Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 835

Search results for: block

835 Reduction of Dynamic Influences in Composite Rubber-Concrete Block Designed to Walls Construction

Authors: Maciej Major, Izabela Major


The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of three-layered block design to walls construction subjected to the dynamic load. The block consists of the layers: concrete with rubber pads in shape of crosses, space filled with air and concrete with I-shape rubber pads. The main purpose of rubber inserts embedded during the production process is additional protection against the transversal dynamic load. For the analysis, as rubber, the Zahorski hyperelastic incompressible material model was assumed. A concentrated force as dynamic load applied to the external block surface was investigated. The results for the considered block observed as the stress distribution plot were compared to the results obtained for the solid concrete block. In order to estimate the percentage damping of proposed composite, rubber-concrete block in relation to the solid block the numerical analysis with the use of finite element method based on ADINA software was performed.

Keywords: dynamics, composite, rubber, Zahorski

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834 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colours. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photomosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of four steps: Partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and colour adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: photomosaic, Euclidean distance, block matching, intensity adjustment

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833 The Study on Blast Effect of Polymer Gel by Trazul Lead Block Test and Concrete Block Test

Authors: Young-Hun Ko, Seung-Jun Kim, Khaqan Baluch, Hyung- Sik Yang


In this study, the polymer gel was used as coupling material in a blasting hole and its comparison was made with other coupling materials like sand, water, and air. Trazul lead block test and AUTODYN numerical analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of the coupling materials on the intensity of the explosion, as well as the verification tests were conducted by using concrete block test. The emulsion explosives were used in decoupling conditions, sand, water, and polymer gel were used as the coupling materials. The lead block test and the numerical analysis showed that the expansion of the blast hole in the lead block was similar to that of the water and gelatin and followed by sand and air conditions. The validation of concrete block test result showed the similar result as Trazul lead block test and the explosion strength was measured at 0.8 for polymer gel, 0.7 for sand, and 0.6 for no coupling material, in comparison to the full charge (1.0) case.

Keywords: Trazul lead block test, AUTODYN numerical analysis, coupling material, polymer gel, soil covering concrete block explosion test

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832 The Development of a New Block Method for Solving Stiff ODEs

Authors: Khairil I. Othman, Mahfuzah Mahayaddin, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


We develop and demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical technique to solve first order stiff differential equations. This technique is based on block method whereby three approximate points are calculated. The Cholistani of varied step sizes are presented in divided difference form. Stability regions of the formulae are briefly discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that this block method perform very well compared to existing methods.

Keywords: block method, divided difference, stiff, computational

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
831 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
830 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir


The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
829 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche


In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
828 Implementation of Complete Management Practices in Managing the Cocoa Pod Borer

Authors: B. Saripah, A. Alias


Cocoa Theobroma cacao (Linnaeus) (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) is subjected to be infested by various numbers of insect pests, and Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is the most serious pest of cocoa in Malaysia. The pest was indigenous to the South East Asia. Several control measures have been implemented and the chemicals have been a major approach if not unilateral, in the management of CPB. Despite extensive use of insecticides, CPB continues to cause an unacceptable level of damage; thus, the combination of several control approaches should be sought. The study was commenced for 12 months at three blocks; Block 18C with complete management practices which include insecticide application, pruning, fertilization and frequent harvesting, Block 17C was treated with frequent harvesting at intervals of 7-8 days, and Block 19C was served as control block. The results showed that the mean numbers of CPB eggs were recorded higher in Block 17C compared with Block 18C in all sampling occasions. Block 18C shows the lowest mean number of CPB eggs in both sampling plots, outside and core plots and it was found significantly different (p ≤ 0. 05) compared to the other blocks. The mean number of CPB eggs was fluctuated throughout sampling occasions, the lowest mean number of eggs was recorded in January (17C) and November (18C), while the highest was recorded in April (17C) and December 2012 (18C). Frequent spraying with insecticides at the adjacent block (18C) helps in reducing CPB eggs in the control block (Block 19C), although there was no spraying was implemented Block 19C. In summary, the combination of complete management practices at Block 18C seems to have some effect on the CPB population at Blocks 17 and 19C because all blocks are adjacent to each other.

Keywords: cocoa, theobroma cacao, cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella

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827 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
826 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei


Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block special level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward semi-open sub-community strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou west area, residential block model, residential block fabric, semi-open sub-community strategy

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825 Heat Transfer from Block Heat Sources Mounted on the Wall of a 3-D Cabinet to Ambient Natural Convective Air Stream

Authors: J. C. Cheng, Y. L. Tsay, Z. D. Chan, C. H. Yang


In this study the physical system under consideration is a three-dimensional (3-D) cabinet with arrays of block heat sources mounted on one of the walls of the cabinet. The block heat sources dissipate heat to the cabinet surrounding through the conjugate conduction and natural convection. The results illustrate that the difference in hot spot temperatures of the system (θH) for the situations with and without consideration of thermal interaction is higher for smaller Rayleigh number (Ra), and can be up to 94.73% as Ra=10^5. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics depends strongly on the dimensionless heat conductivity of cabinet wall (Kwf), heat conductivity of block (Kpf) and length of cabinet (Ax). The maximum reduction in θH is 70.01% when Kwf varies from 10 to 1000, and it is 30.07% for Ax from 0.5 to 1. While the hot spot temperature of system is not sensitive to the cabinet angle (Φ).

Keywords: block heat sources, 3-D cabinet, thermal interaction, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
824 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko


Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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823 Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context

Authors: M. Panahian


A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.

Keywords: sustainability, passive energy saving solutions, residential block scale, energy efficiency

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822 Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Patients’ Disposition Holding Time from Emergency Department to Ward

Authors: Kamonwat Suksumek, Seeronk Prichanont


Access block refers to the situation where Emergency Department (ED) patients requiring hospital admission spend an unreasonable holding time in an ED because their access to a ward is blocked by the full utilization of the ward’s beds. Not only it delays the proper treatments required by the patients, but access block is also the cause of ED’s overcrowding. Clearly, access block is an inter-departmental problem that needs to be brought to management’s attention. This paper focuses on the analysis of strategies to address the access block problem, both in the operational and intermediate levels. These strategies were analyzed through a simulation model with a real data set from a university hospital in Thailand. The paper suggests suitable variable levels for each strategy so that the management will make the final decisions.

Keywords: access block, emergency department, health system analysis, simulation

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821 A Randomized Controlled Trial Study on the Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine in Supraclavicular Block Using Ultrasound Guidance

Authors: Nazia Nazir


Background: The benefits of regional anesthetic techniques are well established. Use of additives to local anesthetics can prolong these benefits. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine for the supraclavicular block. Methods (Design): In this randomized, double-blind study, seventy ASA I & II patients of either sex undergoing elective surgeries on the upper limb were given supraclavicular block under ultrasound guidance. Group C (n=35), received 38 mL 0.25% bupivacaine + 2mL normal saline and group D received 38 mL 0.25% bupivacaine + 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (2mL). Patients were observed for onset, duration of motor and sensory block, duration of analgesia, sedation score, hemodynamic changes and any adverse events. Results: In group D the onset was faster (P < 0.001), duration of sensory and motor block, as well as duration of analgesia, was prolonged as compared to group C (P < 0.0001). There was significant drop in heart rate (HR) from the baseline in group D (P < 0.05) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, however, none of the patients dropped HR below 50/min. Mean arterial Pressure (MAP) remained unaffected. The patients in group D were effectively sedated than those in group C (P < 0.05). No adverse event was reported in either group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine as adjuvant to bupivacaine in supraclavicular block resulted in faster action, prolonged motor and sensory block, prolonged analgesia with hemodynamic stability and adequate sedation.

Keywords: Analgesia, bupivacaine, dexmedetomidine, supraclavicular block

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820 Practical Guide To Design Dynamic Block-Type Shallow Foundation Supporting Vibrating Machine

Authors: Dodi Ikhsanshaleh


When subjected to dynamic load, foundation oscillates in the way that depends on the soil behaviour, the geometry and inertia of the foundation and the dynamic exctation. The practical guideline to analysis block-type foundation excitated by dynamic load from vibrating machine is presented. The analysis use Lumped Mass Parameter Method to express dynamic properties such as stiffness and damping of soil. The numerical examples are performed on design block-type foundation supporting gas turbine compressor which is important equipment package in gas processing plant

Keywords: block foundation, dynamic load, lumped mass parameter

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819 Bundle Block Detection Using Spectral Coherence and Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network

Authors: K. Padmavathi, K. Sri Ramakrishna


This study describes a procedure for the detection of Left and Right Bundle Branch Block (LBBB and RBBB) ECG patterns using spectral Coherence(SC) technique and LM Neural Network. The Coherence function finds common frequencies between two signals and evaluate the similarity of the two signals. The QT variations of Bundle Blocks are observed in lead V1 of ECG. Spectral Coherence technique uses Welch method for calculating PSD. For the detection of normal and Bundle block beats, SC output values are given as the input features for the LMNN classifier. Overall accuracy of LMNN classifier is 99.5 percent. The data was collected from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Keywords: bundle block, SC, LMNN classifier, welch method, PSD, MIT-BIH, arrhythmia database

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818 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan


This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
817 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh


Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. The polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition, the step over and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness

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816 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü


Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
815 Development of Variable Order Block Multistep Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Suleiman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Nor Ain Azeany, Khairil Iskandar Othman


In this paper, a class of variable order fully implicit multistep Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (VOBBDF) using uniform step size for the numerical solution of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is developed. The code will combine three multistep block methods of order four, five and six. The order selection is based on approximation of the local errors with specific tolerance. These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration in order to further increase the efficiency. The proposed VOBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with single order Block Backward Differentiation Formula (BBDF). Numerical results shows the advantage of using VOBBDF for solving ODEs.

Keywords: block backward differentiation formulas, uniform step size, ordinary differential equations

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814 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani


Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

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813 Round Addition DFA on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-The-Fly Key Schedule

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki


Round addition differential fault analysis (DFA) using operation bypassing for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key schedule is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN and 64-bit LED, it is shown that only a pair of correct ciphertext and faulty ciphertext can derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key.

Keywords: differential fault analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule

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812 Block Implicit Adams Type Algorithms for Solution of First Order Differential Equation

Authors: Asabe Ahmad Tijani, Y. A. Yahaya


The paper considers the derivation of implicit Adams-Moulton type method, with k=4 and 5. We adopted the method of interpolation and collocation of power series approximation to generate the continuous formula which was evaluated at off-grid and some grid points within the step length to generate the proposed block schemes, the schemes were investigated and found to be consistent and zero stable. Finally, the methods were tested with numerical experiments to ascertain their level of accuracy.

Keywords: Adam-Moulton Type (AMT), off-grid, block method, consistent and zero stable

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811 Temporal Characteristics of Human Perception to Significant Variation of Block Structures

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu


In the latest research efforts, the structures of the image in the spatial domain have been successfully analyzed and proved to deduce the visual masking for accurately estimating the visibility thresholds of the image. If the structural properties of the video sequence in the temporal domain are taken into account to estimate the temporal masking, the improvement and enhancement of the as-sessing spatio-temporal visibility thresholds are reasonably expected. In this paper, the temporal characteristics of human perception to the change in block structures on the time axis are analyzed. The temporal characteristics of human perception are represented in terms of the significant variation in block structures for the analysis of human visual system (HVS). Herein, the block structure in each frame is computed by combined the pattern masking and the contrast masking simultaneously. The contrast masking always overestimates the visibility thresholds of edge regions and underestimates that of texture regions, while the pattern masking is weak on a uniform background and is strong on the complex background with spatial patterns. Under considering the significant variation of block structures between successive frames, we extend the block structures of images in the spatial domain to that of video sequences in the temporal domain to analyze the relation between the inter-frame variation of structures and the temporal masking. Meanwhile, the subjective viewing test and the fair rating process are designed to evaluate the consistency of the temporal characteristics with the HVS under a specified viewing condition.

Keywords: temporal characteristic, block structure, pattern masking, contrast masking

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810 Modification of Newton Method in Two Point Block Backward Differentiation Formulas

Authors: Khairil I. Othman, Nur N. Kamal, Zarina B. Ibrahim


In this paper, we present modified Newton method as a new strategy for improving the efficiency of Two Point Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (BBDF) when solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration The detailed implementation of the predictor corrector BBDF with PE(CE)2 with modified Newton are discussed. The proposed modification of BBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with the existing Block Backward Differentiation Formula. Numerical results show the advantage of using the new strategy for solving stiff ODEs in improving the accuracy of the solution.

Keywords: newton method, two point, block, accuracy

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809 Use of Waste Road-Asphalt as Aggregate in Pavement Block Production

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Abdulmuminu Mustapha Ali, Solomon Ibrahim, Buba Ahmad Umdagas


This research investigated the possibility of replacing coarse and fine aggregates with waste road-asphalt (RWA), when sieved appropriately, in concrete production. Interlock pavement block is used widely in many parts of the world as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications. The weight-percentage replacements of both coarse and fine aggregates with RWA at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively using a concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and water-to-cement ratio of 0.45 were carried out. The interlock block samples produced were then cured for 28days. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the water absorption properties of the samples were then tested. Comparison of the results of the RWA-containing samples to those of the respective control samples shows significant benefits of using RWA in interlock block production. UCS results of RWA-containing samples compared well with those of the control samples and the RWA content also influenced the lowering of the water absorption of the samples. Overall, the research shows that it is possible to replace both coarse and fine aggregates with RWA materials when sieved appropriately, hence indicating that RWA could be recycled beneficially.

Keywords: aggregate, block-production, pavement, road-asphalt, use, waste

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808 Non-Fungible Token and Block Chain Platform Revenue Model

Authors: Cho Seung Wan, Shin Dong Ho


In this research paper throughout Block chain and NFT's revenue model. Block chain used newest system for improve that security system. Past, lots of company used server base system. So, they can solve problem faster. But today's blockchain system is usually used for other company. Blockchain is lots of block is chaining each other to one chain. So, all the server has same data and power. Blockchain can solve hard security problem. While server base is one center have all the data and power. That two system is completely different. Anyway, the blockchain's cryptocurrency is very particular then other system to be use blockchain. Cryptocurrency came out to alternate for today's currency system. Typical kind of cryptocurrency is Bitcoin and Ethereum. That two types of cryptocurrencies are using a lot of things. Investigate NFT and resulting revenue model.

Keywords: blockchain, non-fungible token, revenue model, cryptocurrency

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807 Performance Improvement of Cooperative Scheme in Wireless OFDM Systems

Authors: Ki-Ro Kim, Seung-Jun Yu, Hyoung-Kyu Song


Recently, the wireless communication systems are required to have high quality and provide high bit rate data services. Researchers have studied various multiple antenna scheme to meet the demand. In practical application, it is difficult to deploy multiple antennas for limited size and cost. Cooperative diversity techniques are proposed to overcome the limitations. Cooperative communications have been widely investigated to improve performance of wireless communication. Among diversity schemes, space-time block code has been widely studied for cooperative communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new cooperative scheme using pre-coding and space-time block code. The proposed cooperative scheme provides improved error performance than a conventional cooperative scheme using space-time block coding scheme.

Keywords: cooperative communication, space-time block coding, pre-coding

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806 The Effect of Ice in Pain Control before Digital Nerve Block

Authors: Fatemeh Rasooli, Behzad Simiari, Pooya Payandemehr, Amir Nejati, Maryam Bahreini, Atefeh Abdollahi


Introduction: Pain is a complex physiological reaction to tissue injury. In the course of painful procedures such as nerve block, ice has been shown to be a feasible and inexpensive material to control pain. It delays nerve conduction, actives other senses and reduces inflammatory and painful responses. This study assessed the effect of ice in reducing pain caused by needling and infiltration during digital block. Patient satisfaction recorded as a secondary outcome. Methods: This study was designed as a non-blinded randomized clinical trial approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee. Informed consent was taken from all the participants who were then randomly divided into two groups. Digital block performed by standard approach in selected patients. Tubes of ice were prepared in gloves and were fragmented at a time of application for circling around the finger. Tubes were applied for 6 minutes before digital nerve block in the site of needling in the case group. Patients in the control group underwent digital nerve block with the conventional method without ice administration. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) used for grading pain. 0 used for no pain and 10 for the worst pain that patient had experienced until now. Scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and compared in case and control groups. Results: 100 patients aged 16-50 years were enrolled. Mean NRS scores with and without ice were 1.5 mm (S.D ± 1.44) and 6.8 mm (S.D ± 1.40) for needling pain and for infiltration pain were 2.7mm ( S.D ±1.65) and 8.5mm ( S.D ± 1.47), respectively (p<0.001). Besides, patients’ satisfactions were significantly higher in the ice group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of ice for 6 minutes significantly reduced pain of needling and infiltration in digital nerve block; thus, it seems to be a feasible and inexpensive material which acts effectively to decrease pain and stress before the procedure.

Keywords: digital block, ice, needle, pain

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