). Using PML V2 Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) data and considering irrigation efficiency (≈0.3), we estimate that the consumed water (CW) for farming. We found that CW has increased from 2.5 to over 7.5 km3 from 2002 to 2017 in this basin. Also, the annual average Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) of the basin has had a negative trend in the recent years, although the AET over croplands has an increasing trend. In this research, using remote sensing data, we covered lack of data in the studied area and highlighted anthropogenic activities in the upstream which led to the lakes desiccation in the downstream.

Keywords: Afghanistan-Iran transboundary Basin, Iran-Afghanistan water treaty, water use, lake desiccation

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549 Basin Professor, Petroleum Geology Assessor in Indonesia Basin

Authors: Arditya Nugraha, Herry Gunawan, Agung P. Widodo


The various possible strategies to find hydrocarbon are explored within a wide ranging of efforts. It started to identify petroleum concept in the basin. The main objectives of this paper are to integrate and develop information, knowledge, and evaluation from Indonesia’s sedimentary basins system in terms of their suitability for exploration activity and estimate the hydrocarbon potential available. The system which compiled data information and knowledge and comprised exploration and production data of all basins in Indonesia called as Basin Professor which stands for Basin Professional and Processor. Basin Professor is a website application using Geography Information System which consists of all information about basin montage, basin summary, petroleum system, stratigraphy, development play, risk factor, exploration history, working area, regional cross section, well correlation, prospect & lead inventory and infrastructure spatial. From 82 identified sedimentary basins, North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatera, East Java, Kutai, and Tarakan basins are respectively positioned of the Indonesia’ s mature basin and the most productive basin. The Eastern of Indonesia also have many hydrocarbon potential and discovered several fields in Papua and East Abadi. Basin Professor compiled the well data in all of the basin in Indonesia from mature basin to frontier basin. Well known geological data, subsurface mapping, prospect and lead, resources and established infrastructures are the main factors make these basins have higher suitability beside another potential basin. The hydrocarbon potential resulted from this paper based on the degree of geological data, petroleum, and economic evaluation. Basin Professor has provided by a calculator tool in lead and prospect for estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, recoverable in place and geological risk. Furthermore, the calculator also defines the preliminary economic evaluation such as investment, POT IRR and infrastructures in each basin. From this Basin Professor, petroleum companies are able to estimate that Indonesia has a huge potential of hydrocarbon oil and gas reservoirs and still interesting for hydrocarbon exploration and production activity.

Keywords: basin summary, petroleum system, resources, economic evaluation

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548 Neotectonic Features of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone between Kozluca and Burdur, SW Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Berkant Coşkuner, Rahmi Aksoy


The aim of this study is to present some preliminary stratigraphic and structural evidence for the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone between Kozluca and Burdur. The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, the easternmost extension of the west Anatolian extensional province, extends from the Gulf of Fethiye northeastward through Burdur, a distance of about 300 km. The research area is located in the Burdur segment of the fault zone. Here, the fault zone includes several parallel to subparallel fault branching and en-echelon faults that lie within a linear belt, as much as 20 km in width. The direction of movement in the fault zone has been oblique-slip in the left lateral sense. The basement of the study area consists of the Triassic-Eocene Lycian Nappes, the Eocene-Oligocene molasse sediments and the lower Miocene marine rocks. The Burdur basin contains two basin infills. The ancient and deformed basin fill is composed of lacustrine sediments of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene age. The younger and undeformed basin fill comprises Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan and recent basin-floor deposits and unconformably overlies the ancient basin infill. The Burdur basin is bounded by the NE-SW trending, left lateral oblique-slip normal faults, the Karakent fault on the northwest and the Burdur fault on the southeast. These faults played a key role in the development of the Burdur basin as a pull-apart basin.

Keywords: Burdur basin, Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, left lateral oblique-slip fault, Western Anatolia

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547 Synthetic Daily Flow Duration Curves for the Çoruh River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Can, Fatih Tosunoğlu


The flow duration curve (FDC) is an informative method that represents the flow regime’s properties for a river basin. Therefore, the FDC is widely used for water resource projects such as hydropower, water supply, irrigation and water quality management. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain synthetic daily flow duration curves for Çoruh Basin, Turkey. For this aim, we firstly developed univariate auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models for daily flows of 9 stations located in Çoruh basin and then these models were used to generate 100 synthetic flow series each having same size as historical series. Secondly, flow duration curves of each synthetic series were drawn and the flow values exceeded 10, 50 and 95 % of the time and 95% confidence limit of these flows were calculated. As a result, flood, mean and low flows potential of Çoruh basin will comprehensively be represented.

Keywords: ARMA models, Çoruh basin, flow duration curve, Turkey

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546 Neotectonic Characteristics of the Western Part of Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy


The western part of Konya consists of an area of block faulted basin and ranges. Present day topography is characterized by alternating elongate mountains and depressions trending east-west. A number of depressions occur in the region. One of the large depressions is the E-W trending Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine (KK basin) basin bounded on both sides by normal faults and located on the west of the Konya city. The basin is about 5-12 km wide and 40 km long. Ranges north and south of the basin are composed of undifferentiated low grade metamorphic rocks of Silurian-Cretaceous age and smaller bodies of ophiolites of probable Cretaceous age. The basin fill consists of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, alluvial sediments and volcanic rocks. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor deposits. The paleostress data on the striated fault planes in the basin indicates NW-SE extension and associated with an NE-SW compression. The eastern end of the KK basin is cut and terraced by the active Konya fault zone. The Konya fault zone is NE trending, east dipping normal fault forming the western boundary of the Konya depression. The Konya depression consists mainly of Plio-Quaternary alluvial complex and recent basin floor sediments. The structural data gathered from the Konya fault zone support normal faulting with a small amount of dextral strike-slip tensional tectonic regime that shaped under the WNW-ESE extensional stress regime.

Keywords: central Anatolia, fault kinematics, Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine basin, Konya fault zone, neotectonics

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545 Hydrologic Balance and Surface Water Resources of the Cheliff-Zahrez Basin

Authors: Mehaiguene Madjid, Touhari Fadhila, Meddi Mohamed


The Cheliff basin offers a good hydrological example for the possibility of studying the problem which elucidated in the future, because of the unclearity in several aspects and hydraulic installation. Thus, our study of the Cheliff basin is divided into two principal parts: The spatial evaluation of the precipitation: also, the understanding of the modes of the reconstitution of the resource in water supposes a good knowledge of the structuring of the precipitation fields in the studied space. In the goal of a good knowledge of revitalizes them in water and their management integrated one judged necessary to establish a precipitation card of the Cheliff basin for a good understanding of the evolution of the resource in water in the basin and that goes will serve as basis for all study of hydraulic planning in the Cheliff basin. Then, the establishment of the precipitation card of the Cheliff basin answered a direct need of setting to the disposition of the researchers for the region and a document of reference that will be completed therefore and actualized. The hydrological study, based on the statistical hydrometric data processing will lead us to specify the hydrological terms of the assessment hydrological and to clarify the fundamental aspects of the annual flow, seasonal, extreme and thus of their variability and resources surface water.

Keywords: hydrological assessment, surface water resources, Cheliff, Algeria

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544 Outcome-Based Water Resources Management in the Gash River Basin, Eastern Sudan

Authors: Muna Mohamed Omer Mirghani


This paper responds to one of the key national development strategies and a typical challenge in the Gash Basin as well as in different parts of Sudan, namely managing water scarcity in view of climate change impacts in minor water systems sustaining over 50% of the Sudan population. While now focusing on the Gash river basin, the ultimate aim is to replicate the same approach in similar water systems in central and west Sudan. The key objective of the paper is the identification of outcome-based water governance interventions in Gash Basin, guided by the global Sustainable Development Goal six (SDG 6 on water and sanitation) and the Sudan water resource policy framework. The paper concluded that improved water resources management of the Gash Basin is a prerequisite for ensuring desired policy outcomes of groundwater use and flood risk management purposes. Analysis of various water governance dimensions in the Gash indicated that the operationalization of a Basin-level institutional reform is critically focused on informed actors and adapted practices through knowledge and technologies along with the technical data and capacity needed to make that. Adapting the devolved Institutional structure at state level is recommended to strengthen the Gash basin regulatory function and improve compliance of groundwater users.

Keywords: water governance, Gash Basin, integrated groundwater management, Sudan

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543 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh


In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

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542 String as a Design Element: The Work of Students for International Architecture Biennale, Antalya and Lohberg Coal Mine, Germany

Authors: Ayşe Duygu Kaçar


Industrial regions and buildings that have stopped their primary functions are in the interest of the discipline of architecture in the last decades. The renewal of these spaces of production for different functions is a common aspect for contemporary world countries. Totally different functions can be added to the existing as well, which can help improving the social, cultural and aesthetic character of these beings and sustaining their uniqueness. Therefore, these sites linking the past and future can be used as museums, exhibition centers, art ateliers, city parks, recreational centers, botanic gardens, sculpture parks, theatres, etc. in order to continue their place in the collective memory of the cities. The present paper depicts a way of shedding light on the Cotton Textile Industry (İplik ve Dokuma Fabrikası A.Ş), a local industrial site in Antalya, the most popular tourism center of Turkey, as a part of International Architecture Biennale, 2011 and on Lohberg coal mine, a local industrial site in the Ruhr region of Germany. As a transparent, fragile, temporary and economical material, the string was used as a design element in both experiential architecture works with architecture students and the outcomes will be discussed and presented through the theme 'rejecting / reversing architecture'.

Keywords: industrial sites, the Cotton Textile Industry Antalya, Lohberg coal mine, architectural design, identity

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541 Numerical Modeling of Flow in USBR II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope

Authors: Hamidreza Babaali, Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Saba Soori


Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increase energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) II stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model is verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m3/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used to optimize of stilling basins.‎

Keywords: experimental and numerical modelling, end adverse slope, flow ‎parameters, USBR II stilling basin

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540 Hydrological Modelling to Identify Critical Erosion Areas in Gheshlagh Dam Basin

Authors: Golaleh Ghaffari


A basin sediment yield refers to the amount of sediment exported by a basin over a period of time, which will enter a reservoir located at the downstream limit of the basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2008) was used to hydrology and sediment transport modeling at daily and monthly time steps within the Gheshlagh dam basin in north-west of Iran. The SWAT model and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to evaluate basin hydrology and sediment yield using historical flow and sediment data and to identify and prioritize critical sub-basins based on sediment transport. The results of this study indicated that simulated daily discharge and sediment values matched the observed values satisfactorily. The model predicted that mean annual basin precipitation for the total study period (413 mm) was partitioned in to evapotranspiration (36%), percolation/groundwater recharge (21%) and stream water (25%), yielding 18% surface runoff. Potential source areas of erosion were also identified with the model. The range of the annual contributing erosive zones varied spatially from 0.1 to 103 t/ha according to the slope and land use at the basin scale. Also the fifteen sub basins create the 60% of the total sediment yield between the all (102) sub basins. The results of the study indicated that SWAT can be a useful tool for assessing hydrology and sediment yield response of the watersheds in the region.

Keywords: erosion, Gheshlagh dam, sediment yield, SWAT

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539 The Effects of the Russian Crisis on Turkish Tourism Sector: A Case of Antalya Province, Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Sercan Aras, Vahit Aytekin


Economic crisis, terrorism, global crisis and the relations between countries are the factors affecting tourism industry and tourism industry is vulnerable against these factors. In our study, there are two dimensions about Russian crisis. The crisis between Russia and Ukraine and decreased oil prices in global market have been entailed Russian economic crisis. This crisis has induced that the ruble, Russian currency, has depreciated against American dollars and consequently the purchasing power of Russian has weakened. This is the first dimension of our study. Second dimension is a political crisis between Turkey and Russia owing to the fact that the Russian Warcraft was brought down by Turkish army. The aim of this study is to explain the impact of the consequences of Russian crisis on Turkish tourism industry. The study has been limited only Antalya province.

Keywords: economic crisis, Turkey-Russian crisis, Turkey's tourism industry, tourism in Turkey

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538 Determination and Distribution of Formation Thickness Using Seismic and Well Data in Baga/Lake Sub-basin, Chad Basin Nigeria

Authors: Gabriel Efomeh Omolaiye, Olatunji Seminu, Jimoh Ajadi, Yusuf Ayoola Jimoh


The Nigerian part of the Chad Basin till date has been one of the few critically studied basins, with few published scholarly works, compared to other basins such as Niger Delta, Dahomey, etc. This work was undertaken by the integration of 3D seismic interpretations and the well data analysis of eight wells fairly distributed in block A, Baga/Lake sub-basin in Borno basin with the aim of determining the thickness of Chad, Kerri-Kerri, Fika, and Gongila Formations in the sub-basin. Da-1 well (type-well) used in this study was subdivided into stratigraphic units based on the regional stratigraphic subdivision of the Chad basin and was later correlated with other wells using similarity of observed log responses. The combined density and sonic logs were used to generate synthetic seismograms for seismic to well ties. Five horizons were mapped, representing the tops of the formations on the 3D seismic data covering the block; average velocity function with maximum error/residual of 0.48% was adopted in the time to depth conversion of all the generated maps. There is a general thickening of sediments from the west to the east, and the estimated thicknesses of the various formations in the Baga/Lake sub-basin are Chad Formation (400-750 m), Kerri-Kerri Formation (300-1200 m), Fika Formation (300-2200 m) and Gongila Formation (100-1300 m). The thickness of the Bima Formation could not be established because the deepest well (Da-1) terminates within the formation. This is a modification to the previous and widely referenced studies of over forty decades that based the estimation of formation thickness within the study area on the observed outcrops at different locations and the use of few well data.

Keywords: Baga/Lake sub-basin, Chad basin, formation thickness, seismic, velocity

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537 Delineating Subsurface Linear Features and Faults Under Sedimentary Cover in the Bahira Basin Using Integrated Gravity and Magnetic Data

Authors: M. Lghoul, N. El Goumi, M. Guernouche


In order to predict the structural and tectonic framework of the Bahira basin and to have a 3D geological modeling of the basin, an integrated multidisciplinary work has been conducted using gravity, magnetic and geological data. The objective of the current study is delineating the subsurfacefeatures, faults, and geological limits, using airborne magnetic and gravity data analysis of the Bahira basin. To achieve our goal, we have applied different enhanced techniques on magnetic and gravity data: power spectral analysis techniques, reduction to pole (RTP), upward continuation, analytical signal, tilt derivative, total horizontal derivative, 3D Euler deconvolutionand source parameter imagining. The major lineaments/faults trend are: NE–SW, NW-SE, ENE–WSW, and WNW–ESE. The 3D Euler deconvolution analysis highlighted a number of fault trend, mainly in the ENE-WSW, WNW-ESE directions. The depth tothe top of the basement sources in the study area ranges between 200 m, in the southern and northern part of the Bahira basin, to 5000 m located in the Eastern part of the basin.

Keywords: magnetic, gravity, structural trend, depth to basement

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536 Insights into Kinematics and Basin Development through Palinspastic Reconstructions in Pull-Apart Basin Sunda Strait: Implication for the Opportunity of Hydrocarbon Exploration in Fore-Arc Basin, Western Indonesia

Authors: Alfathony Krisnabudhi, Syahli Reza Ananda, M. Edo Marshal, M. Maaruf Mukti


This study investigates the kinematics and basin development of pull-apart basin Sunda Strait based on palinspastic reconstructions of new acquired seismic reflection data to unravel hydrocarbon exploration opportunity in frontier area, fore-arc basin western Indonesia. We use more than 780 km seismic reflection data that cover whole basin. Structural patterns in Sunda Strait are dominated by northwest-southeast trending planar and listric-normal faults which appear to be graben and half-graben system. The main depocentre of this basin is East Semangko graben and West Semangko graben that are formed by overstepping of Sumatra Fault Zone and Ujungkulon Fault Zone. In father east, another depocentre is recognized as the Krakatau graben. The kinematic evolution started in Middle Miocene, characterized by the initiation of basement faulting with 0% to 7.00% extension. Deposition stratigraphic unit 1 and unit 2 started at 7.00% to 10.00% extension in Late Miocene and recognized as pre-transtensional deposit. The Plio-Pleistocene unit 3 and 4 were deposited as syn-transtensional deposit with 10.00% to 17.00% extension contemporaneously with the initiation of uplift NW-SE trending ridges due to the evolution of cross-basin fault in central basin and the development of en-echelon basin margin in a transtensional system. The control of sedimentation rate and basin subsidence cause the Neogene sediment to be very thick. We suggest that both controls allow thermal and pressure to generate hydrocarbon habitats in the pre-transtensional deposits. It is reinforced by stable kinematic evolution and interpretation of the deposition environment of pre-transtensional deposits that are deposited in the marine environment.

Keywords: kinematics, palinspastic, Sunda Strait, hydrocarbon exploration, fore-arc basin

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535 Application of Acid Base Accounting to Predict Post-Mining Drainage Quality in Coalfields of the Main Karoo Basin and Selected Sub-Basins, South Africa

Authors: Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Ken Liu, Helen Johanna Van Niekerk


Acid Base Accounting (ABA) is a tool used to assess the total amount of acidity or alkalinity contained in a specific rock sample, and is based on the total S concentration and the carbonate content of a sample. A preliminary ABA test was conducted on 14 sandstone and 5 coal samples taken from coalfields representing the Main Karoo Basin (Highveld, Vryheid and Molteno/Indwe Coalfields) and the Sub-basins (Witbank and Waterberg Coalfields). The results indicate that sandstone and coal from the Main Karoo Basin have the potential of generating Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as they contain sufficient pyrite to generate acid, with the final pH of samples relatively low upon complete oxidation of pyrite. Sandstone from collieries representing the Main Karoo Basin are characterised by elevated contents of reactive S%. All the studied samples were characterised by an Acid Potential (AP) that is less than the Neutralizing Potential (NP) except for two samples. The results further indicate that the sandstone from the Main Karoo Basin is prone to acid generation as compared to the sandstone from the Sub-basins. However, the coal has a relatively low potential of generating any acid. The application of ABA in this study contributes to an understanding of the complexities governing water-rock interactions. In general, the coalfields from the Main Karoo Basin have much higher potential to produce AMD during mining processes than the coalfields in the Sub-basins.

Keywords: Main Karoo Basin, sub-basin, coal, sandstone, acid base accounting (ABA)

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534 Legal Basis for Water Resources Management in Brazil: Case Study of the Rio Grande Basin

Authors: Janaína F. Guidolini, Jean P. H. B. Ometto, Angélica Giarolla, Peter M. Toledo, Carlos A. Valera


The water crisis, a major problem of the 21st century, occurs mainly due to poor management. The central issue that should govern the management is the integration of the various aspects that interfere with the use of water resources and their protection, supported by legal basis. A watershed is a unit of water interacting with the physical, biotic, social, economic and cultural variables. The Brazilian law recognized river basin as the territorial management unit. Based on the diagnosis of the current situation of the water resources of the Rio Grande Basin, a discussion informed in the Brazilian legal basis was made to propose measures to fight or mitigate damages and environmental degradation in the Basin. To manage water resources more efficiently, conserve water and optimize their multiple uses, the integration of acquired scientific knowledge and management is essential. Moreover, it is necessary to monitor compliance with environmental legislation.

Keywords: conservation of soil and water, environmental laws, river basin, sustainability

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533 Channel Characteristics and Morphometry of a Part of Umtrew River, Meghalaya

Authors: Pratyashi Phukan, Ranjan Saikia


Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area ,altitude,volume, slope profiles of a land and drainage basin characteristics of the area concerned.Fluvial geomorphology includes the consideration of linear,areal and relief aspects of a fluvially originated drainage basin. The linear aspect deals with the hierarchical orders of streams, numbers, and lenghts of stream segments and various relationship among them.The areal aspect includes the analysis of basin perimeters,basin shape, basin area, and related morphometric laws. The relief aspect incorporates besides hypsometric, climographic and altimetric analysis,the study of absolute and relative reliefs, relief ratios, average slope, etc. In this paper we have analysed the relationship among stream velocity, channel shape,sediment load,channel width,channel depth, etc.

Keywords: morphometry, hydraulic geometry, Umtrew river, Meghalaya

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532 Projection of Climate Change over the Upper Ping River Basin Using Regional Climate Model

Authors: Chakrit Chotamonsak, Eric P. Salathé Jr, Jiemjai Kreasuwan


Dynamical downscaling of the ECHAM5 global climate model is applied at 20-km horizontal resolution using the WRF regional climate model (WRF-ECHAM5), to project changes from 1990–2009 to 2045–2064 of temperature and precipitation over the Upper Ping River Basin. The analysis found that monthly changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the basin for the 2045-2064 compared to the 1990-2009 are revealed over the basin all months, with the largest warmer in December and the smallest warmer in February. The future simulated precipitation is smaller than that of the baseline value in May, July and August, while increasing of precipitation is revealed during pre-monsoon (April) and late monsoon (September and October). This means that the rainy season likely becomes longer and less intensified during the rainy season. During the cool-dry season and hot-dry season, precipitation is substantial increasing over the basin. For the annual cycle of changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the upper Ping River basin, the largest warmer in the mean temperature over the basin is 1.93 °C in December and the smallest is 0.77 °C in February. Increase in nighttime temperature (minimum temperature) is larger than that of daytime temperature (maximum temperature) during the dry season, especially in wintertime (November to February), resulted in decreasing the diurnal temperature range. The annual and seasonal changes in daily temperature and precipitation averaged over the basin. The annual mean rising are 1.43, 1.54 and 1.30 °C for mean temperature, maximum temperature and minimum temperature, respectively. The increasing of maximum temperature is larger than that of minimum temperature in all months during the dry season (November to April).

Keywords: climate change, regional climate model, upper Ping River basin, WRF

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531 Sustainable Transboundary Water Management: Challenges and Good Practices of Cooperation in International River Basin Districts

Authors: Aleksandra Ibragimow, Moritz Albrecht, Eerika Albrecht


Close international cooperation between all countries within a river basin has become one of the key aspects of sustainable cross-border water management. This is due to the fact that water does not stop at administrative or political boundaries. Therefore, the preferred mode to protect and manage transnational water bodies is close cooperation between all countries and stakeholders within the natural hydrological unit of the river basin. However, past practices have demonstrated that combining interests of different countries and stakeholders with differing political systems and management approaches to environmental issues upstream as well as downstream can be challenging. The study focuses on particular problems and challenges of water management in international river basin districts by the example of the International Oder River Basin District. The Oder River is one of the largest cross-border rivers of the Baltic Sea basin passing through Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Attention is directed towards the activities and the actions that were carried out during the Districts' first management cycle of transnational river basin management (2009-2015). The results show that actions of individual countries have been focused on the National Water Management Plans while a common appointment about identified supra-regional water management problems has not been solved, and conducted actions can be considered as preliminary and merely a basis for future management. This present state raises the question whether the achievement of main objectives of Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) can be a realistic task.

Keywords: International River Basin Districts, water management, water frameworkdirective, water management plans

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530 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India

Authors: Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod, Mohan V. Khire


Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.

Keywords: land use/land cover, remote sensing, stream flow, urbanization

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529 Geology, Geomorphology and Genesis of Andarokh Karstic Cave, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad


Andarokh basin is one of the main karstic regions in Khorasan Razavi province NE Iran. This basin is part of Kopeh-Dagh mega zone extending from Caspian Sea in the east to northern Afghanistan in the west. This basin is covered by Mozdooran Formation, Ngr evaporative formation and quaternary alluvium deposits in descending order of age. Mozdooran carbonate formation is notably karstified. The main surface karstic features in Mozdooran formation are Groove karren, Cleft karren, Rain pit, Rill karren, Tritt karren, Kamintza, Domes, and Table karren. In addition to surface features, deep karstic feature Andarokh Cave also exists in the region. Studying Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe concentration and Sr/Mn ratio in Mozdooran formation samples with distance to main faults and joints system using PCA analyses demonstrates intense meteoric digenesis role in controlling carbonate rock geochemistry. The karst evaluation in Andarokh basin varies from early stages 'deep seated karst' in Mesozoic to mature karstic system 'Exhumed karst' in quaternary period. Andarokh cave (the main cave in Andarokh basin) is rudimentary branch work consists of three passages of A, B and C and two entrances Andarokh and Sky.

Keywords: Andarokh basin, Andarokh cave, geochemical analyses, karst evaluation

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528 Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Changes in Mekong River Basin

Authors: Zuliziana Suif, Nordila Ahmad, Sengheng Hul


This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on suspended sediment changes in the Mekong River Basin. In this study, the distributed process-based sediment transport model is used to examine the potential impact of future climate on suspended sediment dynamic changes in the Mekong River Basin. To this end, climate scenarios from two General Circulation Model (GCMs) were considered in the scenario analysis. The simulation results show that the sediment load and concentration shows 0.64% to 69% increase in the near future (2041-2050) and 2.5% to 95% in the far future (2090- 2099). As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in sediment management. Overall, the changes in sediment load and concentration can have a great implication for related sediment management.

Keywords: climate change, suspended sediment, Mekong River Basin, GCMs

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527 Development of Map of Gridded Basin Flash Flood Potential Index: GBFFPI Map of QuangNam, QuangNgai, DaNang, Hue Provinces

Authors: Le Xuan Cau


Flash flood is occurred in short time rainfall interval: from 1 hour to 12 hours in small and medium basins. Flash floods typically have two characteristics: large water flow and big flow velocity. Flash flood is occurred at hill valley site (strip of lowland of terrain) in a catchment with large enough distribution area, steep basin slope, and heavy rainfall. The risk of flash floods is determined through Gridded Basin Flash Flood Potential Index (GBFFPI). Flash Flood Potential Index (FFPI) is determined through terrain slope flash flood index, soil erosion flash flood index, land cover flash floods index, land use flash flood index, rainfall flash flood index. Determining GBFFPI, each cell in a map can be considered as outlet of a water accumulation basin. GBFFPI of the cell is determined as basin average value of FFPI of the corresponding water accumulation basin. Based on GIS, a tool is developed to compute GBFFPI using ArcObjects SDK for .NET. The maps of GBFFPI are built in two types: GBFFPI including rainfall flash flood index (real time flash flood warning) or GBFFPI excluding rainfall flash flood index. GBFFPI Tool can be used to determine a high flash flood potential site in a large region as quick as possible. The GBFFPI is improved from conventional FFPI. The advantage of GBFFPI is that GBFFPI is taking into account the basin response (interaction of cells) and determines more true flash flood site (strip of lowland of terrain) while conventional FFPI is taking into account single cell and does not consider the interaction between cells. The GBFFPI Map of QuangNam, QuangNgai, DaNang, Hue is built and exported to Google Earth. The obtained map proves scientific basis of GBFFPI.

Keywords: ArcObjects SDK for NET, basin average value of FFPI, gridded basin flash flood potential index, GBFFPI map

Procedia PDF Downloads 295