Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Adebayo J. Adeloye

44 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye

Abstract:

As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
43 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency

Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo

Abstract:

Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
42 Critical Review of Clean Energy Mix as Means of Boosting Power Generation in Nigeria

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Adequate power generation and supply are enormous challenges confronting Nigeria state today. This is a powerful mechanism that drives industrial development and socio-economy of any nation. The present level of power generation and supply have become national embarrassment to both government and the citizens of Nigeria, where over 60% of the population have no access to electricity. This paper is set to review the abundant clean energy alternative sources available in abundance that are capable of boosting power generation. The clean energy sources waiting to be exploited include: nuclear, solar and wind energy. The environmental benefits of these sources of power generation are identified. Nuclear energy is a powerful clean energy source. However, Africa accounted for 20% of known recoverable reserve and uranium produces heat of 500,000 MJ/kg. Moreover, Nigeria receives average daily solar radiation of over 5.249 kWh/m2/day. Researchers have shown that wind speed and power flux densities varied from 1.5 – 4.1 m/s and 5.7 – 22.5 W/m2 respectively. It is a fact that the cost of doing business in Nigeria is very high, leading to winding up of the multi-national companies and then led to increase unemployment level. More importantly, readily available vast quantity of energy will reduce cost of running industries. Hence, more industries will come on board, goods, services, and more job creation will be achieved. This clean source of power generation is devoid of production of green house gases, elimination of environmental pollution, and reduced waste disposal. Then Nigerians will live in harmony with the environment.

Keywords: power, generation, energy, mix, clean, industrial

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
41 Pharmaceutical Science and Development in Drug Research

Authors: Adegoke Yinka Adebayo

Abstract:

An understanding of the critical product attributes that impact on in vivo performance is key to the production of safe and effective medicines. Thus, a key driver for our research is the development of new basic science and technology underpinning the development of new pharmaceutical products. Research includes the structure and properties of drugs and excipients, biopharmaceutical characterisation, pharmaceutical processing and technology and formulation and analysis.

Keywords: drug discovery, drug development, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
40 Development of a Spatial Data for Renal Registry in Nigeria Health Sector

Authors: Adekunle Kolawole Ojo, Idowu Peter Adebayo, Egwuche Sylvester O

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality across developed and developing nations and is associated with increased risk. There are no existing electronic means of capturing and monitoring CKD in Nigeria. The work is aimed at developing a spatial data model that can be used to implement renal registries required for tracking and monitoring the spatial distribution of renal diseases by public health officers and patients. In this study, we have developed a spatial data model for a functional renal registry.

Keywords: renal registry, health informatics, chronic kidney disease, interface

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39 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.

Abstract:

The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
38 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

Abstract:

The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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37 Predicting the Effects of Counseling Psychology on the Sexual Risk Behavior of In-School Adolescents: Implication for National Development

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Adebayo Adeyinka Salako

Abstract:

The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred (200) in-school adolescents were purposely selected in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Two hypotheses were also raised to pilot the study. The researchers developed an instrument which was validated by psychological experts, the instrument tagged counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior questionnaire (CPSRBQ)(r = 0.78). The results were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior of in-school adolescents. It was also noticed that there is a significant difference in the sexual risk behavior of male and female adolescents. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more counselors are still needed in Nigeria schools. There is need for restructuring Nigeria Curriculum most especially on sex education and related diseases. Lastly, adolescents should be more exposed to seminars on HIV/AIDS, sex education enlightenment programmes and marital counseling.

Keywords: counseling psychology, sexual behavior, risk and adolescent, cognitive sciences

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36 Rural Households' Sources of Water and Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Services in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Alaba M. Dare, Idris A. Ayinde, Adebayo M. Shittu, Sam O. Sam-Wobo

Abstract:

Households' source of water is one of the core development indicators recently gaining pre-eminence in Nigeria. This study examined rural households' sources of water, Willingness to Pay (WTP) and factors influencing mean WTP. A cross-sectional survey which involved the use of questionnaire was used. A dichotomous choice (DC) with follow up was used as elicitation method. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 437 rural households. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used for data estimation. The result revealed that about 70% fetched from unimproved water sources. Most (74.4%) respondents showed WTP for improved water sources. Age (p < 0.01), sex (p < 0.01), education (p < 0.01), occupation (p < 0.01), income (p < 0.01), price of water (P < 0.01), quantity of water (p < 0.01), household size (p < 0.01) and distance (p < 0.01) to existing water sources significantly influenced rural households' WTP for these services. The inference from this study showed that rural dweller sources of water is highly primitive and deplorable. Governments and stakeholders should prioritize the provision of rural water at an affordable price by rural dwellers.

Keywords: households, source of water, willingness to pay (WTP), tobit model

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35 Test of Capital Account Monetary Model of Floating Exchange Rate Determination: Further Evidence from Selected African Countries

Authors: Oloyede John Adebayo

Abstract:

This paper tested a variant of the monetary model of exchange rate determination, called Frankel’s Capital Account Monetary Model (CAAM) based on Real Interest Rate Differential, on the floating exchange rate experiences of three developing countries of Africa; viz: Ghana, Nigeria and the Gambia. The study adopted the Auto regressive Instrumental Package (AIV) and Almon Polynomial Lag Procedure of regression analysis based on the assumption that the coefficients follow a third-order Polynomial with zero-end constraint. The results found some support for the CAAM hypothesis that exchange rate responds proportionately to changes in money supply, inversely to income and positively to interest rates and expected inflation differentials. On this basis, the study points the attention of monetary authorities and researchers to the relevance and usefulness of CAAM as appropriate tool and useful benchmark for analyzing the exchange rate behaviour of most developing countries.

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary model, interest differentials, capital account

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34 Investigation of Suitability of Dredged Wastes for Production of Bricks

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. O. Omotehinse, C. Arum

Abstract:

This study investigates the suitability of dredged samples for the production of bricks. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of dredged samples were also determined using the British Standard. Bricks were produced using appropriate mixes of two dredged wastes. The dredged samples (Oroto dredged samples and Igbokoda dredged samples) have high moisture content of 90.48 % and 37.5 % respectively and both are classified as silty materials. The two dredged samples were mixed in different percentage (1- Oroto dredged sample (DS) 85 % and Igbokoda dredged sample (IS) 15 %, 2-DS 70 % and IS 30 %, 3- DS 55 % and IS 45 %, 4- DS 50 % and IS 50 %, 5- DS 45 % and IS 55 %,6- DS 30 % and IS 70 %, 7- DS 15 % and IS 85 %, 8- Clay 100 %, 9- DS 100 %, 10-IS 100 %) for the production of bricks and were tested for 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days. Although, the water absorption level of the bricks produced were high (5.635 to 33.4 %), the compressive strength on the 28th day was within the accepted British Standard. The Igbokoda dredge sample is a good material for the production of bricks when mixed with Oroto Dredged sample because the compressive strength of the material is within the accepted limit.

Keywords: bricks, dredged, moisture content, suitability

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33 Livelihood and Willingness to Accept Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation by Local People in the Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo John Julius, Emmanuel Imoagene

Abstract:

Mitigating global warming through reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been given increasing attentions in government-to-government negotiations while discussions among decision-makers have been going on, it is important to learn about the perception of local people in relation to REDD because the implementation will affect their lives. A survey was conducted using questionnaires to examine the livelihood and forest dependency of the local people in the vicinity of Onigambari and Ido area. Respondents’ income from forest activities and forest resources are collected. Participation in tourism related activities among the household members was also investigated to measure the potential of this “eco-friendly” income generation activity in the local communities. There was a general indication of reducing slash-and-burn activities with distance from the park and involvement in tourism-related job. Most of the local people were willing to accept compensation as alternative for slash-and-burn activities. The compensation preferred is in various form of development and different level of forest and environmental activities

Keywords: livelihood, emission, deforestation, degradation, local people, southwest Nigeria

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32 Assessing the Effects of Community Informatics on Livelihoods Sustainability in Nigeria: a Model for Rural Communities

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. This thus raises a very important question as to how can there be so much poverty in Nigeria with all its natural endowments. This study focused comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics , model, rural community, livelihoods sustainability, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
31 Natural Radionuclides and Doses Assessment in Soil Samples from Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayorinde B. Ogunremi, Kehinde A. Adewoyin, Adebamwo Adebayo

Abstract:

Record of radionuclide concentration in an environment is essential to ensure human safety due to exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aimed at assessing the radionuclide concentration and doses from soil samples in the study area. Twenty soil samples were collected and dried in the oven at 110°C to remove the moisture, pulverized, and sieved. 200 g of each of the samples were sealed in cylindrical sample holders; they were left for four weeks to attain secular equilibrium between ²²⁶Ra and its decay daughters, after which the sample was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. After the well-guided procedure for the calibrations, the analysis of the samples was carried out using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) and well-shielded detector coupled to a computer resident quantum MCA2100 R Multichannel analyzer for 36,000 s. The mean activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th obtained were calculated to be 272.37 ± 33.58, 10.97 ± 3.24, 9.39 ± 2.27 Bqkg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose obtained was 22.10 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) was estimated to be 43.27 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) were below the recommended values, which are 420, 33, and 45 for ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th, respectively. Considering the results, we conclude thus, the radiation level within the estate poses no significant health risk on dwellers and workers.

Keywords: absorbed, effective, multichannel, radionuclide

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30 Evaluating the Effects of Community Informatics on Sustainable Livelihoods: a Case Model for Rural Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. Rural communities adopted for this study are Ido, Omi-Adio, Onigambari, Okija and Lambata, 500 questionnaires were administered to solicit information from the respondents. This study focused on comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on the sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics, model, rural community, livelihood, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
29 Empirical Investigation into Climate Change and Climate-Smart Agriculture for Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: J. Julius Adebayo

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the agro-climatic condition of Ibadan in the rain forest ecological zone of Nigeria, using rainfall pattern and temperature between 1978-2018. Data on rainfall and temperature in Ibadan, Oyo State for a period of 40 years were obtained from Meteorological Section of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan and Oyo State Meteorology Centre. Time series analysis was employed to analyze the data. The trend revealed that rainfall is decreasing slowly and temperature is averagely increasing year after year. The model for rainfall and temperature are Yₜ = 1454.11-8*t and Yₜ = 31.5995 + 2.54 E-02*t respectively, where t is the time. On this basis, a forecast of 20 years (2019-2038) was generated, and the results showed a further downward trend on rainfall and upward trend in temperature, this indicates persistence rainfall shortage and very hot weather for agricultural practices in the southwest rain forest ecological zone. Suggestions on possible solutions to avert climate change crisis and also promote climate-smart agriculture for sustainable food and nutrition security were also discussed.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall pattern, temperature, time series analysis, food and nutrition security

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28 Continuance Intention to Use E-administration Information Portal by Non-teaching Staff in Selected Universities, Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo Muritala Adegbore

Abstract:

The e-administration is increasingly being recognized as an important phenomenon in this 21st century and its place in society both at the public and private levels cannot be downplayed. Of close attention is how these platforms are adopted and used in academia due to academia’s role in shaping the overall development of the society, particularly the administrative activities of the non-teaching staff in universities since much has not been done to find out the continuance intention to use e-administration information portal by non-teaching staff in universities. This study, therefore, investigates the continuance intention to use e-administration of information portals of senior non-teaching staff in selected universities in southwest Nigeria. The study’s design was a correlational survey using simple random sampling to select three hundred and fifty-two (352) senior non-teaching staff in the selected universities. A standardized questionnaire was used for data capturing while data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages, means, and standard deviation for the research questions and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used for the hypothesis. Findings revealed that the continuance intention of senior non-teaching staff to use e-administration information portal is positive (x = 3.13), the university portal is one of the most utilized e-administration tools (83.4%), while there was an inversely significant relationship between continuance intention to use and use of e-administration information portal (r = -.254; p< 0.05; N = 320).

Keywords: e-administration, e-portal, non-teaching staff, information systems, continuance intention, use of e-administration portals

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27 Intra-Erythrocytic Trace Elements Profile of EMU (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Le Souef 1907

Authors: Adebayo Adewumi

Abstract:

Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae the second largest bird in the world started its domestication in the United States in the early 1980's and the present trend in the production of emu in the U.S can be compared with cattle industry. As the population of many wildlife species in Nigeria declined due to unsustainable harvest of bush meat, animals like snails, antelopes,Ostrich, Emu and rodents have been domesticated. Although this improved livestock production in Nigeria, the basic physiological parameters of these mini- livestock are not known. Especially the intra-erythrocyte trace elements of domesticated emu, For this study, emu blood was obtained from Ajanla farms, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. There, 16 emus at age of 20 months were bled through jugular vein in a semi-intensive system for a period of 12 months. The intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn, and Mg in healthy Emu were measured. The influences of sex and age on these parameters were investigated. No age or sex differences were observed in intra-erythrocytic Cu levels. Intra-erythrocytic Zn and Mg levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in young Emu than in adults while males used significantly (P<0.05) higher intra erythrocytic Mg than females. intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn and Mg is a good pointer to haemoglobin concentration which determines the state of wellness of an animal. The information from this work has provided a baseline data for further understanding of erythrocyte biochemistry of Emu in Nigeria.

Keywords: intra erythrocyte, trace elements, Emu, biochemistry

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26 Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Adeyemi Adebayo, Barry Ackers

Abstract:

This paper comparatively analyses the corporate governance of SOEs in South Africa and Singapore in the context of the World Bank’s framework for corporate governance of SOEs. This framework ensured that the analysis holistically covered key aspects of corporate governance of SOEs in these states. In order to ground our understanding of the paths taken by SOEs in the states, the paper presents the evolution and reforms of SOEs in the states before analyzing key aspects of their corporate governance. The analysis shows that even though SOEs in South Africa and Singapore are comparable in a number of ways, there are notable differences. In this context, this paper finds that the main difference between corporate governance of SOEs in South Africa and Singapore is their organizing model. Further, the analysis, among other findings, shows that SOEs Boards in Singapore are better remunerated. Further finding reveals that, even though some board members are politically connected, Singaporean SOEs boards are better constituted based on skills and experience compared to SOEs boards in South Africa. Overall, the analysis opens up new debates and as such concludes by providing avenues for further research.

Keywords: corporate governance, comparative corporate governance, corporate governance framework, government business enterprises, government linked companies, organizing models, ownership models, state-owned companies, state-owned enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
25 Influence of Some Psychological Factors on the Learning Gains of Distance Learners in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeola Adejumo, Oluwole David Adebayo, Muraina Kamilu Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of some psychological factors (i.e, school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the learning gains of university undergraduates in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred undergraduates who are on open distance learning education programme in the University of Ibadan and thirty mathematics lecturers constituted the study’s sample. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments and the data obtained was analyzed using multiple regression statistical method. The instruments used were school climate scale, parental involvement scale and classroom interaction scale. Three research questions were answered in the study. The result showed that there was significant relationship between the three independent variables (school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the students’ learning gain in mathematics and that the independent variables both jointly and relatively contributed significantly to the prediction of students’ learning gain in mathematics. On the strength of these findings, the need to enhance the school climate, improve the parents’ involvement in the student’s education and encourage students’ classroom interaction were stressed and advocated.

Keywords: school climate, parental involvement, ODL, learning gains, mathematics

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24 Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Ogunremi Beatrice, Oluwole David Adebayo

Abstract:

Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, goal orientation, school engagement, self-regulation

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23 Road Traffic Psychology: A Survey of Seat Belt Usage among Drivers in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: I. T. Adebayo, J. R. Aworemi, V. A. Ogundele, O. J. Babalola, J. O. Ajayi

Abstract:

The behavior of road users is a critical element in road safety. However, despite the proven effectiveness of the seat belt in reducing injury severity, some drivers still do not use the seat belt. The study, therefore, examined seat belt usage among drivers in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Face-to-face surveys were conducted to elicit data on seat belt usage and road behaviors on 54,038 drivers plying the General-Lautech Road in Ogbomoso over a period of six months. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that seat belt usage was moderate among private car drivers in the morning (52.75 percent) and much lower in the evening (37.67 percent), while less than 30 percent of the commercial bus/taxi drivers used the seat during both periods. The paired T-test revealed a significant difference in seat belt usage by all the drivers in the morning and in the evening, as indicated with a T value of 113.977 and the level of significance p < 0.05. The study concluded that there is a significant difference in the usage of the seat belt by both private car and commercial bus/taxi drivers in Ogbomoso as most drivers made use of the seat belt, especially in the morning, to avoid being delayed when flagged down and fined for non-compliance with seat belt usage by the road traffic law enforcement agents. However, most of the drivers cited inadequate/lack of enforcement of compulsory use of seat belts by the relevant agencies and discomfort as the major reasons for not using the seat belt while driving.

Keywords: drivers, road , seat belt, traffic psychology

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22 Divergences in Interpreters’ Oral Interpretation among Pentecostal Churches: Sermonic Reflections

Authors: Rufus Olufemi Adebayo, Sylvia Phiwani Zulu

Abstract:

Interpreting in the setting of diverse language and multicultural congregants, is often understood as integrating the content of the message. Preaching, similar to any communication, takes seriously people’s multiple contexts. The one who provides the best insight into understanding “the other”, traditionally speaking could be an interpreter in a multilingual context. Nonetheless, there are reflections in the loss of spiritual communication, translation and interpretive dialogue. No matter how eloquent the preacher is, an interpreter can make or mere the sermon (speech). The sermon that the preacher preaches is not always the one the congregation hears from the interpreter. In other occurrences, however, interpreting can lead not only to distort messages but also to dissatisfied audiences and preacher being overshadowed by the pranks of the interpreter. Using qualitative methodology, this paper explores the challenges and the conventional assumptions about preachers’ interpreter as influenced by spirituality, culture, and language in empirical and theoretical perspectives. An emphasis on the bias translation and the basis of reality that suppresses or devalues the spiritual communication is examined. The result indicates that interpretation of the declaration of guilt, history of congregation, spirituality, attitudes, morals, customs, specific practices of a preacher, education, and the environment form an entangled and misinterpretation. The article concludes by re-examining these qualities and rearticulating them into a preliminary theory for practice, as distinguished from theory, which could possibly enhance the development of more sustainable multilingual interpretation in the South African Pentecostal churches.

Keywords: congregants, divergences, interpreting/translation, language & communication, sermon/preaching

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21 Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Water Yield and Water Balance: Case Study of Upstream Catchment of Jebba Dam in Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi G. Adeogun, Bolaji F. Sule, Adebayo W. Salami, Michael O. Daramola

Abstract:

Estimation of water yield and water balance in a river catchment is critical to the sustainable management of water resources at watershed level in any country. Therefore, in the present study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied as a tool to predict water balance and water yield of a catchment area in Nigeria. The catchment area, which was 12,992km2, is located upstream Jebba hydropower dam in North central part of Nigeria. In this study, data on the observed flow were collected and compared with simulated flow using SWAT. The correlation between the two data sets was evaluated using statistical measures, such as, Nasch-Sucliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The model output shows a good agreement between the observed flow and simulated flow as indicated by NSE and R2, which were greater than 0.7 for both calibration and validation period. A total of 42,733 mm of water was predicted by the calibrated model as the water yield potential of the basin for a simulation period 1985 to 2010. This interesting performance obtained with SWAT model suggests that SWAT model could be a promising tool to predict water balance and water yield in sustainable management of water resources. In addition, SWAT could be applied to other water resources in other basins in Nigeria as a decision support tool for sustainable water management in Nigeria.

Keywords: GIS, modeling, sensitivity analysis, SWAT, water yield, watershed level

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20 Communicative Values of Yoruba Traditional Music on Adulthood Socialisation between the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

Authors: Odukunle Adebayo Atewolara-Odule

Abstract:

Music is an electronic medium and an integral content of the broadcast media, which has communicative values even in the process of entertaining listeners. The communicative values of music could have implications on what adults learn about culture and society. This study aimed at examining the communicative values of Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation by comparing the situation of the late 20th with early 21st centuries. From the population of literate adults of between the ages of 30 years and 65 years in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun state, a sample of 200 respondents was drawn into the study through the stratified technique. A descriptive survey was conducted on the sample with the use of a structured questionnaire as the research instrument. Findings showed a significant relationship between what adults learned about the society and its culture from this category of music (p=0.000<0.05) but there was a higher significant relationship between Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation in the late 20th than in early 21st centuries. Results also showed a significant communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music of the late 20th and early 21st centuries on adulthood socialisation (p=0.000<0.05). Respondents’ demographic characteristics were observed to play significant intervening roles on the communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music on socialisation among the adults between the late 20th and early 21st centuries (p=0.000<0.05). The study recommends that stakeholders should take cognisance of the lyrical contents of Yoruba traditional music due to its implications to inculcate values into people and shape their behaviour.

Keywords: adulthood socialisation, communicative values, traditional music, Voruba

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19 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Cocoa Belt of Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Dada, Adebayo-Victoria Tobi Dada

Abstract:

The study evaluates land use and land cover changes in the cocoa belt of Ondo state to quantify its effect on the expanse of land occupied by cocoa plantation as the most suitable region for cocoa raisin in Nigeria. Time series of satellite imagery from Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 TIRS covering years 2000 and 2015 respectively were used. The study area was classified into six land use themes of cocoa plantation, settlement, water body, light forest and grassland, forest, and bar surface and rock outcrop. The analyses revealed that out of total land area of 997714 hectares of land of the study area, cocoa plantation land use increased by 10.3% in 2015 from 312260.6 ha in 2000. Forest land use also increased by 6.3% in 2015 from 152144.1 ha in the year 2000, water body reduced from 2954.5 ha in the year 2000 by 0.1% in 2015, settlement land use increased by 3% in 2015 from 15194.6 ha in 2000, light forest and grassland area reduced by 10.4% between 2000 and 2015 and 9.1% reduction in bar surface and rock outcrop land use between the year 2000 and 2015 respectively. The reasons for different ranges in the changes observed in the land use and land cover in the study area could be due to increase in the incentive to cocoa farmers from both government and non-governmental organizations, developed new cocoa breed that thrive better in the light forest, rapid increased in the population of cocoa farmers’ settlements, and government promulgation of forest reserve law.

Keywords: satellite imagery, land use and land cover change, area of land

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18 An Investigation into the Gaps in Green Building Education and Training Offerings in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo A. Abimbola, Anifowose O. Joseph, Olanrewaju S. Taiwo

Abstract:

Green building (GB) practices have the potential to save energy, save money, and improve the quality of human habitat. They can also contribute to water conservation, more efficient use of raw materials, and ecosystem health around the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) singled out the building sector as having the most cost-effective opportunities for reducing carbon emissions—in fact, many building-related opportunities are cost-neutral, or even cost-positive, to the building owner. These benefits have made green building practices the fastest-growing trend in the building industry, but they still represent only a fraction of new construction, and the enormous stock of existing buildings has barely been touched at all. To effectively deliver the kind of (GB) that can become a force for positive change at global, regional and local scales, all workforce sectors need new skills that are both technical and interpersonal in nature. A prominent bottleneck is seen to be education and training. This paper investigates the major gaps in current GB education and training offerings in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was developed to capture the perception of construction professionals and academics in relevant professions regarding the significance of the identified gaps as it affects GB education and training. Based on Likert scale ranking, research result shows that perception of training in specific technical fields and financial benefits and evaluation are identified as the top gaps in GB training and education offerings. The paper concludes with suggestions and actions that can enhance capabilities of the GB workforce in Nigeria.

Keywords: education and training, gaps, green building, workforce

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17 Development of Method for Recovery of Nickel from Aqueous Solution Using 2-Hydroxy-5-Nonyl- Acetophenone Oxime Impregnated on Activated Charcoal

Authors: A. O. Adebayo, G. A. Idowu, F. Odegbemi

Abstract:

Investigations on the recovery of nickel from aqueous solution using 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl- acetophenone oxime (LIX-84I) impregnated on activated charcoal was carried out. The LIX-84I was impregnated onto the pores of dried activated charcoal by dry method and optimum conditions for different equilibrium parameters (pH, adsorbent dosage, extractant concentration, agitation time and temperature) were determined using a simulated solution of nickel. The kinetics and adsorption isotherm studies were also evaluated. It was observed that the efficiency of recovery with LIX-84I impregnated on charcoal was dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution as there was little or no recovery at pH below 4. However, as the pH was raised, percentage recovery increases and peaked at pH 5.0. The recovery was found to increase with temperature up to 60ºC. Also it was observed that nickel adsorbed onto the loaded charcoal best at a lower concentration (0.1M) of the extractant when compared with higher concentrations. Similarly, a moderately low dosage (1 g) of the adsorbent showed better recovery than larger dosages. These optimum conditions were used to recover nickel from the leachate of Ni-MH batteries dissolved with sulphuric acid, and a 99.6% recovery was attained. Adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium data fitted best to Temkin model, with a negative value of constant, b (-1.017 J/mol) and a high correlation coefficient, R² of 0.9913. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameter values (∆G⁰, ∆H⁰, and ∆S⁰) showed that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. The impregnated charcoal appreciably recovered nickel using a relatively smaller volume of extractant than what is required in solvent extraction. Desorption studies showed that the loaded charcoal is reusable for three times, and so might be economical for nickel recovery from waste battery.

Keywords: charcoal, impregnated, LIX-84I, nickel, recovery

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16 Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils at Electronic Waste Activity Sites within the Vicinity of Alaba International Market, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adebayo, A. O. Ogunkeyede, A. O. Adeigbe

Abstract:

Digital globalisation and yarn of Nigeria society to overcome the digital divide have resulted in contamination of soil by heavy metals (HMs) from e-waste activities at Alaba international market, Lagos, Nigeria. The aim of this research was to determine the concentration of various metals {Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), and Lead (Pb)} and identify their ecological and health risks for the people within the study area. A total of 60 soil samples were collected at Alaba market study area. Two types of samples were collected from each sampling points: topsoil (0-15 cm), subsoil (15 -30 cm). The metal concentration results showed that the soils were heavily contaminated by HMs at topsoil and subsoil. The geoaccummulation and ecological risk indices revealed high pollution level from all studied site. The health risk assessment results suggested that there is high possibility of carcinogenic risk to humans because the carcinogenic risk via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10-6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for human). Furthermore, inhalation of soil particles is the main exposure pathway for Cr to enter the human body for all ages. Children in the vicinity are exposed more to ingestion of Pb since they tend to eat earth (pica) and repeatedly suck their fingers. This study provides basic information to create awareness for a need to introduce pollution control measures and the need to protect the ecosystem and human health within the study area at Alaba international market.

Keywords: contaminated soil, ecological risk, hazard index, risk factor, exposure pathways, heavy metals

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15 A Comparative Study of the Use of Medicinal Plants and Conventional Medicine for the Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus in Ibadan Metropolis

Authors: Julius Adebayo John

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to compare the use of medicinal plants and Conventional medicine intervention in the management of HBV among Ibadan populace. A purposive sampling technique was used to administer questionnaires at 2 places, namely, the University College Hospital and Total Healthcare Diagnostic Centre, Ibadan, where viral loads are carried out. A EuroQol (EQ – 5D) was adopted to collect data. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Also, ANOVA, Correlation, charts, and tables were used. Findings revealed a high prevalence of HBV among female respondents and sample between ages 26years to 50years. Results showed that the majority discovered their health status through free HBV tests. Analysis indicated that the use of medicinal plant extract is cost-effective in 73% of cases. Rank order utility derived from medicinal plants is higher than other interventions. Correlation analysis performed for the current health status of respondents were significant at P<0.01 against the intervention management adopted (0.046), cost of treatment (0.549), utility (0.407) at P<0.00, duration of the treatment (0.604) at P<0.01; viral load before treatment (-0.142) not significant at P<0.01, the R2 (72.2%) showed the statistical variance in respondents current health status as explained by the independent variables. Respondents gained quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of between 1year to 3years. Suggestions were made for a public-private partnership effort against HBV with emphasis on periodic screening, viral load test subsidy, and free vaccination of people with –HBV status. Promoting phytomedicine through intensive research with strong regulation of herbal practitioners will go a long way in alleviating the burdens of the disease in society.

Keywords: medicinal plant, HBV management interventions, utility, QALYs, ibadan metropolis

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