Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu

92 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye

Abstract:

As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

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91 Biomass Enhancement of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Culture in Temporary Immersion System (TIS) RITA® Bioreactor Optimized in Two Different Immersion Periods

Authors: Agustine Melviana, Rizkita Esyanti

Abstract:

Stevia plant contains steviol glycosides which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose. However in Indonesia, conventional (in vivo) propagation of Stevia rebaudiana was not effective due to a poor result. Therefore, alternative methods to propagate S. rebaudiana plants is needed, one of it is using in vitro method. Multiplication with a large quantity of stevia biomass in relatively short period can be conducted by using TIS RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion period of the medium on growth and the medium bioconversion into the production of shoot biomass. The study was conducted to determine the effect of different intensity period of medium to enhance biomass of stevia shoots. Shoot culture of S. rebaudiana was grown in full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm Kinetin. RITA® bioreactors were set up with two different immersion periods, 15 min (RITA® 15) and 30 min (RITA® 30), scheduled every 6 hours and incubated for 21 days. The result indicated that immersion period affected the biomass and growth rate (µ). Thirty-minutes immersion showed greater percentage of shoot multiplication (93.44 ± 0.83%), percentage of leaf growth (85.24 ± 5.99%), growth rate (0.042 ± 0.001 g/day), and productivity (0.066 g/L medium/day) compared to that immersed in RITA® 15 min (76.90 ± 4.85%; 79.73 ± 7.76; 0.045 ± 0.004 g/day, and 0.045 g/L medium/day respectively). Enhancement of biomass in RITA® 30 reached 1,702 ± 0,114 gr, whereas in RITA® 15 only 0,953 ± 0,093 gr. Additionally, the pattern of sucrose, mineral, and inorganic compounds consumption followed the growth of plant biomass for both systems. In conclusion, the bioconversion efficiency from medium to biomass in RITA® 30 is better than RITA® 15.

Keywords: intensity period, shoot culture, Stevia rebaudiana, TIS RITA®

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90 Stimulation of Stevioside Accumulation on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Shoot Culture Induced with Red LED Light in TIS RITA® Bioreactor System

Authors: Vincent Alexander, Rizkita Esyanti

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Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana contain steviol glycoside which mainly comprise of stevioside, a natural sweetener compound that is 100-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Current cultivation method of Stevia rebaudiana in Indonesia has yet to reach its optimum efficiency and productivity to produce stevioside as a safe sugar substitute sweetener for people with diabetes. An alternative method that is not limited by environmental factor is in vitro temporary immersion system (TIS) culture method using recipient for automated immersion (RITA®) bioreactor. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of red LED light induction towards shoot growth and stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system, as an endeavour to increase the secondary metabolite synthesis. The result showed that the stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system induced with red LED light for one hour during night was higher than that in TIS RITA® bioreactor system without red LED light induction, i.e. 71.04 ± 5.36 μg/g and 42.92 ± 5.40 μg/g respectively. Biomass growth rate reached as high as 0.072 ± 0.015/day for red LED light induced TIS RITA® bioreactor system, whereas TIS RITA® bioreactor system without induction was only 0.046 ± 0.003/day. Productivity of Stevia rebaudiana shoots induced with red LED light was 0.065 g/L medium/day, whilst shoots without any induction was 0.041 g/L medium/day. Sucrose, salt, and inorganic consumption in both bioreactor media increased as biomass increased. It can be concluded that Stevia rebaudiana shoot in TIS RITA® bioreactor induced with red LED light produces biomass and accumulates higher stevioside concentration, in comparison to bioreactor without any light induction.

Keywords: LED, Stevia rebaudiana, Stevioside, TIS RITA

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89 Comparison of Growth Medium Efficiency into Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Biomass and Stevioside Content in Thin-Layer System, TIS RITA® Bioreactor, and Bubble Column Bioreactor

Authors: Nurhayati Br Tarigan, Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) has a great potential to be used as a natural sweetener because it contains steviol glycoside, which is approximately 100 - 300 times sweeter than sucrose, yet low calories. Vegetative and generative propagation of S. rebaudiana is inefficient to produce stevia biomass and stevioside. One of alternative for stevia propagation is in vitro shoot culture. This research was conducted to optimize the best medium for shoot growth and to compare the bioconversion efficiency and stevioside production of S. rebaudiana shoot culture cultivated in thin layer culture (TLC), recipient for automated temporary immersion system (TIS RITA®) bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor. The result showed that 1 ppm of Kinetin produced a healthy shoot and the highest number of leaves compared to BAP. Shoots were then cultivated in TLC, TIS RITA® bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor. Growth medium efficiency was determined by yield and productivity. TLC produced the highest growth medium efficiency of S. rebaudiana, the yield was 0.471 ± 0.117 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1, and the productivity was 0.599 ± 0.122 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1. While TIS RITA® bioreactor produced the lowest yield and productivity, 0.182 ± 0.024 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1 and 0.041 ± 0.0002 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1 respectively. The yield of bubble column bioreactor was 0.354 ± 0.204 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1 and the productivity was 0,099 ± 0,009 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1. The stevioside content from the highest to the lowest was obtained from stevia shoot which was cultivated on TLC, TIS RITA® bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor; the content was 93,44 μg/g, 42,57 μg/g, and 23,03 μg/g respectively. All three systems could be used to produce stevia shoot biomass, but optimization on the number of nutrition and oxygen intake was required in each system.

Keywords: bubble column, growth medium efficiency, Stevia rebaudiana, stevioside, TIS RITA®, TLC

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88 Lunch Hour Concerts as a Strategy for Strengthening Student Performance Skills: University of Port Harcourt Experience

Authors: Rita A. Sunday-Kanu

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This article reports on an evaluation of lunch hour concert and its effectiveness in improving undergraduate performance ability. In particular, it examines the aptitude of students in classroom applied music and their reaction/responses to true life concert situations. It further investigated factors affecting students’ confidence during performances, the relationship between stage fright and confidence building in regular concert participation. The Department of Music, University of Port Harcourt runs monthly lunch our concerts which are coordinated by undergraduates for the university community. Forty music students who have participated in or coordinated lunch hour concerts were chosen for this survey. Eight music lecturers who have supervised the monthly lunch hour concert were also chosen for this study. The attitude and view on the effectiveness of lunch hour concert in enhancing students’ performance skills were gotten through questionnaires survey, in-depth interview and participant observation to determine if classroom based applied music alone is as successful in grooming performance genius as the lunch hour concert. Result indicated that students’ participation in lunch hour concert did indeed broaden and strengthened their performance experiences. This observation led to a recommendation that regular community based concerts be considered as a standard for performance practices in the university curriculum since it serves as a preparatory platform for acquiring professional performance skills before graduation.

Keywords: lunch hour concert, performance, performing skill, community concert

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87 Alwadei Syndrome - A Genetic Cause Of Intellectual Disability

Authors: Mafalda Moreira, Diana Alba, Inês Paiva Ferreira, Rita Calejo, Ana Rita Soares, Leonilde Machado

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Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in intellectualfunctioningassociatedwithalterations in the adaptive behaviour, whose onset is inthedevelopmentalperiod. Itaffects 3% of the population, ofwhich 10% have a geneticaetiology. One of those causes isAlwadeiSyndrome, with 3 cases describedworldwide. It results from a homozygous nonsense mutation in theRUSC2 gene andisassociatedwithintellectualdisabilityanddysmorphic facialfeatures. Theauthorsreportthe case of a 5-year-old-boy, born to a healthymotherafter a full-termuneventfulpregnancy, thatwasreferred to Neurodevelopmentalconsultationdue toglobal developmentaldelay. Familyhistoryrevealedlearningdifficulties in the paternal brotherhood. Milddismorphicfeatureswereevidentsuch as darkinfraorbitalregion, low-set ears, beakednose, retrognathism, high-archedpalateandjointhyperlaxity. WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children III fullscaleIQ quoted 61. Karyotypeandchromosomalmicroarrayanalysiswerenormal, as well as the fragile X molecular study. DNA sequencingwasthenperformedandallowedtheidentificationof amutation in the RUSC2 gene. Theetiologicaldiagnosisof ID remains unknown in up to 80% of cases, creatinguncertainty in children’sfamilies. Theadvances in DNA sequencingtechnologieshaveincreasedourknowledgeofthegeneticdiseasesinvolved, as theAlwadeisyndromewasonlydescribedsince 2016. Thegeneticdiagnosisof ID allowsfamilygeneticcounselingandenablesthedevelopmentof target therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: intellectual disability, genetic aetiology, alwadei syndrome, RUSC2

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86 Cryptography and Cryptosystem a Panacea to Security Risk in Wireless Networking

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Chikwendu V. Alabekee, Victoria N. Ishiwu, Ifeyinwa NwosuArize, Chinedu I. Nwoye

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The advent of wireless networking in computing technology cannot be overemphasized, it opened up easy accessibility to information resources, networking made easier and brought internet accessibility to our doorsteps, but despite all these, some mishap came in with it that is causing mayhem in today ‘s overall information security. The cyber criminals will always compromise the integrity of a message that is not encrypted or that is encrypted with a weak algorithm.In other to correct the mayhem, this study focuses on cryptosystem and cryptography. This ensures end to end crypt messaging. The study of various cryptographic algorithms, as well as the techniques and applications of the cryptography for efficiency, were all considered in the work., present and future applications of cryptography were dealt with as well as Quantum Cryptography was exposed as the current and the future area in the development of cryptography. An empirical study was conducted to collect data from network users.

Keywords: algorithm, cryptography, cryptosystem, network

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85 The Stereotypical Images of Marginalized Women in the Poetry of Rita Dove

Authors: Wafaa Kamal Isaac

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This paper attempts to shed light upon the stereotypical images of marginalized black women as shown through the poetry of Rita Dove. Meanwhile, it explores how stereotypical images held by the society and public perceptions perpetuate the marginalization of black women. Dove is considered one of the most fundamental African-American poets who devoted her writings to explore the problem of identity that confronted marginalized women in America. Besides tackling the issue of black women’s stereotypical images, this paper focuses upon the psychological damage which the black women had suffered from due to their stripped identity. In ‘Thomas and Beulah’, Dove reflects the black woman’s longing for her homeland in order to make up for her lost identity. This poem represents atavistic feelings deal with certain recurrent images, both aural and visual, like the image of Beulah who represents the African-American woman who searches for an identity, as she is being denied and humiliated one in the newly founded society. In an attempt to protest against the stereotypical mule image that had been imposed upon black women in America, Dove in ‘On the Bus with Rosa Parks’ tries to ignite the beaten spirits to struggle for their own rights by revitalizing the rebellious nature and strong determination of the historical figure ‘Rosa Parks’ that sparked the Civil Rights Movement. In ‘Daystar’, Dove proves that black women are subjected to double-edged oppression; firstly, in terms of race as a black woman in an unjust white society that violates her rights due to her black origins and secondly, in terms of gender as a member of the female sex that is meant to exist only to serve man’s needs. Similarly, in the ‘Adolescence’ series, Dove focuses on the double marginalization which the black women had experienced. It concludes that the marginalization of black women has resulted from the domination of the masculine world and the oppression of the white world. Moreover, Dove’s ‘Beauty and the Beast’ investigates the African-American women’s problem of estrangement and identity crisis in America. It also sheds light upon the psychological consequences that resulted from the violation of marginalized women’s identity. Furthermore, this poem shows the black women’s self-debasement, helplessness, and double consciousness that emanate from the sense of uprootedness. Finally, this paper finds out that the negative, debased and inferior stereotypical image held by the society did not only contribute to the marginalization of black women but also silenced and muted their voices.

Keywords: stereotypical images, marginalized women, Rita Dove, identity

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84 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera

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Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: soil degradation, soil erosion, marginal uplands, Samar island, Philippines

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83 Building Knowledge Society: The Imperative Role of Library and Information Centres (LICs) in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ifeyinwa A. Ariole

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A critical examination of the emerging knowledge society reveals that library and information centres have a significant role to play in the building of knowledge society. The major highlights of this paper include: the conceptual analysis of knowledge society, overview of library and information centres in developing countries, role of libraries and information centre in building up of knowledge society, library and information professionals as factor in building knowledge, challenges faced by Library and Information Centres (LICs) in building knowledge society, strategies for building knowledge society. The position of this paper is that in spite of the influx of varied information and communication technologies in the information industry which is the driving force of knowledge society, there is a dire need for Libraries and Information Centres (LIC) to contribute positively to the migration and transition processes from the information society to knowledge-based society.

Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT), information centres, information industry, information society

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82 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena

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Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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81 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar

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This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

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80 Media Engagement and Ethnic Identity: The Case of the Aeta Ambala of Pastolan Village

Authors: Kriztine R. Viray, Chona Rita R. Cruz

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The paper explores the engagement of indigenous group, Aeta Ambala with different media and how this engagement affects their perception of their own ethnic identity. The researchers employed qualitative research as their approach and descriptive research method as their design. The paper integrates two theories. These are communication theory of identity by Michael Hecht and the Uses and Gratification Theory of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch. Among others, the paper exposes that the engagement of the Aeta-Ambala with the various forms of media certainly affected the way they perceived the outside world and their own ethnic group.

Keywords: Aeta Ambala, culture, ethnic, media engagement, Philippines

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79 Morphological Characterization and Gas Permeation of Commercially Available Alumina Membrane

Authors: Ifeyinwa Orakwe, Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina

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This work presents experimental results relating to the structural characterization of a commercially available alumina membrane. A γ-alumina mesoporous tubular membrane has been used. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and gas permeability test has been carried out on the alumina membrane to characterize its structural features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the pore size distribution of the membrane. Pore size, specific surface area and pore size distribution were also determined with the use of the Nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument. Gas permeation tests were carried out on the membrane using a variety of single and mixed gases. The permeabilities at different pressure between 0.05-1 bar and temperature range of 25-200oC were used for the single and mixed gases: nitrogen (N2), helium (He), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), 14%CO₂/N₂, 60%CO₂/N₂, 30%CO₂/CH4 and 21%O₂/N₂. Plots of flow rate verses pressure were obtained. Results got showed the effect of temperature on the permeation rate of the various gases. At 0.5 bar for example, the flow rate for N2 was relatively constant before decreasing with an increase in temperature, while for O2, it continuously decreased with an increase in temperature. In the case of 30%CO₂/CH4 and 14%CO₂/N₂, the flow rate showed an increase then a decrease with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the membrane performance of the various gases is presented and the influence of the trans membrane pressure drop will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: alumina membrane, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, gas permeation, temperature

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78 Assessment of Mediation of Community-Based Disputes in Selected Barangays of Batangas City

Authors: Daisyree S. Arrieta

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The purpose of this study was to assess the mediation process applied on community-based disputes in the selected barangays of Batangas City, namely: Barangay Sta. Rita Karsada, Barangay Bolbok, and Barangay Alangilan. The researcher initially speculated that the required procedures under Republic Act No. 7160 were not religiously followed and satisfied by the Lupong Tagapamayapa members in most of the barangays in the subject locality and this prompted the researcher to conduct an investigation about this research topic. In this study, the subject barangays and their Lupon members still resorted to mediation processes to amicably settle conflicts among community members. It can also be appreciated among the Lupon Tagapamayapa members that they are aware of the purpose and processes required in the mediation of cases brought before them. However, the manner in which they conduct this mediation processes seems to be dependent on the general characteristics of their respective barangays and of the people situated therein. It also very noticeable that the strategies applied by the Lupon members on these cases depend on the ways and means the parties in dispute may arrive into agreements and conciliations. It is concluded by the researcher that the Lupong Tagapamayapa members in Barangay Sta. Rita Karsada, Barangay Bolbok, and Barangay Alangilan are aware and are applying the objectives and procedures of mediation. Also, the success and failure of the mediation processes applied by the Lupong Tagapamayapa members of the subject barangays on community-based disputes brought before them are generally attributed on the attitude and perspective of the parties in dispute towards the entire process of mediation and not on the capacity or capability of the Lupon members to subject them into amicable settlements. In view of the above, the researcher humbly recommends the following: (1) that the composition of the Lupong Tagapamayapa should include individuals from various sectors of the barangay; (2) that the Lupong Tagapamayapa members should undergo various trainings that may enhance their capability to mediate any type of community-based disputes at the expense of the barangay fund or budget; (3) that the Punong Barangay and the Sangguniang Pambarangay, in their own discretion, should allocate budget that will consistently provide regular honoraria for the Lupong Tagapamayapa members; (4) that the Punong Barangay and the Sangguniang Pambarangay should provide an ideal venue for the hearing of community-based disputes; (5) that the City/ Municipal Governments should allocate necessary financial assistance to the barangays under their jurisdiction in honing eligible Lupong Tagapamayapa members; and (6) that the Punong Barangay and other officials should initiate series of information campaigns for their constituents to be informed on the objectives, advantages, and procedures of mediation.

Keywords: amicable settlement, community-based disputes, dispute resolution, mediation

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77 Variations of Testing Concrete Mechanical Properties by European Standard and American Code

Authors: Ahmed M. Seyam, Rita Nemes, Salem Georges Nehme

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Europe and the United States have a worldwide significance in the field of concrete control and construction; according to that, a lot of countries adopted their standards and regulations in the concrete field, as proof of the Europe and US strong standards and due to lack of own regulations. The main controlled property of concrete are the compressive strength, flexure tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity as it relates both to its bearing capacity and to the durability of the elements built with it, so in this paper, ASTM standard and EN standards method of testing those properties were put under the microscope to compare the variations between them.

Keywords: concrete, ASTM, EU standards, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity

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76 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Properties Fluctuations in Slug-Churn Flow through Pipe Elbow

Authors: Nkemjika Chinenye-Kanu, Mamdud Hossain, Ghazi Droubi

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Prediction of multiphase flow induced forces, void fraction and pressure is crucial at both design and operating stages of practical energy and process pipe systems. In this study, transient numerical simulations of upward slug-churn flow through a vertical 90-degree elbow have been conducted. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to model the two-phase flows while the K-epsilon Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were used to model turbulence in the flows. The simulation results were validated using experimental results. Void fraction signal, peak frequency and maximum magnitude of void fraction fluctuation of the slug-churn flow validation case studies compared well with experimental results. The x and y direction force fluctuation signals at the elbow control volume were obtained by carrying out force balance calculations using the directly extracted time domain signals of flow properties through the control volume in the numerical simulation. The computed force signal compared well with experiment for the slug and churn flow validation case studies. Hence, the present numerical simulation technique was able to predict the behaviours of the one-way flow induced forces and void fraction fluctuations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, flow induced vibration, slug-churn flow, void fraction and force fluctuation

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75 Oil Exploitation, Environmental Injustice and Decolonial Nonrecognition: Exploring the Historical Accounts of Host Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Johnson Kanu

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This research explores the environmental justice of host communities in south-eastern Nigeria whose source of livelihood has been destroyed due to oil exploitation. Environmental justice scholarship in the area often adopts Western liberal ideology from a more macro level synthesis (Niger Delta). This study therefore explored the sufficiency or otherwise of the adoption of Western liberal ideology in the framing of environmental justice (EJ) in the area which neglects the impact of colonialism and cultural domination. Mixed archival research supplemented by secondary analysis guided this study. Drawing from data analysis, the paper first argues that micro-level studies are required to either validate or invalidate the studies done at the macro-level (Niger Delta) which has often been used to generalise around environmental injustice done within the host communities even though the communities (South-eastern) differ significantly from (South-south) in terms of language, culture, socio-political and economic formation which indicate that the drivers of EJ may differ among them. Secondly, the paper argues that EJ framing from the Western worldview adopted in the study area is insufficient to understand environmental injustice suffered in the study area and there is the need for environmental justice framing that will consider the impact of colonialism and nonrecognition of the cultural identities of the host communities which breed environmental justice. The study, therefore, concludes by drawing from decolonial theory to consider how the framing of EJ would move beyond the western liberal EJ to Indigenous environmental justice.

Keywords: environmental justice, culture, decolonial, nonrecognition, indigenous environmental justice

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74 Implementation and Validation of Therapeutic Tourism Products for Families With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Azores Islands: “Azores All in Blue” Project

Authors: Ana Rita Conde, Pilar Mota, Tânia Botelho, Suzana Caldeira, Isabel Rego, Jessica Pacheco, Osvaldo Silva, Áurea Sousa

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Tourism promotes well-being and health to children with ASD and their families. Literature indicates the need to provide tourist activities that integrate the therapeutic component, to promote the development and well-being of children with ASD. The study aims to implement tourist offers in Azores that integrate the therapeutic feature, assess their suitability and impact on the well-being and health of the child and caregivers. Using a mixed methodology, the study integrates families that experience and evaluate the impact of tourism products developed specifically for them.

Keywords: austism spectrum disorder, children, therapeutic tourism activities, well-being, health, inclusive tourism

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73 Utilization of Torula Yeast (Zymomonas mobilis) as Main/Reciprocal for Degradation of Municipal Organic Waste as Feed for Goats

Authors: Nkutere Chikezie Kanu, Nnamdi M. Anigbogu, Johnson C. Ezike

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The study was carried out to investigate the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Municipal Oranic Wastes (MOW) subjected to two methods of in vivo degradation by Torula Yeast and Zymomonas mobilis. Two combination, Torula Yeast + Zymomonas mobilis (main degradation), and Zymomonas mobilis + Torula Yeast (Reciprocal degradation) were used to degrade MOW. Eighteen Red Sokoto goats of both sexes (9 males and 9 females) of ages between 6-8 were used for the study. The goats were randomly assigned into 3 treatments groups A, B and C respectively with 6 goats per treatment. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design and replicated 3 times. Treatment A groups were fed 30% Undegraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment B groups were fed 30% Main degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment C groups were fed 30% Reciprocal degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture. The result of the daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) better than on the other Treatments. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) on the daily feed consumption in Treatment B than on the Treatments A and C. The feed conversion ratio revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups but much better in the treatment B and C, the cost of feed consumed was much higher (P>0.05) in Treatment B followed by Treatment C, while Treatment A had the lowest. The cost/ kg weight gain that was recorded in Treatment A was better (P<0.05) than the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C, while the cost of production was high (P<0.05) in Treatment B than in other treatments. The gross profit was observed best (P<0.05) on the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C while Treatment A had the lowest. The net profit as noted in this study was much better (P<0.05) in Treatment B, and Treatment C, while the least was observed in Treatment A, where the return on investment was high in Treatments B and C, while Treatment A had the lowest.

Keywords: reciprocal, torula yeast, Zymomonas mobilis, organic waste

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72 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty

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Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

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71 Educational Innovation through Coaching and Mentoring in Thailand: A Mixed Method Evaluation of the Training Outcomes

Authors: Kanu Priya Mohan

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Innovation in education is one of the essential pathways to achieve both educational, and development goals in today’s dynamically changing world. Over the last decade, coaching and mentoring have been applied in the field of education as positive intervention techniques for fostering teaching and learning reforms in the developed countries. The context of this research was Thailand’s educational reform process, wherein a project on coaching and mentoring (C&M) was launched in 2014. The C&M project endeavored to support the professional development of the school teachers in the various provinces of Thailand, and to also enable them to apply C&M for teaching innovative instructional techniques. This research aimed to empirically investigate the learning outcomes for the master trainers, who trained for coaching and mentoring as the first step in the process to train the school teachers. A mixed method study was used for evaluating the learning outcomes of training in terms of cognitive- behavioral-affective dimensions. In the first part of the research a quantitative research design was incorporated to evaluate the effects of learner characteristics and instructional techniques, on the learning outcomes. In the second phase, a qualitative method of in-depth interviews was used to find details about the training outcomes, as well as the perceived barriers and enablers of the training process. Sample size constraints were there, yet these exploratory results, integrated from both methods indicated the significance of evaluating training outcomes from the three dimensions, and the perceived role of other factors in the training. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the training of C&M, and also their impact in fostering positive education through innovative educational techniques in the developing countries.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral-affective learning outcomes, mixed method research, teachers in Thailand, training evaluation

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70 Response of Grower Turkeys to Diets Containing Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in a Tropical Environment

Authors: Augustine O. Ani, Ifeyinwa E. Ezemagu, Eunice A. Akuru

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A seven-week study was conducted to evaluate the response of grower turkeys to varying dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in a humid tropical environment. A total of 90 twelve weeks old male and female grower turkeys were randomly divided into five groups of 18 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) and assigned to five caloric (2.57-2.60 Mcal/kg ME) and isonitrogenous (19.95% crude protein) diets containing five levels (0, 15, 20, 25 and 30%) of MOLM, respectively. Each treatment was replicated three times with 6 birds per replicate housed in a deep litter pen of fresh wood shavings measuring 1.50m x 1.50m. Feed and water were provided to the birds' ad libitum. Parameters measured were: final live weight (FLW) daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), feed cost / kg weight gain and apparent nutrient retention. Results showed that grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher FLW and DWG values (4410.30 g and 34.49 g, respectively) and higher DM and NFE retention values (67.28 and 58.12%, respectively) than turkeys fed other MOLM diets. Feed cost per kg gain decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of MOLM in the diets. The PCV, Hb, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC values of grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of grower turkeys fed other diets. It was concluded that a diet containing 20% MOLM is adequate for the normal growth of grower turkeys in the tropics.

Keywords: Diets, grower turkeys, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, response, tropical environment

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69 Unconventional Dating of Old Peepal Tree of Chandigarh (India) Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

Authors: Rita Rani, Ramesh Kumar

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The intend of the current study is to date an old grand Peepal tree that is still alive. The tree is situated in Kalibard village, Sector 9, Chandigarh (India). Due to its huge structure, it has got the status of ‘Heritage tree.’ Optically Stimulated Luminescence of sediments beneath the roots is used to determine the age of the tree. Optical dating is preferred over conventional dating methods due to more precession. The methodology includes OSL of quartz grain using SAR protocol for accumulated dose measurement. The age determination of an alive tree using sedimentary quartz is in close agreement with the approximated age provided by the related agency. This is the first attempt at using optically stimulated luminescence in the age determination of alive trees in this region. The study concludes that the Luminescence dating of alive trees is the nondestructive and more precise method.

Keywords: luminescence, dose rate, optical dating, sediments

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68 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

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Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

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67 A Novel Epitope Prediction for Vaccine Designing against Ebola Viral Envelope Proteins

Authors: Manju Kanu, Subrata Sinha, Surabhi Johari

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Viral proteins of Ebola viruses belong to one of the best studied viruses; however no effective prevention against EBOV has been developed. Epitope-based vaccines provide a new strategy for prophylactic and therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity. A critical requirement of this strategy is the identification and selection of T-cell epitopes that act as vaccine targets. This study describes current methodologies for the selection process, with Ebola virus as a model system. Hence great challenge in the field of ebola virus research is to design universal vaccine. A combination of publicly available bioinformatics algorithms and computational tools are used to screen and select antigen sequences as potential T-cell epitopes of supertypes Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles. MUSCLE and MOTIF tools were used to find out most conserved peptide sequences of viral proteins. Immunoinformatics tools were used for prediction of immunogenic peptides of viral proteins in zaire strains of Ebola virus. Putative epitopes for viral proteins (VP) were predicted from conserved peptide sequences of VP. Three tools NetCTL 1.2, BIMAS and Syfpeithi were used to predict the Class I putative epitopes while three tools, ProPred, IEDB-SMM-align and NetMHCII 2.2 were used to predict the Class II putative epitopes. B cell epitopes were predicted by BCPREDS 1.0. Immunogenic peptides were identified and selected manually by putative epitopes predicted from online tools individually for both MHC classes. Finally sequences of predicted peptides for both MHC classes were looked for common region which was selected as common immunogenic peptide. The immunogenic peptides were found for viral proteins of Ebola virus: epitopes FLESGAVKY, SSLAKHGEY. These predicted peptides could be promising candidates to be used as target for vaccine design.

Keywords: epitope, b cell, immunogenicity, ebola

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66 Characteristics of Cement Pastes Incorporating Different Amounts of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes

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In this study different amounts of waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP) as replacement of cement have been investigated as an attempt to produce green binder, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. From zero to up to 60% of WCCP by mass replacement amounts of cement has been conducted. Consistency, compressive strength, bending strength and the activity index of WCCP through seven to ninety days old specimens have been examined, where the optimum WCCP replacement was up to 30%, depending on which the activity index still increased to the end of test period (90 days) and this could be an evidence for its continuity to increase for longer age. Also up to 30% of WCCP increased the bending strength to be higher than the control one. The main point in the present study that there is a possibility of replacing cement by 30% of WCCP, however, it is preferable to be less than this amount.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP), supplementary cementatious material, SCM, activity index, mechanical properties

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65 Competitive Advantage: Sustainable or Transient

Authors: Pallavi Thacker, H. P. Mathur

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This paper tries to find out from the available literature the status of Competitive Advantage. It has been stated a number of times that firms must strive to attain sustainable competitive advantage; but is the concept of sustainability of advantage still valid in this new diversified and too-rapidly changing world? The paper reaches a conclusion that the answer is “no”. Gone is the time when once attained position could easily be retained forever or at-least for a substantial amount of time. We live in a time which is very much globalised. We are used to a high level of competition from all directions. Technological advances, developed human capital, flexibility and end number of factors make the sustenance of competitive advantage difficult. This paper analyses competitive advantage from the view points of Michael Porter (who talks about sustainability) and Rita Gunther McGrath (who says competitive advantage can no more be sustained). It uses many examples and evidences from papers, journals and news. A research in this area is very much required (especially in a developing country like India) so that industries, firms and people can find out the suitable strategies that match with the changing times.

Keywords: competitive advantage, sustainable, transient, globalisation

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64 On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans

Authors: Rita SahaRay, Ganesh Dutta

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In this article, experimental situations are considered where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks, for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs are presented.

Keywords: design matrix, Hadamard matrix, Kronecker product, type 1 criteria, type 2 criteria

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63 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

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Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity

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