Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 409

Search results for: atlantic coast

409 Genomic Evidence for Ancient Human Migrations Along South America's East Coast

Authors: Andre Luiz Campelo dos Santos, Amanda Owings, Henry Socrates Lavalle Sullasi, Omer Gokcumen, Michael DeGiorgio, John Lindo

Abstract:

An increasing body of archaeological and genomic evidence have indicated a complex settlement process of the Americas. Here, four newly sequenced ancient genomes from Northeast Brazil and Uruguay are reported to share strong relationships with previously published samples from Panama and Southeast Brazil. Moreover, an unexpected high genomic affinity with present-day Onge is found in ancient individuals unearthed along the northern portion of South America’s Atlantic coast. These results provide genomic evidence for ancient migrations along South America’s Atlantic coast.

Keywords: archaeogenomics, atlantic coast, paleomigrations, South America

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408 Atlantic Sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) Distribution off the East Coast of Florida from 2003 to 2018 in Response to Sea Surface Temperature

Authors: Meredith M. Pratt

Abstract:

The Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) ranges from 40°N to 40°S in the Western Atlantic Ocean and has great economic and recreational value for sport fishers. Off the eastern coast of Florida, charter boats often target this species. Stuart, Florida, bills itself as the sailfish capital of the world. Sailfish tag data from The Billfish Foundation and NOAA was used to determine the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and the distribution of Atlantic sailfish caught and released over a fifteen-year period (2003 to 2018). Tagging information was collected from local sports fishermen in Florida. Using the time and location of each landed sailfish, a satellite-derived SST value was obtained for each point. The purpose of this study was to determine if sea surface warming was associated with changes in sailfish distribution. On average, sailfish were caught at 26.16 ± 1.70°C (x̄ ± s.d.) over the fifteen-year period. The most sailfish catches occurred at temperatures ranging from 25.2°C to 25.5°C. Over the fifteen-year period, sailfish catches decreased at lower temperatures (~23°C and ~24°C) and at 31°C. At ~25°C and ~30°C there was no change in catch numbers of sailfish. From 26°C to 29°C, there was an increase in the number of sailfish. Based on these results, increasing ocean temperatures will have an impact on the distribution and habitat utilization of sailfish. Warming sea surface temperatures create a need for more policy and regulation to protect the Atlantic sailfish and related highly migratory billfish species.

Keywords: atlantic sailfish, Billfish, istiophorus albicans, sea surface temperature

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407 Assessment of the Impact of Trawling Activities on Marine Bottoms of Moroccan Atlantic

Authors: Rachida Houssa, Hassan Rhinane, Fadoumo Ali Malouw, Amina Oulmaalem

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Since the early 70s, the Moroccan Atlantic sea was subjected to the pressure of the bottom trawling, one of the most destructive techniques seabed that cause havoc on fishing catch, nonselective, and responsible for more than half of all releases of fish around the world. The present paper aims to map and assess the impact of the activity of the bottom trawling of the Moroccan Atlantic coast. For this purpose, a dataset of thirty years, between 1962 and 1999, from foreign fishing vessels using bottom trawling, has been used and integrated in a GIS. To estimate the extent and the importance of the geographical distribution of the trawling effort, the Moroccan Atlantic area was divided into a grid of cells of 25 km2 (5x5 km). This grid was joined to the effort trawling data, creating a new entity with a table containing spatial overlay grid with the polygon of swept surfaces. This mapping model allowed to quantify the used fishing effort versus time and to generate the trace indicative of trawling efforts on the seabed. Indeed, for a given year, a grid cell may have a swept area equal to 0 (never been touched by the trawl) or 25 km2 (the trawled area is similar to the cell size) or may be 100 km2 indicating that for this year, the scanned surface is four times the cell area. The results show that the total cumulative sum of trawled area is approximately 28,738,326 km2, scattered throughout the Atlantic coast. 95% of the overall trawling effort is located in the southern zone, between 29°N and 20°30'N. Nearly 5% of the trawling effort is located in the northern coastal region, north of 33°N. The center area between 33°N and 29°N is the least swept by Russian commercial vessels because in this region the majority of the area is rocky, and non trawlable.

Keywords: GIS, Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, seabed, trawling

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406 Positioning Analysis of Atlantic Canadian Provinces as Travel Destinations by Americans

Authors: Dongkoo Yun, Melissa James-MacEachern

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This study analyzes Americans’ views of four Atlantic Canadian provinces as travel destinations regarding specific destination attributes for a pleasure trip, awareness (heard) of the destinations, past visit to the destinations during the prior two years, and intention to visit in the next two years. Results indicate that American travellers perceived the four Atlantic Canadian provinces as separate and distinct when rating best-fit destination attributes to each destination. The results suggest that travel destinations, specifically the four selected destinations, must be prepared to differentiate their destination’s image and the range of experiences and services to appeal and attract more American travellers.

Keywords: American perceptions, Atlantic Canadian provinces, competitiveness, positioning analysis

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405 Festive Fictions: An Iconographic Study of Ritual and Intersectionality in Cartagena, Colombia

Authors: Melissa Valle

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This paper draws upon the studies of visual culture and intersectionality to illuminate how visuality can naturalize social hierarchies. Through the use of iconography, it decodes the denotative, connotative and ideological meanings of symbols of ritualistic events in the context of the Colombian Atlantic Coast. An examination of such exceptional moments, i.e. of the spectacle, brings into focus how such performances are imbued with meaning by both the on-looker and the performer. Through an analysis of preexisting visuals (e.g., advertisements, social media) and visual materials produced by the researcher for the purpose of photo-elicitation interviews, this paper provides a contextual analysis of the ways in which three representations, popular during Colombian Atlantic coastal festivals (Negrita Puloy, Las Palenqueras, and El Son de Negro), have been historically, culturally and politically constituted. This work reveals that the visualizations are born out of and reproduce typifications systems heavily based upon race, gender, class, and ethnicity. Understanding the ways these categories are mutually constituted through the cultural practice of visual representation is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of the role such representation plays in the reproduction of social difference.

Keywords: Colombia, festivals, intersectionality, visual culture

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404 Toxin-Producing Algae of Nigerian Coast, Gulf of Guinea

Authors: Medina O. Kadiri, Jeffrey U. Ogbebor

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Toxin-producing algae are algal species that produce potent toxins, which accumulate in food chains and cause various gastrointestinal and neurological illnesses in humans and other animals. They result in shellfish toxicity, ecosystem alteration, cause fish kills and mortality of other animals and humans, in addition to compromised product quality as well as decreased consumer confidence. Animals, including man, are directly exposed to toxins by absorbing toxins from the water via swimming, drinking water with toxins, or ingestion of algal species via feeding on contaminated seafood. These toxins, algal toxins, undergo bioaccumulation, biotransformation, biotransferrence, and biomagnification through the natural food chains and food webs, thereby endangering animals and humans. The Nigerian coast is situated on the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, one of Africa’s five large marine ecosystems (LME), and studies on toxic algae in this ecosystem are generally lacking. Algal samples were collected from eight coastal states and ten locations spanning the Bight of Bonny and the Bight of Benin. A total of 70 species of toxin-producing algae were found in the coastal waters of Nigeria. There was a great variety of toxin-producing algae in the coastal waters of Nigeria. They were Domoic acid-producing forms (DSP), Saxitoxin-producing, Gonyautoxin-producing, and Yessotoxin-producing (all PSP). Others were Okadaic acid-producing, Dinophysistoxin-producing, and Palytoxin-producing, which are representatives of DSP; CFP was represented by Ciguatoxin-producing forms and NSP by Brevitoxin-producing species. Emerging or new toxins are comprising of Gymnodimines, Spirolides, Palytoxins, and Prorocentrolidess-producing algae. The CyanoToxin Poisoning (CTP) was represented by Anatoxin-, Microcystin-, Cylindrospermopsis-Lyngbyatoxin-, Nordularin-Applyssiatoxin and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species. The highest group was the Saxitoxin-producing species, followed by Microcystin-producing species, then Anatoxin-producing species. Gonyautoxin (PSP), Palytoxin (DSP), Emerging toxins, and Cylindrospermopsin -producing species had a very substantial representation. Only Ciguatoxin-producing species, Lyngbyatoxin-Nordularin, Applyssiatoxin, and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species were represented by one taxon each. The presence of such overwhelming diversity of toxin-producing algae on the Nigerian coast is a source of concern for fisheries, aquaculture, human health, and ecosystem services. Therefore routine monitoring of toxic and harmful algae is greatly recommended.

Keywords: algal syndromes, Atlantic Ocean, harmful algae, Nigeria

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403 A Study on Genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838: A Case Study in Egypt with Special Emphasis on Paleobiogeographic, and Biometric Context

Authors: Soheir El-Shazly, Gouda Abdel-Gawad, Yasser Salama, Dina Sayed

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Twelve species belonging to genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 were recorded from nine localities in the Tertiary rocks of the Tethys, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Provinces. During The Eocene two species were collected from Indian-Pakistani region, two from North Africa (Libya, Tunis and Algeria), one from Jamaica and two from Peru. The Oligocene shows its appearance in North America (Florida) and Argentina. The genus showed its last occurrence in the Miocene rocks of North America (Florida) before its extinction. In Egypt, the genus was diversified in the Eocene rocks and was represented by four species and two subspecies. The paleobiogeographic distribution of Genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 indicates that it appeared in the Lower Eocene of West Indian Ocean and migrated westward flowing circumtropical Tethys Current to the central Tethyan province, where it appeared in North Africa and continued its dispersal westward to the Atlantic Ocean and arrived Jamaica in the Middle Eocene. It persisted in the Caribbean Sea and appeared later in the Oligocene and Miocene rocks of North America (Florida). Crossing Panama corridor, the genus migrated to the south Eastern Pacific Ocean and was collected from the Middle Eocene of Peru. The appearance of the genus in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic Coast of Argentina may be via South America Seaway or its southward migration from Central America to Austral Basin. The thickening of the upper valve of the genus, after the loss of its byssus to withstand the current action, caused inability of the animal to carry on its vital activity and caused its extinction. The biometric study of Carolia placunoides Cantraine, 1938 from thhe Eocene of Egypt, indicates that the distance between the muscle scars in the upper valve increases with the closure of the byssal notch.

Keywords: Atlantic, carolia, paleobiogeography, tethys

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402 Analyze Long-Term Shoreline Change at Yi-Lan Coast, Taiwan Using Multiple Sources

Authors: Geng-Gui Wang, Chia-Hao Chang, Jee-Cheng Wu

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A shoreline is a line where a body of water and the shore meet. It provides economic and social security to coastal habitations. However, shorelines face multiple threats due to both natural processes and man-made effects because of disasters, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and sand deposition and erosion, etc. In this study, we analyzed multi-temporal satellite images of the Yilan coast, Taiwan from 1978 to 2016, using the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), weather information (as rainfall records and typhoon routes), and man-made construction project data to explore the causes of shoreline changes. The results showed that the shoreline at Yilan coast is greatly influenced by typhoons and anthropogenic interventions.

Keywords: shoreline change, multi-temporal satellite, digital shoreline analysis system, DSAS, Yi-Lan coast

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401 Phylogeography and Evolutionary History of Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) along the Turkish Coastal Waters with Comparisons to the Atlantic

Authors: Aslı Şalcıoğlu, Grigorous Krey, Raşit Bilgin

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In this study, the effect of the Turkish Straits System (TSS), comprising a biogeographical boundary that forms the connection between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, on the evolutionary history, phylogeography and intraspecific gene flow of the whiting (Merlangius merlangus) a demersal fish species, was investigated. For these purposes, the mitochondrial DNA (CO1, cyt-b) genes were used. In addition, genetic comparisons samples from other regions (Greece, France, Atlantic) obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Database were made to better understand the phylogeographic history of the species at a larger geographic scale. Within this study, high level of genetic differentiation was observed along the Turkish coastal waters based on cyt-b gene, suggesting that TSS is a barrier to dispersal. Two different sub-species were also observed based on mitochondrial DNA, one found in Turkish coastal waters and Greece (M.m euxinus) and other (M.m. merlangus) in Atlantic, France.

Keywords: genetic, phylogeography, TSS, whiting

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400 Groundwater Recharge Pattern in East and West Coast of India: Evidence of Dissimilar Moisture Sources

Authors: Ajit Kumar Behera, Saranya P., Sudhir Kumar, Krishnakumar A

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The stable isotope (δ¹⁸ O and δ²H) composition of groundwater of the coastal areas of Periyar and Mahanadi basins falling along East and West coast of India during North-East (NE) monsoon season have been studied. The east and west coast regions are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively, which are considered to be the primary sources for precipitation over India. The major difference between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is that a number of large rivers feed the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Arabian Sea is fed by very few small rivers, resulting in enriched stable isotopic composition of the Arabian Sea than the Bay of Bengal. Previous studies have reported depleted ratios of stable isotopes during Northeast monsoon along East and West coasts due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal moisture source. The isotopic composition of groundwater of the Mahanadi delta in the east coast region varies from -6.87 ‰ to -3.40 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and -45.42 ‰ to -22.43‰ for δ²H. However, the groundwater of the Periyar basin in the west coast has enriched stable isotope value varying from -4.3‰ to -2.5 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and for δ²H from -23.7 to -6.4 ‰ which is a characteristic of South-West monsoon season. This suggests the groundwater system of the Mahanadi delta and the Periyar basins are influenced by dissimilar moisture sources. The δ¹⁸ O and δ² H relationship (δ²H= 6.513 δ¹⁸ O - 1.39) and d-excess value (< 10) in the east coast region indicates the influence of NE monsoon implying the quick groundwater recharge after precipitation with significant amount of evaporation. In contrast, the δ¹⁸ O and δ²H regression line (δ²H= 8.408 δ¹⁸ O + 11.71) with high d-excess value (>10) in the west coast region implies delayed recharge due to SW monsoon. The observed isotopic enrichment in west coast suggests that NE winter monsoon rainfall does not replenish groundwater quick enough to produce isotopic depletion during the season.

Keywords: Arabian sea, bay of Bengal, groundwater, monsoon, stable isotope

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399 Analysis of the Contribution of Coastal and Marine Physical Factors to Oil Slick Movement: Case Study of Misrata, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg, Mark Johnson

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Developing a coastal oil spill management plan for the Misratah coast is the motivating factor for building a database for coastal and marine systems and energy resources. Wind direction and speed, currents, bathymetry, coastal topography and offshore dynamics influence oil spill deposition in coastal water. Therefore, oceanographic and climatological data can be used to understand oil slick movement and potential oil deposits on shoreline area and the behaviour of oil spill trajectories on the sea surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the coastal and marine physical factors under strong wave conditions and various bathymetric and coastal topography gradients in the western coastal area of Libya on the movement of oil slicks. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a GNOME simulation model based on current and wind speed/direction. The results in this paper show that (1) Oil slick might reach the Misratah shoreline area in two days in the summer and winter. Seasons. (2 ) The North coast of Misratah is the potential oil deposit area on the Misratah coast. (3) Tarball pollution was observed along the North coast of Misratah. (4) Two scenarios for the summer and the winter season were run, along the western coast of Libya . (5) The eastern coast is at a lower potential risk due to the influence of wind and current energy in the Gulf of Sidra. (6) The Misratah coastline is more vulnerable to oil spill movement in the summer than in winter seasons. (7) Oil slick takes from 2 to 5 days to reach the saltmarsh in the eastern Misratah coast. (8) Oil slick moves 300 km in 30 days from the spill resource location near the Libyan western border to the Misratah coast.(9) Bathymetric features have a profound effect on oil spill movement. (9)Oil dispersion simulations using GNOME are carried out taking into account high-resolution wind and current data.

Keywords: oil spill movement, coastal and marine physical factors, coast area, Libyan

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398 Towards a Quantification of the Wind Erosion of the Gharb Shoreline Soils in Morocco by the Application of a Mathematical Model

Authors: Mohammed Kachtali, Imad Fenjiro, Jamal Alkarkouri

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Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Indeed, wind erosion easily removes the finest particles of the soil surface, which also contribute to losing soil fertility. The siltation of infrastructures and cultivated areas and the negative impact on health are additional consequences of wind erosion. In Morocco, wind erosion constitutes the main factor of silting up in coast and Sahara. The aim of our study is to use an equation of wind erosion in order to estimate the soil loses by wind erosion in the coast of Gharb (North of Morocco). The used equation in our model includes the geographic data, climatic data of 30 years and edaphic data collected from area study which contained 11 crossing of 4 stations. Our results have shown that the values of wind erosion are higher and very different between some crossings (p < 0.001). This difference is explained by topography, soil texture, and climate. In conclusion, wind erosion is higher in Gharb coast and varies from station to another; this problem required several methods of control and mitigation.

Keywords: Gharb coast, modeling, silting, wind erosion

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397 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie

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The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

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396 Heritage of the Ancient Greco-Roman Cities and Harbors in the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Wessam Fekry Ibrahim Moussa

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The northwest coast of Egypt embraces about 500 km of the Mediterranean coastline. The area covered extends from Alexandria on the East to the village of Sallum at Egypt's border with Libya in the west with an average depth of 20-70 km. When one looks at this long strip of land, one is struck by the fact that, from the archaeological point of view, one knows relatively little about this region during ancient times, its history, villages, inhabitants, and heritage. According to classical writers, in antiquity, the area seemed to be more populated and characterized by its rich buildings and inhabitants. They mentioned several Greco-Roman towns and harbors scattered along the coast nearly 2 thousand years ago. Strabo, for instance, in his book 17, confirmed the existence of about 12 several clusters along the coast, which varied between cities, villages, harbors, and small islands. Claudius Ptolemaeus also enumerated many marina sites as well as some small cities and villages. Unfortunately, nowadays, most of them have been lost either due to the extensive development of the north coast, Natural Disasters, or Erosion Factors. However, recent excavations carried out within the area revealed just a little of these settlements. The aim of this study is to reveal the secrets of the hidden heritage of those ancient sites and shed light on the role they played in the past, as some of them used to be stops on the trade route between Libya and Egypt (Strabo 17) or major centers for some of the international imports. The study will explore the archeological evidence using the analytical methodology to analyze each site and identify its features and significances in order to conclude the importance and role it once played during the past. Findings could be used by authorities and policymakers to utilize these heritage resources to improve cultural tourism within the area and enhance the tourist's experience.

Keywords: Greco Roman, heritage, ancient cities, north west coast

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395 Distribution of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus in Southeastern Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Roswati Md. Amin, Nurul Asmera Mudiman, Muhammad Faisal Abd. Rahman, Md-Suffian Idris, Noor Hazwani Mohd Azmi

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Distribution of picophytoplankton from two genera, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus at the surface water (0.5m) were observed from coastal to offshore area of the southeastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, for a six day cruise in August 2014 during SouthWest monsoon. The picophytoplankton was divided into two different size fractions (0.7-2.7μm and <0.7 μm) by filtering through GF/D (2.7 μm) and GF/F (0.7 μm) filter papers and counted by using flow cytometer. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus contribute higher at 0.7-2.7μm size range (ca. 90% and 95%, respectively) compared to <0.7 μm (ca. 10% and 5%, respectively). Synechococcus (>52%) dominated the total picophytoplankton compared to Prochlorococcus (<26%) for both size fractions in southeastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Total density (<2.7 μm) of Synechococcus was ranging between 1.72 x104 and 12.57 x104 cells ml-1, while Prochlorococcus varied from 1.50 x104 to 8.62 x104. Both Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus abundance showed a decreasing trend from coastal to offshore.

Keywords: Peninsular Malaysia, prochlorococcus, South China Sea, synechococcus

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394 Some Statistical Properties of Residual Sea Level along the Coast of Vietnam

Authors: Doan Van Chinh, Bui Thi Kien Trinh

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This paper outlines some statistical properties of residual sea level (RSL) at six representative tidal stations located along the coast of Vietnam. It was found that the positive RSL varied on average between 9.82 and 19.96cm and the negative RSL varied on average between -16.62 and -9.02cm. The maximum positive RSL varied on average between 102.8 and 265.5cm with the maximum negative RSL varied on average between -250.4 and -66.4cm. It is seen that the biggest positive RSL ere appeared in the summer months and the biggest negative RSL ere appeared in the winter months. The cumulative frequency of RSL less than 50 cm occurred between 95 and 99% of the times while the frequency of RSL higher than 100 cm accounted for between 0.01 and 0.2%. It also was found that the cumulative frequency of duration of RSL less than 24 hours occurred between 90 and 99% while the frequency of duration longer than 72 hours was in the order of 0.1 and 1%.

Keywords: coast of Vietnam, residual sea level, residual water, surge, cumulative frequency

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393 The Study of Ecological Seabirds in Algeria

Authors: A. Baaloudj, F. Samraoui, B. Samraoui

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We have been studied the reproductive ecology and dispersal of Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis for three years 2009-2011. The study of the breeding ecology of the species was undertaken at the Srigina Island (Skikda). The mean clutch size was 2.64±0.62, 2.49±0.72 and 2.37±0.77eggsin the three study years 2009-2011 respectively. Hatching success was similar for the first two years of study (53% in 2009and 54% in 2010) but significantly lower in the third year (27% in 2011). The same trend was found for the fledging success, it was 33% and 32% in 2009and 2010respectivelyandonly 14% in 2011. Cannibalism and predation by cats were the two likely causes of low reproductive success in the third year. Regarding the species dispersal, we started a banding program of the yellow-legged gulls Larus michahellis michahellis in 2009, the first scheme of its kind in North Africa. Banding of chicks was initiated at Skikda and extended, a year later, to four other colonies located along the Algerian coast. Preliminary analysis of ringed yellow-legged gulls from Algerian colonies indicates that juveniles dispersed in a north-westerly direction to the Balearic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Alboran Sea and the western Atlantic coast from the Bay of Cadiz to the Galician shores. Preliminary data suggested two distinct routes: gulls from the eastern North African colonies moved N/NW to eastern Spain and overland to the Bay of Biscay, a pattern of dispersal previously reported for birds from Spanish and French western Mediterranean colonies. Juveniles from western colonies seemed also to move N/NW to the Alboran Sea and the Bay of Cadiz. In Spain, where most of the dispersal took place, data suggested that Algerian gulls occupied coastal areas which are used as aestivating refuges before returning to North Africa in late autumn and winter.

Keywords: breeding ecology, population dynamic, dispersal, yellow-legged gull larus michahellis, sea bird, banding scheme, Srigina, Algeria

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392 Strategic Policy Formulation to Ensure the Atlantic Forest Regeneration

Authors: Ramon F. B. da Silva, Mateus Batistella, Emilio Moran

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Although the existence of two Forest Transition (FT) pathways, the economic development and the forest scarcity, there are many contexts that shape the model of FT observed in each particular region. This means that local conditions, such as relief, soil quality, historic land use/cover, public policies, the engagement of society in compliance with legal regulations, and the action of enforcement agencies, represent dimensions which combined, creates contexts that enable forest regeneration. From this perspective we can understand the regeneration process of native vegetation cover in the Paraíba Valley (Forest Atlantic biome), ongoing since the 1960s. This research analyzed public information, land use/cover maps, environmental public policies, and interviewed 17 stakeholders from the Federal and State agencies, municipal environmental and agricultural departments, civil society, farmers, aiming comprehend the contexts behind the forest regeneration in the Paraíba Valley, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The first policy to protect forest vegetation was the Forest Code n0 4771 of 1965, but this legislation did not promote the increase of forest, just the control of deforestation, not enough to the Atlantic Forest biome that reached its highest pick of degradation in 1985 (8% of Atlantic Forest remnants). We concluded that the Brazilian environmental legislation acted in a strategic way to promote the increase of forest cover (102% of regeneration between 1985 and 2011) from 1993 when the Federal Decree n0 750 declared the initial and advanced stages of secondary succession protected against any kind of exploitation or degradation ensuring the forest regeneration process. The strategic policy formulation was also observed in the Sao Paulo State law n0 6171 of 1988 that prohibited the use of fire to manage agricultural landscape, triggering a process of forest regeneration in formerly pasture areas.

Keywords: forest transition, land abandonment, law enforcement, rural economic crisis

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391 Using GIS for Assessment and Modelling of Oil Spill Risk at Vulnerable Coastal Resources: Of Misratah Coast, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg

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The oil manufacture is one of the main productive activities in Libya and has a massive infrastructure, including offshore drilling and exploration and wide oil export platform sites that located in coastal area. There is a threat to marine and coastal area of oil spills is greatest in those sites with a high spills comes from urban and industry, parallel to that, monitoring oil spills and risk emergency strategy is weakness, An approach for estimating a coastal resources vulnerability to oil spills is presented based on abundance, environmental and Scio-economic importance, distance to oil spill resources and oil risk likelihood. As many as 10 coastal resources were selected for oil spill assessment at the coast. This study aims to evaluate, determine and establish vulnerable coastal resource maps and estimating the rate of oil spill comes for different oil spill resources in Misratah marine environment. In the study area there are two type of oil spill resources, major oil resources come from offshore oil industries which are 96 km from the Coast and Loading/Uploading oil platform. However, the miner oil resources come from urban sewage pipes and fish ports. In order to analyse the collected database, the Geographic information system software has been used to identify oil spill location, to map oil tracks in front of study area, and developing seasonal vulnerable costal resources maps. This work shows that there is a differential distribution of the degree of vulnerability to oil spills along the coastline, with values ranging from high vulnerability and low vulnerability, and highlights the link between oil spill movement and coastal resources vulnerability. The results of assessment found most of costal freshwater spring sites are highly vulnerable to oil spill due to their location on the intertidal zone and their close to proximity to oil spills recourses such as Zreag coast. Furthermore, the Saltmarsh coastline is highly vulnerable to oil spill risk due to characterisation as it contains a nesting area of sea turtles and feeding places for migratory birds and the . Oil will reach the coast in winter season according to oil spill movement. Coastal tourist beaches in the north coast are considered as highly vulnerable to oil spill due to location and closeness to oil spill resources.

Keywords: coastal recourses vulnerability, oil spill trajectory, gnome software, Misratah coast- Libya, GIS

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390 Status of Mangrove Wetlands and Implications for Sustainable Livelihood of Coastal Communities on the Lagos Coast (West Africa)

Authors: I. Agboola Julius, Christopher A. Kumolu-Johnson, O. Kolade Rafiu, A. Saba Abdulwakil

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This work elucidates on mangrove diversity, trends of change, factors responsible for loss over the years and implications for sustainable livelihoods of locals in four villages (Ajido (L1), Tarkwa bay (L2), University of Lagos (L3), and Ikosi (L4)) along the coast of Lagos, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through field survey, questionnaires, interviews, and review of existing literature. Field observation and data analysis reveals mangrove diversity as low and varied on a spatial scale, where Margalef’s Diversity Index (D) was 0.368, 0.269, 0.326, and 0.333, respectively for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Shannon Weiner’s Index (H) was estimated to be 1.003, 1.460, 1.160, 1.046, and Specie Richness (E) 0.913, 0.907, 0.858, and 0.015, respectively, for the four villages. Also, The Simpson’s index of diversity was analyzed to be 0.632, 0. 731, 0.647, 0.667, and Simpson’s reciprocal index 2.717, 3.717, 3.060, and 3.003, respectively, for the four villages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the impact of mangrove loss on the sustainable livelihood of coastal communities. Calculated Chi-square (X2) value (5) was higher than tabulated value (4.30), suggesting that loss of mangrove wetlands impacted on local communities’ livelihood at the four villages. Analyses of causes and trends of mangrove wetland loss over the years suggest that urbanization, fuel wood and agricultural activities are major causes. Current degradation observed in mangrove wetlands on the Lagos coast suggest a reduction in mangroves biodiversity and associated fauna with potential cascading effects on higher trophic levels such as fisheries. Low yield in fish catch, reduction in income and increasing cases of natural disaster has culminated in threats to sustainable livelihoods of local communities along the coast of Lagos.

Keywords: Mangroves, lagos coast, fisheries, management

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389 Identification of Shark Species off The Nigerian Coast Using DNA Barcoding

Authors: O. O. Fola-Matthews, O. O. Soyinka, D. N. Bitalo

Abstract:

Nigeria is one of the major shark fishing nations in Africa, but its fisheries managers still record catch data in aggregates ‘sharks’ with no species-specific details. This is because most of the shark specimens look identical in morphology, and field identification of some closely related species is tricky. This study uses DNA barcoding as a method to identify shark species from five different landing areas off the Nigerian Coast. 100 dorsal fins were sampled in order to provide a Chondrichthyan sequence that would be matched to reference specimens in a DNA barcode database

Keywords: BOLD, DNA barcoding, nigeria, sharks

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
388 Mite Soil as Biological Indicators the Quality of the Soil in the Forested Area of the Coast of Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Fekkoun, Djelloul Ghezali, Doumandji Salaheddine

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The majority of the mite soil contributes to decompose the organic matter in the soil, the richness or poverty is a way of knowing the quality of the soil, in this regard we studied the ecological side of the soil mite in a forest park «coast of Algeria». 6 by taking soil samples every month for the year 2010/2011 .The samples are collected and extracted using the technique of Berlese Tullgren. It was obtained 604 individuals. These riches can indicate the fertility of soil and knead the high proportion of organic material in it. The largest number observed in the spring, followed by the separation of the 252 individuals fall 222 individuals and then the summer with 106 individuals and winter 80 individuals. Among the 18 families obtained. Scheloribatidae is the most dominant with 30.6% followed by Ceratozetidae with 16%, then Euphthiracaridae 14%. The families remain involved with low percentages. the diversity index Schanonweaver varied between 2.3 bits in the summer and 3.83 bits in the spring. As the results of the analysis statistic confirm the existence of a clear difference between the four seasons and the richness of soil mite and diversity.

Keywords: soil mite, forest, coast of Algeria, diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
387 Application of Shore Protective Structures in Optimum Land Using of Defense Sites Located in Coastal Cities

Authors: Mir Ahmad Lashteh Neshaei, Hamed Afsoos Biria, Ata Ghabraei, Mir Abdolhamid Mehrdad

Abstract:

Awareness of effective land using issues in coastal area including protection of natural ecosystems and coastal environment due to the increasing of human life along the coast is of great importance. There are numerous valuable structures and heritages which are located in defence sites and waterfront area. Marine structures such as groins, sea walls and detached breakwaters are constructed in coast to improve the coast stability against bed erosion due to changing wave and climate pattern. Marine mechanisms and interaction with the shore protection structures need to be intensively studied. Groins are one of the most prominent structures that are used in shore protection to create a safe environment for coastal area by maintaining the land against progressive coastal erosion. The main structural function of a groin is to control the long shore current and littoral sediment transport. This structure can be submerged and provide the necessary beach protection without negative environmental impact. However, for submerged structures adopted for beach protection, the shoreline response to these structures is not well understood at present. Nowadays, modelling and computer simulation are used to assess beach morphology in the vicinity of marine structures to reduce their environmental impact. The objective of this study is to predict the beach morphology in the vicinity of submerged groins and comparison with non-submerged groins with focus on a part of the coast located in Dahane sar Sefidrood, Guilan province, Iran where serious coast erosion has occurred recently. The simulations were obtained using a one-line model which can be used as a first approximation of shoreline prediction in the vicinity of groins. The results of the proposed model are compared with field measurements to determine the shape of the coast. Finally, the results of the present study show that using submerged groins can have a good efficiency to control the beach erosion without causing severe environmental impact to the coast. The important outcome from this study can be employed in optimum designing of defence sites in the coastal cities to improve their efficiency in terms of re-using the heritage lands.

Keywords: submerged structures, groin, shore protective structures, coastal cities

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
386 Early Transcriptome Responses to Piscine orthoreovirus-1 in Atlantic salmon Erythrocytes Compared to Salmonid Kidney Cell Lines

Authors: Thomais Tsoulia, Arvind Y. M. Sundaram, Stine Braaen, Øyvind Haugland, Espen Rimstad, Øystein Wessel, Maria K. Dahle

Abstract:

Fish red blood cells (RBC) are nucleated, and in addition to their function in gas exchange, they have been characterized as mediators of immune responses. Salmonid RBC are the major target cells of Piscineorthoreovirus (PRV), a virus associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon. The activation of antiviral response genesin RBChas previously been described in ex vivo and in vivo PRV-infection models, but not explored in the initial virus encounter phase. In the present study, mRNA transcriptome responses were explored in erythrocytes from individual fish, kept ex vivo, and exposed to purified PRV for 24 hours. The responses were compared to responses in macrophage-like salmon head kidney (SHK-1) and endothelial-like Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cells, none of which support PRV replication. The comparative analysis showed that the antiviral response to PRV was strongest in the SHK-1 cells, with a set of 80 significantly induced genes (≥ 2-fold upregulation). In RBC, 46 genes were significantly upregulated, while ASK cells were not significantly responsive. In particular, the transcriptome analysis of RBC revealed that PRV significantly induced interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5-like (IFIT9). However, several interferon-regulated antiviral genes which have previously been reported upregulated in PRV infected RBC in vivo (myxovirus resistance (Mx), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)), were not significantly induced after 24h of virus stimulation. In contrast to RBC, these antiviral response genes were significantly upregulated in SHK-1. These results confirm that RBC are involved in the innate immune response to viruses, but with a delayed antiviral response compared to SHK-1. A notable difference is that interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is the most strongly induced gene in RBC, but not among the significantly induced genes in SHK-1. Putative differences in the binding, recognition, and response to PRV, and any link to effects on the ability of PRV to replicate remains to be explored.

Keywords: antiviral responses, atlantic salmon, piscine orthoreovirus-1, red blood cells, RNA-seq

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385 Identification of Vulnerable Zone Due to Cyclone-Induced Storm Surge in the Exposed Coast of Bangladesh

Authors: Mohiuddin Sakib, Fatin Nihal, Rabeya Akter, Anisul Haque, Munsur Rahman, Wasif-E-Elahi

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Surge generating cyclones are one of the deadliest natural disasters that threaten the life of coastal environment and communities worldwide. Due to the geographic location, ‘low lying alluvial plain, geomorphologic characteristics and 710 kilometers exposed coastline, Bangladesh is considered as one of the greatest vulnerable country for storm surge flooding. Bay of Bengal is possessing the highest potential of creating storm surge inundation to the coastal areas. Bangladesh is the most exposed country to tropical cyclone with an average of four cyclone striking every years. Frequent cyclone landfall made the country one of the worst sufferer within the world for cyclone induced storm surge flooding and casualties. During the years from 1797 to 2009 Bangladesh has been hit by 63 severe cyclones with strengths of different magnitudes. Though detailed studies were done focusing on the specific cyclone like Sidr or Aila, no study was conducted where vulnerable areas of exposed coast were identified based on the strength of cyclones. This study classifies the vulnerable areas of the exposed coast based on storm surge inundation depth and area due to cyclones of varying strengths. Classification of the exposed coast based on hazard induced cyclonic vulnerability will help the decision makers to take appropriate policies for reducing damage and loss.

Keywords: cyclone, landfall, storm surge, exposed coastline, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
384 Microplastics in Two Bivalves of The Bay of Bengal Coast, Bangladesh

Authors: Showmitra Chowdhury, M. Shahadat Hossain, S. M. Sharifuzzaman, Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury, Subrata Sarker, M. Shah Nawaz Chowdhury

Abstract:

Microplastics were identified in mussel (Pernaviridis) and Oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) from the south east coast of Bangladesh. Samples were collected from four sites of the coast based on their availability, and gastrointestinal tracts were assessed following isolation, floatation, filtration, microscopic observation, and polymer identification by micro-Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscope (μ-FTIR) for microplastics determination. A total of 1527 microplastics were identified from 130 samples. The amount of microplastics varied from 0.66 to 3.10 microplastics/g and from 3.20 to 27.60 items/individual. Crassostrea madrasensiscontained on average 1.64 items/g and exhibited the highest level of microplastics by weight. Fiber was the most dominant type, accounting for 72% of total microplastics. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyester, and nylon were the major polymer types. In both species, transparent/ black color and filamentous shape was dominant. The most common size ranges from 0.005 to 0.25mm and accounted for 39% to 67%. The study revealed microplastics pollution is widespread and relatively high in the bivalves of Bangladesh.

Keywords: microplastics, bivalves, mussel, oyster, bay of bengal, Bangladesh

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383 Influence of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns on Dust Pollution Transport during the Harmattan Period over West Africa

Authors: Ayodeji Oluleye

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This study used Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and reanalysis dataset of thirty years (1983-2012) to investigate the influence of the atmospheric circulation on dust transport during the Harmattan period over WestAfrica using TOMS data. The Harmattan dust mobilization and atmospheric circulation pattern were evaluated using a kernel density estimate which shows the areas where most points are concentrated between the variables. The evolution of the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD), Sea surface Temperature (SST) over the Gulf of Guinea, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during the Harmattan period (November-March) was also analyzed and graphs of the average ITD positions, SST and the NAO were observed on daily basis. The Pearson moment correlation analysis was also employed to assess the effect of atmospheric circulation on Harmattan dust transport. The results show that the departure (increased) of TOMS AI values from the long-term mean (1.64) occurred from around 21st of December, which signifies the rich dust days during winter period. Strong TOMS AI signal were observed from January to March with the maximum occurring in the latter months (February and March). The inter-annual variability of TOMSAI revealed that the rich dust years were found between 1984-1985, 1987-1988, 1997-1998, 1999-2000, and 2002-2004. Significantly, poor dust year was found between 2005 and 2006 in all the periods. The study has found strong north-easterly (NE) trade winds were over most of the Sahelianregion of West Africa during the winter months with the maximum wind speed reaching 8.61m/s inJanuary.The strength of NE winds determines the extent of dust transport to the coast of Gulf of Guinea during winter. This study has confirmed that the presence of the Harmattan is strongly dependent on theSST over Atlantic Ocean and ITD position. The locus of the average SST and ITD positions over West Africa could be described by polynomial functions. The study concludes that the evolution of near surface wind field at 925 hpa, and the variations of SST and ITD positions are the major large scale atmospheric circulation systems driving the emission, distribution, and transport of Harmattan dust aerosols over West Africa. However, the influence of NAO was shown to have fewer significance effects on the Harmattan dust transport over the region.

Keywords: atmospheric circulation, dust aerosols, Harmattan, West Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
382 Sea-Level Rise and Shoreline Retreat in Tainan Coast

Authors: Wen-Juinn Chen, Yi-Phei Chou, Jou-Han Wang

Abstract:

Tainan coast is suffering from beach erosion, wave overtopping, and lowland flooding; though most of the shoreline has been protected by seawalls, they still threatened by sea level rise. For coastal resources developing, coastal land utilization, and to draft an appropriate mitigate strategy. Firstly; we must assess the impact of beach erosion under a different scenario of climate change. Here, we have used the meteorological data since 1898 to 2012 to prove that the Tainan area did suffer the impact of climate change. The result shows the temperature has been raised to about 1.7 degrees since 1989. Also, we analyzed the tidal data near the Tainan coast (Anpin site and Junjunn site), it shows sea level rising with a rate about 4.1~4.8 mm/year, this phenomenon will have serious impacts on Tainan coastal area, especially it will worsen coastal erosion. So we have used Bruun rule to calculate the shoreline retreated rate at every two decade period since 2012. Wave data and bottom sand diameter D50 were used to calculate the closure depth that will be used in Bruun formula and the active length of the profile is computed by the beach slope and Dean's equilibrium concept. After analysis, we found that in 2020, the shoreline will be retreated about 3.0 to 12 meters. The maximum retreat is happening at Chigu coast. In 2060, average shoreline retreated distance is 22m, but at Chigu and Tsenwen, shoreline may be backward retreat about 70m and will be reached about 130m at 2100, this will cause a lot of coastal land loss to the sea, protect and mitigate project must be quickly performed.

Keywords: sea level rise, shoreline, coastal erosion, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
381 Strategy for Holistic Management of the Marine Resources of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Julian Hyde, Theresa Ng., Nazirul Amin

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The Marine Parks in Malaysia are managed as individual entities by the Department of Fisheries, with management responsibilities delegated to the State level. Recent advances in the science of marine resource management suggest that a more integrated management model would be beneficial. This would take into account the biological connectivity between the islands, particularly mangroves and seagrass meadows. Importantly, it would also take into account how users interact with and impact the ecosystems. This paper proposes an overarching approach to guide the management of marine resources along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia as one large network using the Seascape Approach to Management.

Keywords: connectivity, Malaysia, management, marine parks

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380 An Experimental Approach to the Influence of Tipping Points and Scientific Uncertainties in the Success of International Fisheries Management

Authors: Jules Selles

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The Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna fishery have been considered as the archetype of an overfished and mismanaged fishery. This crisis has demonstrated the role of public awareness and the importance of the interactions between science and management about scientific uncertainties. This work aims at investigating the policy making process associated with a regional fisheries management organization. We propose a contextualized computer-based experimental approach, in order to explore the effects of key factors on the cooperation process in a complex straddling stock management setting. Namely, we analyze the effects of the introduction of a socio-economic tipping point and the uncertainty surrounding the estimation of the resource level. Our approach is based on a Gordon-Schaefer bio-economic model which explicitly represents the decision making process. Each participant plays the role of a stakeholder of ICCAT and represents a coalition of fishing nations involved in the fishery and decide unilaterally a harvest policy for the coming year. The context of the experiment induces the incentives for exploitation and collaboration to achieve common sustainable harvest plans at the Atlantic bluefin tuna stock scale. Our rigorous framework allows testing how stakeholders who plan the exploitation of a fish stock (a common pool resource) respond to two kinds of effects: i) the inclusion of a drastic shift in the management constraints (beyond a socio-economic tipping point) and ii) an increasing uncertainty in the scientific estimation of the resource level.

Keywords: economic experiment, fisheries management, game theory, policy making, Atlantic Bluefin tuna

Procedia PDF Downloads 182