Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Sercan Aras

17 A Multigranular Linguistic ARAS Model in Group Decision Making

Authors: Wiem Daoud Ben Amor, Luis Martínez López, Hela Moalla Frikha


Most of the multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM) problems dealing with qualitative criteria require consideration of the large background of expert information. It is common that experts have different degrees of knowledge for giving their alternative assessments according to criteria. So, it seems logical that they use different evaluation scales to express their judgment, i.e., multi granular linguistic scales. In this context, we propose the extension of the classical additive ratio assessment (ARAS) method to the case of a hierarchical linguistics term for managing multi granular linguistic scales in uncertain contexts where uncertainty is modeled by means in linguistic information. The proposed approach is called the extended hierarchical linguistics-ARAS method (ARAS-ELH). Within the ARAS-ELH approach, the DM can diagnose the results (the ranking of the alternatives) in a decomposed style, i.e., not only at one level of the hierarchy but also at the intermediate ones. Also, the developed approach allows a feedback transformation i.e the collective final results of all experts able to be transformed at any level of the extended linguistic hierarchy that each expert has previously used. Therefore, the ARAS-ELH technique makes it easier for decision-makers to understand the results. Finally, An MCGDM case study is given to illustrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: additive ratio assessment, extended hierarchical linguistic, multi-criteria group decision making problems, multi granular linguistic contexts

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16 The Effects of the Russian Crisis on Turkish Tourism Sector: A Case of Antalya Province, Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Sercan Aras, Vahit Aytekin


Economic crisis, terrorism, global crisis and the relations between countries are the factors affecting tourism industry and tourism industry is vulnerable against these factors. In our study, there are two dimensions about Russian crisis. The crisis between Russia and Ukraine and decreased oil prices in global market have been entailed Russian economic crisis. This crisis has induced that the ruble, Russian currency, has depreciated against American dollars and consequently the purchasing power of Russian has weakened. This is the first dimension of our study. Second dimension is a political crisis between Turkey and Russia owing to the fact that the Russian Warcraft was brought down by Turkish army. The aim of this study is to explain the impact of the consequences of Russian crisis on Turkish tourism industry. The study has been limited only Antalya province.

Keywords: economic crisis, Turkey-Russian crisis, Turkey's tourism industry, tourism in Turkey

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15 Determining the Number of Single Models in a Combined Forecast

Authors: Serkan Aras, Emrah Gulay


Combining various forecasting models is an important tool for researchers to attain more accurate forecasts. A great number of papers have shown that selecting single models as dissimilar models, or methods based on different information as possible leads to better forecasting performances. However, there is not a certain rule regarding the number of single models to be used in any combining methods. This study focuses on determining the optimal or near optimal number for single models with the help of statistical tests. An extensive experiment is carried out by utilizing some well-known time series data sets from diverse fields. Furthermore, many rival forecasting methods and some of the commonly used combining methods are employed. The obtained results indicate that some statistically significant performance differences can be found regarding the number of the single models in the combining methods under investigation.

Keywords: combined forecast, forecasting, M-competition, time series

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14 Investigation of Parameters Affecting Copper Recovery from Brass Melting Dross

Authors: Sercan Basit, Muhlis N. Sarıdede


Metal amounts of copper based compounds in the various wastes have been recovered successfully by hydrometallurgical treatment methods in the literature. X-ray diffraction pattern of the brass melting slag demonstrates that it contains sufficient amount of recoverable copper. Recovery of copper from brass melting dross by sulfuric acid leaching and the effect of temperature and acid and oxidant concentration on recovery rate of copper have been investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in a temperature-controlled reactor in sulfuric acid solution in different molarities using solid liquid ratio of 100 g/L, with leaching time of 300 min. Temperature was changed between 25 °C and 80 °C and molarity was between 0.5 and 3M. The results obtained showed that temperature has important positive effect on recovery whereas it decreases with time. Also copper was recovered in larger amounts from brass dross in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant according to the case that oxidant was not used.

Keywords: brass dross, copper recovery, hydrogen peroxide, leaching

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13 The Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor TAQ A1 Allele on Sprinter and Endurance Athlete

Authors: Öznur Özge Özcan, Canan Sercan, Hamza Kulaksız, Mesut Karahan, Korkut Ulucan


Genetic structure is very important to understand the brain dopamine system which is related to athletic performance. Hopefully, there will be enough studies about athletics performance in the terms of addiction-related genetic markers in the future. In the present study, we intended to investigate the Receptor-2 Gene (DRD2) rs1800497, which is related to brain dopaminergic system. 10 sprinter and 10 endurance athletes were enrolled in the study. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used for genotyping. According to results, A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes in athletes were 0 (%0), 3 (%15) and 17 (%85). A1A1 genotype was not found and A2 allele was counted as the dominating allele in our cohort. These findings show that dopaminergic mechanism effects on sport genetic may be explained by the polygenic and multifactorial view.

Keywords: addiction, athletic performance, genotype, sport genetics

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12 A Desire for Solitude or an Escape from Solitude: A Sociological Study of One Hundred Years of Solitude with the Principles of Emile Durkheim’s Suicide through the Theme Solitude

Authors: Omur Sercan Oral


In this paper, the individual and social conflicts are examined with a sociological perspective during the social process of Macondo described in the post-modern book of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude. More specifically, the theme of the solitude of individuals who choose to be isolated and who are isolated is studied within the context of the suicide of Emile Durkheim. As a self-reflective product of individuals in the result-based process, both economically and socially founded in the text, solitude reflects the ultimate process of separation from society. In this sense, the various and multiplying layers of the collective codes of Macondo as microcosm and their interactions with the individuals are examined in this paper under the roof of suicide in the sociological concept. The attempts to explain the reasons, shift, and its reflections on individuals are carried out to cross the lines of one discipline. In doing that, the ideas of Durkheim, Foucault, Weber, and Clausewitz, to some extent, are planted explicitly and implicitly throughout the paper.

Keywords: Durkheim’s concept of suicide, solitude theme in Marquez, collective consciousness, isolation from society, subjectivity

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11 The Applications of Group Counseling on Self-Concept, Depression, and Resilience of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Fauziah Mohd Sa’ad, Mohammad Aziz Shah, B. Mohammad Arip, Norazani Ahmad, Mohd Noor Idris, Hapsah M. Yusof


This study was carried out to assess the application of person-centred therapy and Cognitive Psychology Ad-Din group counseling on self-concept, depression, and resilience of teenage pregnancy. This study involved 55 teenage pregnancy at three women’s refuge centers which are from KEWAJA, Rhaidatus Sakinah, and Taman Seri Puteri Cheras (JKM). Subjects were classed into two treatment groups and one control group. The Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Beck Depression inventory (BDI) and Adolescent Resiliency Attitude Scale (ARAS) was administered to assess self-concept, depression, and resilience of teenage pregnancy. The control pre and post test design was used for this study. The research data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, ANOVA, MANCOVA and Tuckey Post Hoc with the significant level of .01 and .05. All treatment group received group counseling sessions for 7 consecutive week, once in each week. The Person-centred group and Cognitive Psychology Ad-Din group counseling showed a significant reduction (pre-test to post-test) on depression, enhancing self-concept and resilience of teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: group counseling, person-centred therapy, cognitive psychology Ad-Din, teenage pregnancy

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10 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim


This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

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9 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede


Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: extraction, copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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8 Perceptions of Students toward ODL Services Quality in Facilitating Their Study: Experience of Universitas Terbuka in Managing ODL in Cultural Diversity Areas

Authors: Ribut Alam Malau, Durri Andriani, C. B. Supartomo


Universitas Terbuka (UT) as a higher education institution implements open and distance education is responsible to provide higher education to all Indonesian citizen wherever they live, including those reside in cultural diversity aras. Operate from Jakarta Head Office and 37 regional centers (ROs), UT is accustomed to the challenge. UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon which oversee East Nusa Tenggara and Maluku have successfully provided quality educational services for students. The two ROs have provided educational facilities which could assist the students to cope with their study in spite of the diversity situations. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the facilities provided, questionnaires focusing on tutorial services were sent to 90 students in the two ROs asking them to assess the facilities which best fulfills students’ needs in terms of their culture diversity. The results showed that UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon have successful in providing education for students in their areas as reflected in more than 80% of respondents aware of the facilities concerning tutorial service except for tutorial mechanism where only 34,5% of respondents aware of. However, despite lower rate of awareness in tutorial mechanism, majority of respondent 90.8% of respondents registered in tutorials and 95.4% will register in tutorials next semester. The majority of respondents showed appreciation for the ROs efforts to provide tutorials on weekdays which could accommodate their beliefs. In addition, conducting tutorials in all islands also perceived highly since students did not have to commute between islands. Efforts done by UT-Kupang and UT-Ambon have proven to be appreciated by students.

Keywords: archipelago, cultural diversity, ODL, service quality, Universitas Terbuka

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7 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras


Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

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6 An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance

Authors: Faruk Aras, Melih Inal, Tansel Cinar


The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.

Keywords: airport, predictive maintenance, collaborative decision-making system, Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC)

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5 Investigation of the Effect of Eye Exercises and Convergence Exercise on Visual Acuity in School-Age Children with Hypermetropia

Authors: Gulay Aras, Isil Kutluturk Karagoz, Z. Candan Algun


Background: Hypermetropia in school-age is a pathology that responds to treatment. In the literature, there has been no study of exercise practice in hypermetropia treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eye exercises and convergence exercise on visual acuity in school-age children with hypermetropia. Methods: Forty volunteer school-age children with hypermetropia (30 girls, 30 boys, between 7-17 years of age) were included in the study. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were evaluated. 40 participants were randomly divided into two groups: eye exercises and convergence exercises. Home exercise protocols were given to all groups for six weeks, and regular phone calls were made once a week. Individuals performed eye exercises 10 times, convergence exercises 5 min. for two sessions per day for six weeks. The right and left eyes of all the subjects participating in the study were assessed separately by the eye doctor with a Snellen chart. The participants' quality of life was assessed using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0. Physical health total score (PHTS) and scale total score (STS), which were obtained by evaluating Psychosocial health total score (PSHTS) school, emotional and social functioning, were calculated separately in the scores. At the end of the exercise program, the assessment tests applied at the beginning of the study were reapplied to all individuals. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-Snellen chart measurements and quality of life in the eye exercises group (p > 0,05). There was a statistically significant difference in visual acuity of right and left eyes (p=0,004, p=0,014) and quality of life in PHTS, PSHTS and STS in the convergence exercise group (p=0,001, p=0,017, p=0,001). Conclusions: In school-age children, convergence exercises were found to be effective on visual acuity and health-related quality of life. Convergence exercises are recommended for the treatment of school-aged children with hypermetropia.

Keywords: convergence exercise, eye exercises, hypermetropia, school-age children

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4 Micro-Droplet Formation in a Microchannel under the Effect of an Electric Field: Experiment

Authors: Sercan Altundemir, Pinar Eribol, A. Kerem Uguz


Microfluidics systems allow many-large scale laboratory applications to be miniaturized on a single device in order to reduce cost and advance fluid control. Moreover, such systems enable to generate and control droplets which have a significant role on improved analysis for many chemical and biological applications. For example, they can be employed as the model for cells in microfluidic systems. In this work, the interfacial instability of two immiscible Newtonian liquids flowing in a microchannel is investigated. When two immiscible liquids are in laminar regime, a flat interface is formed between them. If a direct current electric field is applied, the interface may deform, i.e. may become unstable and it may be ruptured and form micro-droplets. First, the effect of thickness ratio, total flow rate, viscosity ratio of the silicone oil and ethylene glycol liquid couple on the critical voltage at which the interface starts to destabilize is investigated. Then the droplet sizes are measured under the effect of these parameters at various voltages. Moreover, the effect of total flow rate on the time elapsed for the interface to be ruptured to form droplets by hitting the wall of the channel is analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the viscosity or the thickness ratio of the silicone oil to the ethylene glycol has a stabilizing effect, i.e. a higher voltage is needed while the total flow rate has no effect on it. However, it is observed that an increase in the total flow rate results in shortening of the elapsed time for the interface to hit the wall. Moreover, the droplet size decreases down to 0.1 μL with an increase in the applied voltage, the viscosity ratio or the total flow rate or a decrease in the thickness ratio. In addition to these observations, two empirical models for determining the critical electric number, i.e., the dimensionless voltage and the droplet size and another model which is a combination of both models, for determining the droplet size at the critical voltage are established.

Keywords: droplet formation, electrohydrodynamics, microfluidics, two-phase flow

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3 Improve Divers Tracking and Classification in Sonar Images Using Robust Diver Wake Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Tarek Al Muallim, Ozhan Duzenli, Ceyhun Ilguy


Harbor protection systems are so important. The need for automatic protection systems has increased over the last years. Diver detection active sonar has great significance. It used to detect underwater threats such as divers and autonomous underwater vehicle. To automatically detect such threats the sonar image is processed by algorithms. These algorithms used to detect, track and classify of underwater objects. In this work, divers tracking and classification algorithm is improved be proposing a robust wake detection method. To detect objects the sonar images is normalized then segmented based on fixed threshold. Next, the centroids of the segments are found and clustered based on distance metric. Then to track the objects linear Kalman filter is applied. To reduce effect of noise and creation of false tracks, the Kalman tracker is fine tuned. The tuning is done based on our active sonar specifications. After the tracks are initialed and updated they are subjected to a filtering stage to eliminate the noisy and unstable tracks. Also to eliminate object with a speed out of the diver speed range such as buoys and fast boats. Afterwards the result tracks are subjected to a classification stage to deiced the type of the object been tracked. Here the classification stage is to deice wither if the tracked object is an open circuit diver or a close circuit diver. At the classification stage, a small area around the object is extracted and a novel wake detection method is applied. The morphological features of the object with his wake is extracted. We used support vector machine to find the best classifier. The sonar training images and the test images are collected by ARMELSAN Defense Technologies Company using the portable diver detection sonar ARAS-2023. After applying the algorithm to the test sonar data, we get fine and stable tracks of the divers. The total classification accuracy achieved with the diver type is 97%.

Keywords: harbor protection, diver detection, active sonar, wake detection, diver classification

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2 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee


Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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1 Nanofluidic Cell for Resolution Improvement of Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Sercan Keskin, Svenja Riekeberg, Sana Azim, Stephanie Manz, R. J. Dwayne Miller, Hoc Khiem Trieu


Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is a growing area with a broad range of applications from physics and chemistry to material engineering and biology, in which it is possible to image in-situ unseen phenomena. For this, a nanofluidic device is used to insert the nanoflow with the sample inside the microscope in order to keep the liquid encapsulated because of the high vacuum. In the last years, Si3N4 windows have been widely used because of its mechanical stability and low imaging contrast. Nevertheless, the pressure difference between the inside fluid and the outside vacuum in the TEM generates bulging in the windows. This increases the imaged fluid volume, which decreases the signal to noise ratio (SNR), limiting the achievable spatial resolution. With the proposed device, the membrane is fortified with a microstructure capable of stand higher pressure differences, and almost removing completely the bulging. A theoretical study is presented with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations which provide a deep understanding of the membrane mechanical conditions and proves the effectiveness of this novel concept. Bulging and von Mises Stress were studied for different membrane dimensions, geometries, materials, and thicknesses. The microfabrication of the device was made with a thin wafer coated with thin layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. After the lithography process, these layers were etched (reactive ion etching and buffered oxide etch (BOE) respectively). After that, the microstructure was etched (deep reactive ion etching). Then the back side SiO2 was etched (BOE) and the array of free-standing micro-windows was obtained. Additionally, a Pyrex wafer was patterned with windows, and inlets/outlets, and bonded (anodic bonding) to the Si side to facilitate the thin wafer handling. Later, a thin spacer is sputtered and patterned with microchannels and trenches to guide the nanoflow with the samples. This approach reduces considerably the common bulging problem of the window, improving the SNR, contrast and spatial resolution, increasing substantially the mechanical stability of the windows, allowing a larger viewing area. These developments lead to a wider range of applications of liquid TEM, expanding the spectrum of possible experiments in the field.

Keywords: liquid cell, liquid transmission electron microscopy, nanofluidics, nanofluidic cell, thin films

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