Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Amanda Owings

72 Genomic Evidence for Ancient Human Migrations Along South America's East Coast

Authors: Andre Luiz Campelo dos Santos, Amanda Owings, Henry Socrates Lavalle Sullasi, Omer Gokcumen, Michael DeGiorgio, John Lindo

Abstract:

An increasing body of archaeological and genomic evidence have indicated a complex settlement process of the Americas. Here, four newly sequenced ancient genomes from Northeast Brazil and Uruguay are reported to share strong relationships with previously published samples from Panama and Southeast Brazil. Moreover, an unexpected high genomic affinity with present-day Onge is found in ancient individuals unearthed along the northern portion of South America’s Atlantic coast. These results provide genomic evidence for ancient migrations along South America’s Atlantic coast.

Keywords: archaeogenomics, atlantic coast, paleomigrations, South America

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
71 Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

Authors: Amanda T. Badaró, Douglas F. Barbin, Sofia T. Garcia, Maria Teresa P. S. Clerici, Amanda R. Ferreira

Abstract:

Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.

Keywords: Chemometrics, fiber, linear discriminant analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy, principal component analysis, semolina

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
70 Early Metastatic Cancer: A Review of Its Management and Outcomes

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jia Hui Tan

Abstract:

In 2012, testicular cancer was estimated to account for 940 disability adjusted life years in Australia; of these, 450 were years lost due to premature death and 500 were years of healthy life lost due to disease, disability or injury. Testicular choriocarcinoma is one of the rarest variants of testicular germ cell tumours, accounting for less than 1% of testicular germ cell tumours and only about 0.19% of all testicular tumours. Management involves radical orchiectomy followed by chemotherapy. Even then, the prognosis is extremely poor. This case report describes a 20-year-old male with pure testicular choriocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases.

Keywords: testicular cancer, choriocarcinoma, cryptorchidism, chemotherapy, metastatic testicular cancer

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69 Tokyo Skyscrapers: Technologically Advanced Structures in Seismic Areas

Authors: J. Szolomicki, H. Golasz-Szolomicka

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The architectural and structural analysis of selected high-rise buildings in Tokyo is presented in this paper. The capital of Japan is the most densely populated city in the world and moreover is located in one of the most active seismic zones. The combination of these factors has resulted in the creation of sophisticated designs and innovative engineering solutions, especially in the field of design and construction of high-rise buildings. The foreign architectural studios (as, for Jean Nouvel, Kohn Pedesen Associates, Skidmore, Owings & Merill) which specialize in the designing of skyscrapers, played a major role in the development of technological ideas and architectural forms for such extraordinary engineering structures. Among the projects completed by them, there are examples of high-rise buildings that set precedents for future development. An essential aspect which influences the design of high-rise buildings is the necessity to take into consideration their dynamic reaction to earthquakes and counteracting wind vortices. The need to control motions of these buildings, induced by the force coming from earthquakes and wind, led to the development of various methods and devices for dissipating energy which occur during such phenomena. Currently, Japan is a global leader in seismic technologies which safeguard seismic influence on high-rise structures. Due to these achievements the most modern skyscrapers in Tokyo are able to withstand earthquakes with a magnitude of over seven degrees at the Richter scale. Damping devices applied are of a passive, which do not require additional power supply or active one which suppresses the reaction with the input of extra energy. In recent years also hybrid dampers were used, with an additional active element to improve the efficiency of passive damping.

Keywords: core structures, damping system, high-rise building, seismic zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
68 Umbilical Epidermal Inclusion Cysts, a Rare Cause of Umbilical Mass: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Christine Li, Amanda Robertson

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Epidermal inclusion cysts occur when epidermal cells are implanted in the dermis following trauma, or surgery. They are a rare cause of an umbilical mass, with very few cases previously reported following abdominal surgery. These lesions can present with a range of symptoms, including palpable mass, pain, redness, or discharge. This paper reports a case of an umbilical epidermal inclusion cyst in a 52-year-old female presenting with a six-week history of a painful, red umbilical lump on a background of two previous diagnostic laparoscopies. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans revealed non-specific soft tissue thickening in the umbilical region. This was successfully treated with complete excision of the lesion. Umbilical lumps are a common presentation but can represent a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis should include an epidermal inclusion cyst, particularly in a patient who has had previous abdominal surgery, including laparoscopic surgery.

Keywords: epidermal inclusion cyst, laparoscopy, umbilical mass, umbilicus

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67 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan

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We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
66 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez

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Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: education, empathy, social work, theatre

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65 Nazi Experiments during World War II: Dismal Period for Bioethics

Authors: Catharina O. Vianna Dias da Silva, Amanda F. Batista, Ana Clara C. Burgos Lessa, Carolina S. Lucchesi Ramacciotti, Maria Clara B. de Andrade, Roberto de B. Silva

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This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects related to the historical practices of experiments on humans that occurred in Nazi Germany during the period of World War II (1939-1945). The method was based on the bibliographic review of articles published in databases such as SciELO and Pubmed. In the discussion, historical and humanistic aspects that contributed to the construction of a genocidal culture practiced during this period were analyzed. Additionally, an ethical question arises: should the information acquired during this dark period be used by science? After analysis, it was found that these Nazi experiments went over medical and ethical principles, being a deplorable milestone in history. It was also concluded that, although they generated potentially 'useful' results in the scientific field, they should be discarded as an ethical question of principle, of never daring to validate such a deplorable way of obtaining knowledge.

Keywords: Nazism, bioethics, human experimentation, human rights, genocide, torture, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
64 Phase Diagrams and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Biphasic Systems Formed by Polyethylene Glycol and Potassium Sodium Tartrate at 303.15 K

Authors: Amanda Cristina de Oliveira, Elias de Souza Monteiro Filho, Roberta Ceriani

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Liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) constitutes a powerful tool for purifying bio-materials, such as cells, organelles, proteins, among others. In this work, the extraction of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied in systems formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1500, 4000, and 6000 g.mol⁻¹) + potassium sodium tartrate + water at 303.15°K. Phase diagrams were obtained by turbidimetry and Merchuk’s method (1998). The experimental tie-lines were described using the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. ATPSs were correlated with the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. The results were considered excellent according to global root-mean-square deviations found which were between 0,72 and 1,13%. The concentrations of the proteins in each phase were determined by spectrophotometry at 280 nm, finding partition efficiencies greater than 71%.

Keywords: aqueous two phases systems, bovine serum albumin , liquid-liquid extraction, polyethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
63 Legalizing Prostitution: Providing Equality Amongst Men and Women in the Criminal Justice System through a Socialist Feminist Framework

Authors: Amanda Rebman

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This paper challenges the criminal justice system’s traditional stance regarding prostitution. Historically, the acceptance and morality of prostitution within the United States has fluctuated depending upon the social attitudes of the era. Today, prostitutes are allegedly viewed as victims; however, they are treated like criminals throughout the criminal justice system and society. Dominant patriarchal narratives within the United States has resulted in woman lacking autonomy over their bodies and diminished their ability to choose their own career. Even though prostitutes are deemed victims, many times, they are convicted of crimes, a practice that results in further victimization. Utilizing the socialist feminist theory to understand these juxtaposing positions on whether to legalize prostitution facilitates a greater understanding of how patriarchal capitalist arrangements ensure the oppression of women throughout the criminal justice system. The legalization of prostitution will alleviate some of this oppression and ensure a more equal treatment of women in the criminal justice system and society at large.

Keywords: equality, feminist theory, prostitution, sex work

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
62 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Academic, Anxiety, Dyslexia, Quantitative

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61 The Effect of Health Subsidies on Poverty Level in Indonesia

Authors: Ikhsan Fahmi, Hasti Amanda Ilmi Putri

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The Covid-19 pandemic caused Large Scale Social Restrictions which have an impact on aspects of the nation’s life, such as the level of poverty. One of the causes of poverty is the lack level of public health. The calculation of poverty is seen as an inability from an economic side of basic food and non-food needs, which is measured from the expenditure side, one of which is health expenditure. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of health subsidies to the community on the level of poverty in 2020 in Indonesia. The main source used is the National Socio-Economic Survey of Consumption Expenditure and Cor, March 2020. From the result of the analysis, it was found that the percentage of poor people increased from the previous 9.78 percent to 9,92 percent, or there were 391,000 people who were previously not poor people who became poor when the health subsidies were revoked. There is a pattern of distribution of provinces in Indonesia between the average cost of health subsidies per capita per month if the government does not provide health subsidies and increasing of the percentage of poor people. This indicates that government intervention related to health subsidised is important in terms of poverty alleviation in Indonesia.

Keywords: poverty, health, subsidy, expenditure

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
60 Sustainable Community Participation in Australia

Authors: Virginia Dickson-Swift, Amanda Kenny, Jane Farmer, Sarah Larkins, Karen Carlisle, Helen Hickson

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In this presentation, we will focus on the methods of Remote Services Futures (RSF), an evidence-based method of community participation that was developed in Scotland. Using oral health as the focus, we will discuss the ways that RSF can be used to achieve sustainable engagement with stakeholders from various parts of the community. We will describe our findings of using RSF methods to engage with rural communities, including the steps involved and what happened when we asked people about the oral health services that they thought were needed in their community. We found that most community members started by thinking that a public dental clinic was required in every community, which is not a sustainable health service delivery option. Through a series of facilitated workshops, communities were able to discuss and prioritise their needs and develop a costed plan for their community which will ensure sustainable service delivery into the future. Our study highlights the complexities of decision making in rural communities. It is important to ensure that when communities participate in health care planning that the outcomes are practical, feasible and sustainable.

Keywords: community participation, sustainable health planning, Remote Services Futures, rural communities

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59 The Way Digitized Lectures and Film Presence Coaching Impact Academic Identity: An Expert Facilitated Participatory Action Research Case Study

Authors: Amanda Burrell, Tonia Gary, David Wright, Kumara Ward

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This paper explores the concept of academic identity as it relates to the lecture, in particular, the digitized lecture delivered to a camera, in the absence of a student audience. Many academics have the performance aspect of the role thrust upon them with little or no training. For the purpose of this study, we look at the performance of the academic identity and examine tailored film presence coaching for its contributions toward academic identity, specifically in relation to feelings of self-confidence and diminishment of discomfort or stage fright. The case is articulated through the lens of scholar-practitioners, using expert facilitated participatory action research. It demonstrates in our sample of experienced academics, all reported some feelings of uncertainty about presenting lectures to camera prior to coaching. We share how power poses and reframing fear, produced improvements in the ease and competency of all participants. We share exactly how this insight could be adapted for self-coaching by any academic when called to present to a camera and consider the relationship between this and academic identity.

Keywords: academic identity, digitized lecture, embodied learning, performance coaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
58 A Mixed Method Study Investigating Dyslexia and Students Experiences of Anxiety and Coping

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia can receive support for cognitive needs but may also experience anxiety, which is less understood. This study aims to test the hypothesis that dyslexic learners in higher education have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers and explores wider emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the ways that adults with dyslexia cope cognitively and emotionally. A mixed-method approach was used in two stages. Stage one compared survey responses from students with dyslexia (N = 102) and students without dyslexia (N = 72) after completion of an anxiety inventory. Stage two explored the emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the types of coping strategies used through semi-structured interviews with 20 dyslexic students. Results revealed a statistically significant effect for academic anxiety but not for social anxiety. Findings for stage two showed that: (1) students’ emotional consequences were characterised by a mixture of negative and positive responses, yet negative responses were more frequent in response to questions about academic tasks than positive responses; (2) participants had less to say on coping emotionally, than coping cognitively.

Keywords: dyslexia, higher education, anxiety, emotion

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
57 Longevity of Soybean Seeds Submitted to Different Mechanized Harvesting Conditions

Authors: Rute Faria, Digo Moraes, Amanda Santos, Dione Morais, Maria Sartori

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Seed vigor is a fundamental component for the good performance of the entire soybean production process. Seeds with mechanical damage at harvest time will be more susceptible to fungal and insect attack during storage, which will invariably reduce their vigor to the field, compromising uniformity and final stand performance. Harvesters, even the most modern ones, when not properly regulated or operated, can cause irreversible damages to the seeds, compromising even their commercialization. Therefore, the control of an efficient harvest is necessary in order to guarantee a good quality final product. In this work, the damage caused by two different harvesters (one rented, and another one) was evaluated, traveling in two speeds (4 and 8 km / h). The design was completely randomized in 2 x 2 factorial, with four replications. To evaluate the physiological quality seed germination and vigor tests were carried out over a period of six months. A multivariate analysis of Principal Components (PCA) and clustering allowed us to verify that the leased machine had better performance in the incidence of immediate damages in the seeds, but after a storage period of 6 months the vigor of these seeds reduced more than own machine evidencing that such a machine would bring more damages to the seeds.

Keywords: Glycine max (L.), cluster analysis, PCA, vigor

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
56 Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Well-Being, Health, and Loneliness during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Amanda Sundqvist, Yulia Korzhina, Lillemor Östman, Sofia Gylfe, Frida Gädda, Lisbet Nyström, Henrik Groundstroem, Pia Nyman-Kurkiala

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Purpose: There are large gaps in the literature on COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health outcomes and after-effects specific to adolescents and young adults. The study's aim was to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ experiences of well-being, health, and loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A qualitative exploratory design with qualitative content analysis was used. Twenty-three participants (aged 19-27; four men and 19 women) were interviewed. Results: Four themes emerged: Changed social networks – fewer and closer contacts, changed mental and physical health, increased physical and social loneliness, well-being, internal growth, and need for support. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and young adults’ experiences of well-being, health, and loneliness are subtle and complex. Participants experienced changed social networks, mental and physical health, and well-being. Also, internal growth, need for support, and increased loneliness were seen. Clear information on how to seek help and support from professionals should be made available.

Keywords: adolescents, COVID-19 pandemic, health, interviews, loneliness, qualitative, well-being, young adults

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55 Neural Network Analysis Applied to Risk Prediction of Early Neonatal Death

Authors: Amanda R. R. Oliveira, Caio F. F. C. Cunha, Juan C. L. Junior, Amorim H. P. Junior

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Children deaths are traumatic events that most often can be prevented. The technology of prevention and intervention in cases of infant deaths is available at low cost and with solid evidence and favorable results, however, with low access cover. Weight is one of the main factors related to death in the neonatal period, so the newborns of low birth weight are a population at high risk of death in the neonatal period, especially early neonatal period. This paper describes the development of a model based in neural network analysis to predict the mortality risk rating in the early neonatal period for newborns of low birth weight to identify the individuals of this population with increased risk of death. The neural network applied was trained with a set of newborns data obtained from Brazilian health system. The resulting network presented great success rate in identifying newborns with high chances of death, which demonstrates the potential for using this tool in an integrated manner to the health system, in order to direct specific actions for improving prognosis of newborns.

Keywords: low birth weight, neonatal death risk, neural network, newborn

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
54 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

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Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

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53 Getting Out: A Framework for Exiting/Escaping Sex Trafficking

Authors: Amanda Noble

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The process of exiting/escaping situations of sex trafficking can be arduous and fraught with numerous barriers. In this paper the results of a national Canadian study on escaping situations of sex trafficking is discussed. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with 201 stakeholders in 8 cities, including 50 survivors of sex trafficking, service providers, health care providers and police. The results show that survivors are both vulnerable to being exploited and experience barriers to exiting as a result of structural factors such as colonialism, poverty, and discrimination based on race and gender. Survivors also face numerous barriers within various systems such as child welfare and the legal system. In addition, survivors contend with multiple psychological and psychosocial factors when exiting including the trauma bond, complex trauma and mental health concerns, substance use, isolation, and adjusting to ‘mainstream’ life. In light of these factors, the service needs of survivors escaping sex trafficking are discussed, and promising practices, such as trauma-informed practice and working from a stages of change model are outlined. This paper is useful for service providers that work with survivors, policy makers, or anyone who has ever wondered why survivors that are not being physically detained don’t ‘just leave’ or escape their exploitative situations.

Keywords: Barriers, Exiting, Promising Practices, Sex Trafficking

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52 Community Participation in Health Planning in Australia

Authors: Amanda Kenny, Virginia Dickson-Swift, Jane Farmer, Sarah Larkins, Karen Carlisle, Helen Hickson

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Rural ECOH (Engaging Communities in Oral Health) is a collaborative project that connects policy makers, service providers and community members. The aim of the project is to empower community members to determine what is important for their community and to design the services that they need. This three-year project is currently underway in six rural communities across Australia. This study is specifically focused on Remote Services Futures (RSF), an evidence-based method of community participation that was developed in Scotland. The findings highlight the complexities of community participation in health service planning. We assumed that people living in rural communities would welcome participation in oral health planning and engage with their community to discuss these issues. We found that to understand the relationships between community members and health service providers, it was essential to identify the formal and informal community leaders and to engage stakeholders from the various community governance structures. Our study highlights the sometimes ‘messiness’ of decision making in rural communities as well as ways to ensure that community members have the training and practical skills necessary to participate in community decision making.

Keywords: community participation, health planning, rural ECOH, Remote Services Futures

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
51 Conformal Noble Metal High-Entropy Alloy Nanofilms by Atomic Layer Deposition for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction/Oxygen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalysis Applications

Authors: Jing Lin, Zou Yiming, Goei Ronn, Li Yun, Amanda Ong Jiamin, Alfred Tok Iing Yoong

Abstract:

High-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings comprise multiple (five or more) principal elements that give superior mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. However, the current synthesis methods of HEA coating still face huge challenges in facile and controllable preparation, as well as conformal integration, which seriously restricts their potential applications. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of conformal quinary HEA coating consisting of noble metals (Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd) by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a post-annealing approach. This approach realizes low temperature (below 200 °C), precise control (nanoscale), and conformal synthesis (over complex substrates) of HEA coating. Furthermore, the resulting quinary HEA coating shows promising potential as a platform for catalysis, exhibiting substantially enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances as compared to other noble metal-based structures such as single metal coating or multi-layered metal composites.

Keywords: high-entropy alloy, thin-film, catalysis, water splitting, atomic layer deposition

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50 Content Analysis of Depictions of Terrorism in U.S. Major Motion Pictures: A Social Constructionist Perspective

Authors: Raleigh Blasdell, Amanda M. Sharp Parker, Lauren Waldrop, Brigid Toney

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It has been demonstrated that fictional media sources have persuasive effects on public beliefs; this study contributes to the social constructionist literature by conducting a content analysis of U.S. major motion pictures involving terrorism. Using the Unified Film Population Sampling Methodology, the top-grossing films were identified to examine the frequency and context of several constructs of terrorism, including terrorist demographics, type of terrorism, country of origin, organizational affiliation, crime typology, and victim demographics. Comparisons of these constructs, as depicted in the films, were then made with the extant academic literature on terrorism. The data provide notable information regarding the representation of terrorism by the film industry, as well the discrepancies between the scholarly literature and depictions in popular films. The results indicate vast differences between fiction and reality, emphasizing a 'Middle Eastern Islamic male' terrorist stereotype. Using the theoretical foundation of social constructionism, the findings provide insight into how inaccurate depictions in film can influence society’s beliefs about terrorism and terrorists, which subsequently can translate into public support for legislation and policies that are often fueled by misinformation.

Keywords: film, media, social constructionism, terrorism

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49 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum

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It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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48 Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors: Amanda M. Tadini, Houssam Hajjoul, Gustavo Nicolodelli, Stéphane Mounier, Célia R. Montes, Débora M. B. P. Milori

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Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazonian soil, characterization, fluorescence, humic acid, lifetime

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47 Drying Kinects of Soybean Seeds

Authors: Amanda Rithieli Pereira Dos Santos, Rute Quelvia De Faria, Álvaro De Oliveira Cardoso, Anderson Rodrigo Da Silva, Érica Leão Fernandes Araújo

Abstract:

The study of the kinetics of drying has great importance for the mathematical modeling, allowing to know about the processes of transference of heat and mass between the products and to adjust dryers managing new technologies for these processes. The present work had the objective of studying the kinetics of drying of soybean seeds and adjusting different statistical models to the experimental data varying cultivar and temperature. Soybean seeds were pre-dried in a natural environment in order to reduce and homogenize the water content to the level of 14% (b.s.). Then, drying was carried out in a forced air circulation oven at controlled temperatures of 38, 43, 48, 53 and 58 ± 1 ° C, using two soybean cultivars, BRS 8780 and Sambaíba, until reaching a hygroscopic equilibrium. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 2 (temperature x cultivar) with 3 replicates. To the experimental data were adjusted eleven statistical models used to explain the drying process of agricultural products. Regression analysis was performed using the least squares Gauss-Newton algorithm to estimate the parameters. The degree of adjustment was evaluated from the analysis of the coefficient of determination (R²), the adjusted coefficient of determination (R² Aj.) And the standard error (S.E). The models that best represent the drying kinetics of soybean seeds are those of Midilli and Logarítmico.

Keywords: curve of drying seeds, Glycine max L., moisture ratio, statistical models

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46 Impact of Neuropsychological Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Controlled, Randomized and Blind Study

Authors: Amanda de Oliveira Ferreira Leite, Ana Luiza del Pino Ferreira, Bruna Garcez Correa, Janaíne de Souza Mello, Marla Manquevich, Mirna Wetters Portuguez

Abstract:

Objective: We sought to investigate a neuropsychological intervention focused on improving cognition, psychological aspects, and quality of life of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. Method: A controlled and randomized study, blind to the evaluator, was executed. We evaluated 78 elderly people, divided into the neuropsychological and control groups, through a semi-structured interview, Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination, Katz Index, Lawton and Brody Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Personal Development Scale, WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL--old. Results: After the intervention, the neuropsychological group showed improvement in the cognitive subtests and in the total score, reduction in the frequency of symptoms associated with anxiety and depression, better psychological well-being, and quality of life. The research highlights useful intervention strategies for improving the general condition of these patients and rehabilitating damaged areas. Conclusion: We concluded that there is a relationship between neuropsychological intervention and improvement in cognitive and psychological performance, as well as in the quality of life in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment.

Keywords: aging, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychology, quality of life

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45 A Community-Engaged Approach to Examining Health Outcomes Potentially Related to Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Yuma, Arizona

Authors: Julie A. Baldwin, Robert T. Trotter, Mark Remiker, C. Loren Buck, Amanda Aguirre, Trudie Milner, Emma Torres, Frank A. von Hippel

Abstract:

Introduction: In the past, there have been concerns about contaminants in the water sources in Yuma, Arizona, including the Colorado River. Prolonged exposure to contaminants, such as perchlorate and heavy metals, can lead to deleterious health effects in humans. This project examined the association between the concentration of environmental contaminants and patient health outcomes in Yuma residents, using a community-engaged approach to data collection. Methods: A community-engaged design allowed community partners and researchers to establish joint research goals, recruit participants, collect data, and formulate strategies for dissemination of findings. Key informant interviews were conducted to evaluate adherence to models of community-based research. Results: The training needs, roles, and expectations of community partners varied based on available resources, prior research experience, and perceived research challenges and ways to address them. Conclusions: Leveraging community-engaged approaches for studies of environmental contamination in marginalized communities can expedite recruitment efforts and stimulate action that can lead to improved community health.

Keywords: community engaged research, environmental contaminants, underserved populations, health equity

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44 Examining How Teachers’ Backgrounds and Perceptions for Technology Use Influence on Students’ Achievements

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Amanda Resendez

Abstract:

This study is to examine how teachers’ perspective on education technology use in their class influence their students’ achievement. The authors hypothesized that teachers’ perspective can directly or indirectly influence students’ learning, performance, and achievements. In this study, a questionnaire entitled, Teacher’s Perspective on Educational Technology, was delivered to 63 teachers and 1268 students’ mathematics and reading achievement records were collected. The questionnaire consists of four parts: a) demographic variables, b) attitudes on technology integration, c) outside factor affecting technology integration, and d) technology use in the classroom. Kruskal-Wallis and hierarchical regression analysis techniques were used to examine: 1) the relationship between the demographic variables and teachers’ perspectives on educational technology, and 2) how the demographic variables were causally related to students’ mathematics and reading achievements. The study found that teacher demographics were significantly related to the teachers’ perspective on educational technology with p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 separately. These teacher demographical variables included the school district, age, gender, the grade currently teach, teaching experience, and proficiency using new technology. Further, these variables significantly predicted students’ mathematics and reading achievements with p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 separately. The variations of R² are between 0.176 and 0.467. That means 46.7% of the variance of a given analysis can be explained by the model.

Keywords: teacher's perception of technology use, mathematics achievement, reading achievement, Kruskal-Wallis test, hierarchical regression analysis

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43 Continuous Processing Approaches for Tunable Asymmetric Photochemical Synthesis

Authors: Amanda C. Evans

Abstract:

Enabling technologies such as continuous processing (CP) approaches can provide the tools needed to control and manipulate reactivities and transform chemical reactions into micro-controlled in-flow processes. Traditional synthetic approaches can be radically transformed by the application of CP, facilitating the pairing of chemical methodologies with technologies from other disciplines. CP supports sustainable processes that controllably generate reaction specificity utilizing supramolecular interactions. Continuous photochemical processing is an emerging field of investigation. The use of light to drive chemical reactivity is not novel, but the controlled use of specific and tunable wavelengths of light to selectively generate molecular structure under continuous processing conditions is an innovative approach towards chemical synthesis. This investigation focuses on the use of circularly polarized (cp) light as a sustainable catalyst for the CP generation of asymmetric molecules. Chiral photolysis has already been achieved under batch, solid-phase conditions: using synchrotron-sourced cp light, asymmetric photolytic selectivities of up to 4.2% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) have been reported. In order to determine the optimal wavelengths to use for irradiation with cp light for any given molecular building block, CD and anisotropy spectra for each building block of interest have been generated in two different solvents (water, hexafluoroisopropanol) across a range of wavelengths (130-400 nm). These spectra are being used to support a series of CP experiments using cp light to generate enantioselectivity.

Keywords: anisotropy, asymmetry, flow chemistry, active pharmaceutical ingredients

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