Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1561

Search results for: tourism in Turkey

1561 The Effects of the Russian Crisis on Turkish Tourism Sector: A Case of Antalya Province, Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Sercan Aras, Vahit Aytekin

Abstract:

Economic crisis, terrorism, global crisis and the relations between countries are the factors affecting tourism industry and tourism industry is vulnerable against these factors. In our study, there are two dimensions about Russian crisis. The crisis between Russia and Ukraine and decreased oil prices in global market have been entailed Russian economic crisis. This crisis has induced that the ruble, Russian currency, has depreciated against American dollars and consequently the purchasing power of Russian has weakened. This is the first dimension of our study. Second dimension is a political crisis between Turkey and Russia owing to the fact that the Russian Warcraft was brought down by Turkish army. The aim of this study is to explain the impact of the consequences of Russian crisis on Turkish tourism industry. The study has been limited only Antalya province.

Keywords: economic crisis, Turkey-Russian crisis, Turkey's tourism industry, tourism in Turkey

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1560 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
1559 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz

Abstract:

This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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1558 Analysis of Turkish Government Cultural Portal for Supporting Gastronomy Tourism

Authors: Hilmi Rafet Yüncü

Abstract:

Today Internet has very important role to promote products and services all over the world. Companies and destinations in tourism industry use Internet to sell and to promote their core products to directly potential tourists. Internet technologies have redefined the relationships between tourists, tourism companies, and travel agents. The new relationship allows for accessing and tapping tourism information and services. Internet technologies ensure new opportunities to available for the tourism industry, including travel accommodation, and tourist destination organizations. Websites are important devices to the marketing of a destination. Most people make a research about the destination before arriving via internet. Governments have a considerable role in the process of marketing tourism destinations. Governments make policies and regulations; furthermore, they help to market destinations to potential tourists. Governments have a comprehensive overview of the sector to see changes in tourism market and design better policies, programs and marketing plans. At the same time, governments support developing of alternative tourism in the country with regulations and marketing tools. The aim of this study is to analyse of an Internet website of governmental tourism portal in Turkey to determine effectiveness about gastronomy tourism. The Turkish government has established a culture portal for foreign and local tourists. The Portal provides local and general information about tourism attractions of cities and Turkey. There are 81 official cities in Turkey and all these cities are conducted to analyse to determine how effective marketing is done by Turkish Government in the manner of gastronomy tourism. A content analysis will be conducted to Internet website of the portal with food content, recipes and gastronomic feature of cities.

Keywords: culture portal, gastronomy tourism, government, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1557 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Abstract:

Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1556 The State Support to the Tourism Policy Formation Mechanism in Black Sea Basin Countries (Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Georgia) and Its Impact on Sustainable Tourism Development

Authors: A. Bahar Ganiyeva, M. Sabuhi Tanriverdiyev

Abstract:

The article analyzes state support and policy mechanisms aimed at driving tourism as one of the vibrant and rapidly developing economies. State programs and long-range strategic roadmaps and previous programs execution, results and their impact on the particular countries economy have been raised during the research. This theme provides a useful framework for discussions with a wider range of stakeholders as the implications arising are of importance both for academics and practitioners engaged in hospitality and tourism development and research. The impact that tourism has on sustainable regional development in emerging markets is highly substantial. For Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, and Russia, with their rich natural resources and cultural heritage, tourism can be an important basis for economic expansion, and a way to form an acceptable image of the countries as safe, open, hospitable, and complex.

Keywords: Sustainable tourism, hospitality, destination, strategic roadmap, tourism, economy, growth, state support, mechanism, policy formation, state program

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1555 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer

Abstract:

Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: cultural heritage, natural resources, Austria, Turkey

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1554 Transformations of Land Uses and Attitudes in Manavgat Region at South Turkey

Authors: Emrah Yildirim, Veli Ortacesme

Abstract:

Manavgat region, located in Antalya province at South Turkey, has hosted many civilizations throughout the centuries. All of these civilizations cultivated the land in their surroundings by engaging in agriculture, livestock production and hunting. In the last 50 years, there have been dramatic changes in the region. The economy of the region switched from the agriculture to tourism. Due to the increase in the irrigable agricultural lands, several dams were built on Manavgat River. Developments in the agricultural mechanization and new product needs have changed the pattern of agriculture and regional landscape. Coastal zone of the region has transformed to tourism areas, Manavgat Town Center has grown up and the urbanization in general has increased. The population and urbanization have increased by 257 % and 276 %, respectively. The tourism and commercial areas cover 561,8 hectares today. All these developments had some negative effects on the environment. In this study, land use/land cover transformations were studied in Manavgat region by using aerial photos. The reasons and consequences of the land use transformations were discussed, and some recommendations regarding the sustainable use of this region’s landscape will be shared.

Keywords: land use, Manavgat region, south Turkey, transformation

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1553 The Participation of Refugee Children with Disabilities in Educational Options in Turkey: A Systematic Review

Authors: Robert L. Williamson, Baris Çetin

Abstract:

Turkey, due to its geographic location, finds itself the world’s largest host to refugees worldwide, and this nation has done much to educate their refugee population. Turkey’s considerable experience can inform other nations educating refugee children. This systematic review of the literature examined the context, barriers, and responses to successfully educating refugee children in Turkey. Additionally, because some refugee children may have an identified or unidentified disability, the educational experiences of refugee children with disabilities in Turkey were an ancillary focus. Results indicated that while some educational challenges have been successfully met within Turkey, others remain. Additionally, the education of children with disabilities in Turkey is largely unexamined.

Keywords: disability, education, refugee, systematic review, Turkey

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1552 A Study on Local Endemic Jurinea brevicaulis Boiss. (Asteraceae) from Turkey

Authors: Bekir Dogan

Abstract:

The genus Jurinea is one of the larger genera within Asteraceae, comprising about 200 species. Jurinea is naturally distributed in central Asia, Turkey, Iran and the Mediterranean region. Jurinea has 23 species within the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions of Turkey. Jurinea brevicaulis is locally endemic in Turkey. It grows Erzincan province in Turkey. Between 2005 and 2007, as a part of a revisional study of Jurinea in Turkey, the author carried out extensive field studies and herbaria and collected an enough number of specimens. In the field, the specimens' GPS coordinates, habitat and relevant field observations were recorded. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category was given. The present study reviews the chorology of the Jurinea brevicaulis in Turkey based on recent taxonomic revision and available specimen data.

Keywords: Asteraceae, endemic, Jurinea, Turkey

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1551 Tourism Oriented Planning Experience in the Historical City Center of Trabzon (Turkey) with Strategic Spatial Planning Approach: Evaluation of Approach and Process

Authors: Emrehan Ozcan, Dilek Beyazlı

Abstract:

The development of tourism depends on an accurate planning approach as well as on the right planning process. This dependency is also a key factor in ensuring sustainability of tourism. The types of tourism, social expectations, planning practice, the socio-economic and the cultural structure of the region are determinants of planning approaches for tourism development. The tourism plans prepared for the historic city centers are usually based on the revitalization of cultural and historical values. The preservation and development of the tourism potentials of the historic city centers are important for providing an economic contribution to the locality, creating livable solutions for local residents and also the sustainability of tourism. This research is about experiencing and discussing a planning approach that will provide tourism development based on historical and cultural values. Historical and cultural values in the historical city center of Trabzon -which has a settlement history of approximately 4000 years, is located on the Black Sea coast of Turkey- wear out over years and lose their tourism potential. A planning study has been experienced with strategic spatial planning approach for Trabzon, which has not done a tourism-oriented planning study until now. The stages of the planning process provided by strategic spatial planning approach are an assessment of the current situation; vision, strategies, and actions; action planning; designing and implementation of actions and monitoring-evaluation. In the discussion section, the advantages, planning process, methods and techniques of the approach are discussed for the possibilities and constraints in terms of tourism planning. In this context, it is aimed to put forth tourism planning process, stages, and implementation tools within the scope of strategic spatial planning approach by comparing approaches used in the tourism-oriented/priority planning of historical city centers. Suggestions on the position and effect of the preferred planning approach in the existing spatial planning practice are the outputs of the study.

Keywords: cultural heritage, tourism oriented planning, Trabzon, strategic spatial Planning

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1550 Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach

Authors: Duygu Çelgin

Abstract:

Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.

Keywords: occupational health and safety in Turkey, OHS servicing in Turkey, safety experts, OHS support

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1549 Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism

Authors: Oktay Emir

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.

Keywords: tourism, perception, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, structural equation modelling

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1548 A Periodogram-Based Spectral Method Approach: The Relationship between Tourism and Economic Growth in Turkey

Authors: Mesut BALIBEY, Serpil TÜRKYILMAZ

Abstract:

A popular topic in the econometrics and time series area is the cointegrating relationships among the components of a nonstationary time series. Engle and Granger’s least squares method and Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method are the most widely-used methods to determine the relationships among variables. Furthermore, a method proposed to test a unit root based on the periodogram ordinates has certain advantages over conventional tests. Periodograms can be calculated without any model specification and the exact distribution under the assumption of a unit root is obtained. For higher order processes the distribution remains the same asymptotically. In this study, in order to indicate advantages over conventional test of periodograms, we are going to examine a possible relationship between tourism and economic growth during the period 1999:01-2010:12 for Turkey by using periodogram method, Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method, Engle and Granger’s ordinary least square method.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, periodogram ordinate, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1547 The Analysis of Expenses for Research and Development Activities in Turkey

Authors: Gökhan Karhan, Yavuz Elitok

Abstract:

Nowadays, inequality between developing and underdeveloped countries has a rapid increment. Developed countries impress the underdeveloped countries to become dependent through them. For that reason, Turkey has to increase its capability of making technological innovations. It has tried to be identified by examining the expenses of R&D in public, mercantile establishments and universities in Turkey that which expense is not enough and which expense should be doubled. As a result, developing new resolution strategies will be easier.

Keywords: competitive strength, research and development, technological innovation, Turkey

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1546 Complementary and Traditional Medicine in Turkey

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an explanation of using and expectation traditional and complementary medicine in Turkey in terms of regionally, cultural and social. Due to geopolitics position, at the intersection of the Middle East, Africa and Europe, Turkey has historically hosted many civilizations and cultures, and hosts many religions at the same time and therefore is very open to intercultural interaction. For this reason, the traditional medicine of Turkey contains traces of many civilizations rather than a traditional medicine of its own. In Turkey, complementary and traditional medicine are used actively. The aim of the study is to measure whether the patients have ever taken traditional medicine as a caretaker or for the supportive treatment of their diseases, and as a result, their expectations. This cross-sectional, paper-based survey study was conducted in 27 state hospitals and 29 family medicine clinics in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Patients who had an appointment in the waiting rooms that day were included. 77.4% of the patients participating in the study stated that they used traditional medicine at least 5 times in their life, 27.6% stated that traditional medicine was sufficient in some diseases, and 36.8% stated that traditional treatment was a part of normal treatment. Both faith and cultural approaches in Turkey always keep traditional medicine close to drugs. Another danger, apart from traditional medicine drugs that can interact with drugs, is that patients find it sufficient to use traditional and complementary medicine alone.

Keywords: complementary medicine, traditional medicine, medicine in Turkey, alternative medicine

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1545 Evaluations of New Public Administration Reforms and Local Government Laws in Turkey in the Context of the Reforms

Authors: Handan Ertaş

Abstract:

The subject of government reform which is started to be discussed all over the world today has also deeply affected Turkey. Turkey, who aims to come to the level of the developed countries and not to fall behind the change must immediately complete the reform issue. For this, the government needs to be redefined and changed in accordance with the new public administration. In the first part of this study, the new public administration reforms in the world are generally explained and then the reforms in Local Government Regulations in Turkey are evaluated with the method of Content Analysis.

Keywords: reform, local administration, neo-liberalism, globalisation

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1544 Crisis Communication at Destinations: A Study for Tourism Managers

Authors: Volkan Altintas, Burcu Oksuz

Abstract:

Tourism industry essentially requires effective crisis management and crisis communication skills, as it is extremely vulnerable to crises. In terms of destinations, tourism crises cause dramatic decreases in the number of inbound tourists, impairment in the destination’s image, and decline in the level of preferability of the destination not only in the short but also in the long term. Therefore, any destination should be well prepared for crisis situation that may arise for various reasons. Currently, the advancement in communication technologies enables and facilitates information and experience to spread rapidly, and negative information and experiences tend to be shared to a further extent. Destinations are broadly exposed to the impacts of such communication stream. Turkey is almost continuously exposed to crises and their adverse impacts as a tourism destination, and thus requires effective crisis communication activities to be maintained. Hence, the approaches of tourism managers toward crisis communication and their proposals for addressing issues in question are important. This study intends to set forth the considerations of the managers serving in the tourism industry about crisis communication at destinations. The theoretical part of the study describes and explains crisis management and crisis communication at destinations; following which are provided the outcomes of the thorough in-depth interviews and discussions conducted for the establishment of the considerations of tourism managers. Managers indicated the role and importance of crisis communications in destinations.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis management, destination, tourism managers

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1543 Banking Crisis and Economic Effects of the Banking Crisis in Turkey

Authors: Sevilay Konya, Sadife Güngör, Zeynep Karaçor

Abstract:

Turkish economy is occurred depending on different factors from time to time and the banking crises of different magnitudes. Foremost among the factors which hinder the development of countries and societies- crises in the country's economy. Countries' economic growth rates affect inflation, unemployment and external trade. In this study, effect of November 2000, February 2001 and 2008 banking crisis on Turkey's economy and banking crisis will be examined and announced as conceptual. In this context, this study is investigates Turkey's GDP, inflation, unemployment and foreign trade figures. Turkey's economy affected have been identified from 2000 November 2001 February and 2008 banking crisis.

Keywords: banking crises, Turkey’s economy, economic effects, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1542 Turkey in Minds: Cognitive and Social Representation of "East" and "West"

Authors: Feyzan Tuzkaya, Nihan S. Soylu, Caglar Solak, Mehmet Peker, Hilal Peker, Kemal Ozeralp, Ceren Mete, Ezgi Mehmetoglu, Mehmet Karasu, Cihan Elci, Ece Akca, Melek Goregenli

Abstract:

Perception, evaluation and representation of the environment have been the subject of many disciplines including psychology, geography and architecture. In environmental and social psychology literature there are several evidences which suggest that cognitive representations about a place consisted of not only geographic items but also social and cultural. Mental representations of residence area or a country is influenced and determined by social-demographics, the physical and social context. Thus, all mental representations of a given place are also social representations. Cognitive maps are the main and common instruments that are used to identify spatial images and the difference between physical and subjective environments. The aim of the current study is investigating the mental and social representations of Turkey in university students’ minds. Data was collected from 249 university students from different departments (i.e. psychology, geography, history, tourism departments) of Ege University. Participants were requested to reflect Turkey in their mind onto the paper drawing sketch maps. According to the results, cognitive maps showed geographic aspects of Turkey as well as the context of symbolic, cultural and political reality of Turkey. That is to say, these maps had many symbolic and verbal items related to critics on social and cultural problems, ongoing ethnic and political conflicts, and actual political agenda of Turkey. Additionally, one of main differentiations in these representations appeared in terms of the East and West side of the Turkey, and the representations of the East and West was varied correspondingly participants’ cultural background, their ethnic values, and where they have born. The results of the study were discussed in environmental and social psychological perspective considering cultural and social values of Turkey and current political circumstances of the country.

Keywords: cognitive maps, East, West, politics, social representations, Turkey

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1541 Analysis of Marketing: Frozen Fruit and Vegetables Sector in Turkey

Authors: Pınar Aydın, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

Today, with the change of people's consumption habits, the importance of frozen fruit and vegetable sector has been increased. In Turkey, sector is based on export. It is growing very fast and external demand is constantly increasing. About 80% of frozen fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are being exported. More than 90% of the exports go to European Union countries. About 49% of frozen fruits and vegetables in Turkey is being exported to Germany, England and France. In the sector which the abroad demand is continuously increasing, although it has been estimated that around 25% of the average annual growth rate, the domestic consumption is very low. Although the frozen food consumption per person in Turkey is about %2 of United States, the growing rate of the sector is higher than the United States and Europe. This situation reflects that it is such a sector that has a growing demand in both domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: frozen food, fruit and vegetable sector, exports, Turkey

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1540 The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis

Authors: Burcu Guvenek, Volkan Alptekin

Abstract:

Turkey is a country in the process of development and its economy has undergone structural reforms in order to realize a sustainable development and energy has vital role as a basic input for this aim. Turkey has been in the process of economic growth and development and, because of this, has an increasing energy need. This paper investigates relationship between economic growth and electricity consumption using annual data for Turkey between 1970-2008 by using bounds test. As economic growth and energy consumption variables used in empirical analysis was different order of integration I(0) and I(1), we employed bounds test approach. We have not found co-integration relationship between the variables.

Keywords: bounds test, economic growth, energy consumption, Turkey

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1539 The Interior Design Proposals of Buildings for Tourism Purposes

Authors: Şebnem Ertaş

Abstract:

“Architecture” is one component of sustainable cultural tourism. The sustainability of architecture is possible through preservation and restoration activities. In Turkey, which has an important place in the world’s cultural heritage, several studies focused on the sustainability of the cultural heritage were done in terms of the principles of “preserve-use-sustain”. Within the scope of this study, a methodology will be proposed in order to obtain the development of different scenarios supporting sustainable tourism. Sille is an ancient village located on the Spice Road and Silk Road dating back to the Ottoman and Seljuk eras. However, in recent years it is protected as an archeological site. In the “Alternative Project Phase”, the streets and buildings which bring dynamism to trade are determined; among these, 10 major buildings in Hacı Ali Ağa Street are studied.

Keywords: cultural tourism, interior design, sustainability of architecture, Sille

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1538 The Crisis of Turkey's Downing the Russian Warplane within the Concept of Country Branding: The Examples of BBC World, and Al Jazeera English

Authors: Derya Gül Ünlü, Oguz Kuş

Abstract:

The branding of a country means that the country has its own position different from other countries in its region and thus it is perceived more specifically. It is made possible by the branding efforts of a country and the uniqueness of all the national structures, by presenting it in a specific way, by creating the desired image and attracting tourists and foreign investors. Establishing a national brand involves, in a sense, the process of managing the perceptions of the citizens of the other country about the target country, by structuring the image of the country permanently and holistically. By this means, countries are not easily affected by their crisis of international relations. Therefore, within the scope of the research that will be carried out from this point, it is aimed to show how the warplane downing crisis between Turkey and Russia is perceived on social media. The Russian warplane was downed by Turkey on November 24, 2015, on the grounds that Turkey violated the airspace on the Syrian border. Whereupon the relations between the two countries have been tensed, and Russia has called on its citizens not to go to Turkey and citizens in Turkey to return to their countries. Moreover, relations between two countries have been weakened, for example, tourism tours organized in Russia to Turkey and visa-free travel were canceled and all military dialogue was cut off. After the event, various news sites on social media published plenty of news related to topic and the readers made various comments about the event and Turkey. In this context, an investigation into the perception of Turkey's national brand before and after the warplane downing crisis has been conducted. through comments fetched from the reports on the BBC World, and from Al Jazeera English news sites on Facebook accounts, which takes place widely in the social media. In order to realize study, user comments were fetched from jet downing-related news which are published on Facebook fan-page of BBC World Service, and Al Jazeera English. Regarding this, all the news published between 24.10.2015-24.12.2015 and containing Turk and Turkey keyword in its title composed data set of our study. Afterwards, comments written to these news were analyzed via text mining technique. Furthermore, by sentiment analysis, it was intended to reveal reader’s emotions before and after the crisis.

Keywords: Al Jazeera English, BBC World, country branding, social media, text mining

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1537 Two Taxa of Paradiacheopsis Genera Recordings of the Myxomycetes from Turkey

Authors: Dursun Yağız, Ahmet Afyon

Abstract:

The study materials were collected from Isparta province in 2008. These materials were moved to the laboratory. The 'Most Chamber Techniques' were applied to the materials in the laboratory. Materials were examined with a stereo microscope. As a result of investigations carried out on the samples of sporophores which were developed in the laboratory, Paradiacheopsis erythropodia (Ing) Nann.-Bremek. and Paradiacheopsis longipes Hooff & Nann.-Bremek. species were identified. As a result of the literature research, it is determined that these taxa were new recordings in Turkey. The identified taxa have been added to Turkey's myxomycota. These two taxa’ microscopic features, photos, localities and substrate information were given.

Keywords: myxomycete, paradiacheopsis, Turkey, slime mould

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1536 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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1535 Structural Breaks, Asymmetric Effects and Long Memory in the Volatility of Turkey Stock Market

Authors: Serpil Türkyılmaz, Mesut Balıbey

Abstract:

In this study, long memory properties in volatility of Turkey Stock Market are being examined through the FIGARCH, FIEGARCH and FIAPARCH models under different distribution assumptions as normal and skewed student-t distributions. Furthermore, structural changes in volatility of Turkey Stock Market are investigated. The results display long memory property and the presence of asymmetric effects of shocks in volatility of Turkey Stock Market.

Keywords: FIAPARCH model, FIEGARCH model, FIGARCH model, structural break

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1534 The Impact of Bayh-Dole Act on Knowledge Transfer in the States and a Study on Applicability in Turkey

Authors: Murat Sengoz, Mustafa Kemal Topcu

Abstract:

This study aims to contribute to efforts of Turkey to increase research and development to overcome mid-income level trap by discussing regulations on patenting and licensing. Knowledge and technology transfer from universities to business world is attached great significance to increase innovation. Through literature survey, it is observed that the States accomplished to boost the economy and increase welfare by the Bayh-Dole Act enacted in 1980. Thus, this good practice is imitated by other nations to make technological developments. The Act allows universities to acquire patent right in research programs funded by government to increase technology transfer from universities whilst motivating real sector to use research pools in the universities. An act similar with Bayh-Dole could be beneficial to Turkey since efforts in Turkey are to promote research, development and innovation. Towards this end, the impact of Bayh-Dole Act on the patent system for universities in the Sates is deliberately examined, applicability in Turkey is discussed. However, it is conceded that success rate of applying Bayh-Dole Act in Turkey would be low once Turkey mainly differs from the States regarding social, economic and cultural traits.

Keywords: Bayh-Dole Act, knowledge transfer, license, patent, spin-off

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1533 Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over E-Tourism Development: Case Study of Lenjan City

Authors: Akram Shahriyari, Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi

Abstract:

E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: ICT, e-tourism, opinion of managers and officials, Lejnan

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1532 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

Abstract:

Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

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