Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 188

Search results for: musical

188 The Investigation of Psychological Motives of Creative Abilities in the Omani Musical Intelligence

Authors: Mohammed Talib Alkiyumi

Abstract:

The Sultanate of Oman is characterized by a huge musical heritage that remains mostly preserved. 142 different traditional musical genres and styles (funun) have been registered in the Sultanate. This large number is a unique phenomenon that is worthy of attention and study. These genres and styles are different from others in their origins, rhythms, melodies, poetry, dance movements, etc. Certainly, Oman is exposed to other cultures and there is a variety of ethnicities in the Sultanate; however, this musical diversity is mostly an Omani product. This paper investigates the psychological motives behind Omani musical creativity. This qualitative study is based on relevant documents, as well as an analysis of Omani performance in those genres through documentary films and direct observations. Musical genres are performed in social events such as weddings and celebrations; however, research has shown psychological motives that motivated Omani people to create these various genres, such as provocation of enthusiasm, meditation, religious motivations, poetic competition, and emotional motivation. For each motive, musical genres have been presented.

Keywords: traditional musical, creativity, musical intelligence, Sultanate of Oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
187 Attentional Differences in Musical Recall and Improvisation

Authors: Krzysztof T. Piotrowski

Abstract:

The main goal of the research was to investigate differences in attention in two kinds of musical performance - recall and improvisation. Musical recall is a sample of convergent production that requires intensively focused attention. Inversely, musical improvisation is a divergent task and probably requires a different way of attentional control. The study was designed in dual task paradigm. Participants were to remember a simple melody and then recall or improvise, simultaneously performing the spatial attentional test on computer screen. The result shows that improvising participants find spatial goals in more disperse way. The conclusion is that musical improvisation requires extensification of attention to occur.

Keywords: attention, creativity, divergent task, musical improvisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
186 The Subcategories of Folklore Dance for Children as Didactic Games for Developing Musical Ability in the Preschool Period

Authors: Eudjen Cinc, Mircea Maran, Jasmina Stolic

Abstract:

Viewed through the prism of folkloristics – ethnomusicology, the majority of didactic musical games belong to the category of folklore creative work of children, such games can be extremely useful for the development of musical ability in the preschool age. The paper gives a number of examples from the Romanian children folklore which were used in practice.

Keywords: musical games, children folklore, rhythmical system, melodica

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
185 Spatial Audio Player Using Musical Genre Classification

Authors: Jun-Yong Lee, Hyoung-Gook Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a smart music player that combines the musical genre classification and the spatial audio processing. The musical genre is classified based on content analysis of the musical segment detected from the audio stream. In parallel with the classification, the spatial audio quality is achieved by adding an artificial reverberation in a virtual acoustic space to the input mono sound. Thereafter, the spatial sound is boosted with the given frequency gains based on the musical genre when played back. Experiments measured the accuracy of detecting the musical segment from the audio stream and its musical genre classification. A listening test was performed based on the virtual acoustic space based spatial audio processing.

Keywords: automatic equalization, genre classification, music segment detection, spatial audio processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
184 Musical Composition by Computer with Inspiration from Files of Different Media Types

Authors: Cassandra Pratt Romero, Andres Gomez de Silva Garza

Abstract:

This paper describes a computational system designed to imitate human inspiration during musical composition. The system is called MIS (Musical Inspiration Simulator). The MIS system is inspired by media to which human beings are exposed daily (visual, textual, or auditory) to create new musical compositions based on the emotions detected in said media. After building the system we carried out a series of evaluations with volunteer users who used MIS to compose music based on images, texts, and audio files. The volunteers were asked to judge the harmoniousness and innovation in the system's compositions. An analysis of the results points to the difficulty of computational analysis of the characteristics of the media to which we are exposed daily, as human emotions have a subjective character. This observation will direct future improvements in the system.

Keywords: human inspiration, musical composition, musical composition by computer, theory of sensation and human perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
183 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim

Abstract:

The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: music perception, psychology, cognition, musical preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
182 Creativity and Expressive Interpretation of Musical Drama in Children with Special Needs (Down Syndrome) in Special Schools Yayasan Pendidikan Anak Cacat, Medan, North Sumatera

Authors: Junita Batubara

Abstract:

Children with special needs, especially those with disability in mental, physical or social/emotional interactions, are marginalized. Many people still view them as troublesome, inconvenience, having learning difficulties, unproductive and burdensome to society. This study intends to investigate; how musical drama can develop the ability to control the coordination of mental functions; how musical dramas can assist children to work together; how musical dramas can assist to maintain the child's emotional and physical health; how musical dramas can improve children creativity. The objectives of the research are: To know whether musical drama can control the coordination of mental function of children; to know whether musical drama can improve communication ability and expression of children; to know whether musical drama can help children work with people around them; to find out if musical dramas can develop the child's emotional and physical health; to find out if musical drama can improve children's creativity. The study employed a qualitative research approach. Data was collecting by listening, observing in depth through public hearings that select the key informants who were teachers and principals, parents and children. The data obtained from each public hearing was then processed (reduced), conclusion drawing/verification, presentation of data (data display). Furthermore, the model obtained was implementing for musical performance, where the benefits of the show are: musical drama can improve language skills; musical dramas are capable of developing memory and storage of information; developing communication skills and express themselves; helping children work together; assisting emotional and physical health; enhancing creativity.

Keywords: children Down syndrome, music, drama script, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
181 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler

Abstract:

This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
180 Predictive Relationship between Motivation Strategies and Musical Creativity of Secondary School Music Students

Authors: Lucy Lugo Mawang

Abstract:

Educational Psychologists have highlighted the significance of creativity in education. Likewise, a fundamental objective of music education concern the development of students’ musical creativity potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivation strategies and musical creativity, and establish the prediction equation of musical creativity. The study used purposive sampling and census to select 201 fourth-form music students (139 females/ 62 males), mainly from public secondary schools in Kenya. The mean age of participants was 17.24 years (SD = .78). Framed upon self- determination theory and the dichotomous model of achievement motivation, the study adopted an ex post facto research design. A self-report measure, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) was used in data collection for the independent variable. Musical creativity was based on a creative music composition task and measured by the Consensual Musical Creativity Assessment Scale (CMCAS). Data collected in two separate sessions within an interval of one month. The questionnaire was administered in the first session, lasting approximately 20 minutes. The second session was for notation of participants’ creative composition. The results indicated a positive correlation r(199) = .39, p ˂ .01 between musical creativity and intrinsic music motivation. Conversely, negative correlation r(199) = -.19, p < .01 was observed between musical creativity and extrinsic music motivation. The equation for predicting musical creativity from music motivation strategies was significant F(2, 198) = 20.8, p < .01, with R2 = .17. Motivation strategies accounted for approximately (17%) of the variance in participants’ musical creativity. Intrinsic music motivation had the highest significant predictive value (β = .38, p ˂ .01) on musical creativity. In the exploratory analysis, a significant mean difference t(118) = 4.59, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity for intrinsic and extrinsic music motivation was observed in favour of intrinsically motivated participants. Further, a significant gender difference t(93.47) = 4.31, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity was observed, with male participants scoring higher than females. However, there was no significant difference in participants’ musical creativity based on age. The study recommended that music educators should strive to enhance intrinsic music motivation among students. Specifically, schools should create conducive environments and have interventions for the development of intrinsic music motivation since it is the most facilitative motivation strategy in predicting musical creativity.

Keywords: extrinsic music motivation, intrinsic music motivation, musical creativity, music composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
179 Transporting the Setting of the Beloved Musical, Peter Pan, to Colonial India

Authors: R. Roznowski

Abstract:

This paper is an examination of a recent Michigan State University production of the classic musical, Peter Pan. In this production, approved by the licensor, the action was moved to Colonial India transforming the musical’s message to include themes of cultural identity, racism, classism and ultimately inclusion. Major character changes and casting decisions expanded the scope of the musical while still retaining the original book and score. Major changes included reframing the Darlings as British Colonials stationed in India. The Lost Boy’s as mixed race children of British officials and their Indian nannies, the Pirates were a female 'fishing fleet' a group of women sent from England to keep the British soldiers from mixing with the locals and the Michigan State University Bhangra Dance Team played the Indians in the production. Traditional Indian theatrical techniques were also employed in the storytelling. The presentation will cover the key changes to the musical, the rehearsal process, historical accuracy and audience reaction. A final analysis of cultural appropriation versus historical reframing will be examined.

Keywords: directing, history, musical theatre, producing

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
178 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical foundation is developed for patterned segmentation of audio using the geometry of music and statistical manifold. We demonstrate image content clustering using conic space sonification. The algorithm takes a geodesic curve as a model estimator of the three-parameter Gamma distribution. The random variable is parameterized by musical centricity and centric velocity. Model parameters predict audio segmentation in the form of duration and frame count based on the likelihood of musical geometry transition. We provide an example using a database of randomly selected images, resulting in statistically significant clusters of similar image content.

Keywords: sonification, musical information geometry, image, content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
177 Musical Instruments Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Bhalke D. G., Bormane D. S., Kharate G. K.

Abstract:

This paper presents classification of musical instrument using machine learning techniques. The classification has been carried out using temporal, spectral, cepstral and wavelet features. Detail feature analysis is carried out using separate and combined features. Further, instrument model has been developed using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Benchmarked McGill university database has been used to test the performance of the system. Experimental result shows that SVM performs better as compared to KNN classifier.

Keywords: feature extraction, SVM, KNN, musical instruments

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
176 Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Zhong-Xian Peng, Li-Der Jeng

Abstract:

Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Keywords: connected component labeling, image processing, morphological processing, optical musical recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
175 The Role of Tempo in the Perception of Musical Grouping

Authors: Marina B. Cottrell

Abstract:

Tempo plays a significant role in the perception of metrical groupings, with faster tempi tending to increase the number of beats in a given metrical unit. Previous research has shown a correlation between the perception of metric grouping and native language, but little is currently known about other possible musical factors that contribute to metric grouping tendencies. This study aims to find the tempo boundaries at which the perceptual groupings of a melodic pattern changes and to correlate these regions with self-reported musical experience. Participants were presented with looping melodies (divided between major and minor keys). Using a slider bar that controlled the tempo, subjects were asked to locate the point at which they heard the metric grouping doubled or halved. This region was shown to primarily be affected by the mode and time signature of the stimulus. The results also suggest a correlation between the level of musical training and the region of perceived grouping change.

Keywords: meter, metric grouping, mode, tempo

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
174 Mikrophonie I (1964) by Karlheinz Stockhausen - Between Idea and Auditory Image

Authors: Justyna Humięcka-Jakubowska

Abstract:

1. Background in music analysis. Traditionally, when we think about a composer’s sketches, the chances are that we are thinking in terms of the working out of detail, rather than the evolution of an overall concept. Since music is a “time art’, it follows that questions of a form cannot be entirely detached from considerations of time. One could say that composers tend to regard time either as a place gradually and partially intuitively filled, or they can look for a specific strategy to occupy it. In my opinion, one thing that sheds light on Stockhausen's compositional thinking is his frequent use of 'form schemas', that is often a single-page representation of the entire structure of a piece. 2. Background in music technology. Sonic Visualiser is a program used to study a musical recording. It is an open source application for viewing, analysing, and annotating music audio files. It contains a number of visualisation tools, which are designed with useful default parameters for musical analysis. Additionally, the Vamp plugin format of SV supports to provide analysis such as for example structural segmentation. 3. Aims. The aim of my paper is to show how SV may be used to obtain a better understanding of the specific musical work, and how the compositional strategy does impact on musical structures and musical surfaces. I want to show that ‘traditional” music analytic methods don’t allow to indicate interrelationships between musical surface (which is perceived) and underlying musical/acoustical structure. 4. Main Contribution. Stockhausen had dealt with the most diverse musical problems by the most varied methods. A characteristic which he had never ceased to be placed at the center of his thought and works, it was the quest for a new balance founded upon an acute connection between speculation and intuition. In the case with Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and 6 players Stockhausen makes a distinction between the "connection scheme", which indicates the ground rules underlying all versions, and the form scheme, which is associated with a particular version. The preface to the published score includes both the connection scheme, and a single instance of a "form scheme", which is what one can hear on the CD recording. In the current study, the insight into the compositional strategy chosen by Stockhausen was been compared with auditory image, that is, with the perceived musical surface. Stockhausen's musical work is analyzed both in terms of melodic/voice and timbre evolution. 5. Implications The current study shows how musical structures have determined of musical surface. My general assumption is this, that while listening to music we can extract basic kinds of musical information from musical surfaces. It is shown that an interactive strategies of musical structure analysis can offer a very fruitful way of looking directly into certain structural features of music.

Keywords: automated analysis, composer's strategy, mikrophonie I, musical surface, stockhausen

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
173 The Comparative Electroencephalogram Study: Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Children Evaluate Classical Music in Different Ways

Authors: Galina Portnova, Kseniya Gladun

Abstract:

In our EEG experiment participated 27 children with ASD with the average age of 6.13 years and the average score for CARS 32.41 and 25 healthy children (of 6.35 years). Six types of musical stimulation were presented, included Gluck, Javier-Naida, Kenny G, Chopin and other classic musical compositions. Children with autism showed orientation reaction to the music and give behavioral responses to different types of music, some of them might assess stimulation by scales. The participants were instructed to remain calm. Brain electrical activity was recorded using a 19-channel EEG recording device, 'Encephalan' (Russia, Taganrog). EEG epochs lasting 150 s were analyzed using EEGLab plugin for MatLab (Mathwork Inc.). For EEG analysis we used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), analyzed Peak alpha frequency (PAF), correlation dimension D2 and Stability of rhythms. To express the dynamics of desynchronizing of different rhythms we've calculated the envelope of the EEG signal, using the whole frequency range and a set of small narrowband filters using Hilbert transformation. Our data showed that healthy children showed similar EEG spectral changes during musical stimulation as well as described the feelings induced by musical fragments. The exception was the ‘Chopin. Prelude’ fragment (no.6). This musical fragment induced different subjective feeling, behavioral reactions and EEG spectral changes in children with ASD and healthy children. The correlation dimension D2 was significantly lower in autists compared to healthy children during musical stimulation. Hilbert envelope frequency was reduced in all group of subjects during musical compositions 1,3,5,6 compositions compared to the background. During musical fragments 2 and 4 (terrible) lower Hilbert envelope frequency was observed only in children with ASD and correlated with the severity of the disease. Alfa peak frequency was lower compared to the background during this musical composition in healthy children and conversely higher in children with ASD.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional perception, ASD, musical perception, childhood Autism rating scale (CARS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
172 Expectation during Improvisation: The Way It Influences the Musical Dialogue

Authors: Elisa Negretto

Abstract:

Improvisation is a fundamental form of musical practice and an increasing amount of literature shows a particular interest on the consequences it might have in different kinds of social contexts. A relevant aspect of the musical experience is the ability to create expectations, which reflects a basic strategy of the human mind, an intentional movement toward the future which is based on previous experiences. Musical Expectation – an unconscious tendency to project forward in time, to predict future sound events and the ongoing of a musical experience – can be regarded as a process that strongly influences the listeners’ emotional and affective response to music, as well as their social and aesthetic experience. While improvising, composers, interpreters and listeners generate and exchange expectations, thus creating a dynamic dialogue and meaningful relationships. The aim of this paper is to investigate how expectation contributes to the creation of such a dialogue during the unfolding of the musical experience and to what extent it influences the meaning music acquires during the performance. The difference between the ability to create expectations and the anticipation of the future ongoing of music will be questioned. Does it influence in different ways the meaning of music and the kind of dialogical relationship established between musicians and between performers and audience? Such questions will be investigated with reference to recent research in music cognition and the analysis of a particular case: a free jazz performance during which musicians improvise and/or change the location of the sound source. The present paper is an attempt to provide new insights for investigating and understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying improvisation as a musical and social practice. They contribute to the creation of a model that we can find in many others social practices in which people have to build meaningful relationships and responses to environmental stimuli.

Keywords: anticipation, expectation, improvisation, meaning, musical dialogue

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
171 Musical Culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon Archipelago

Authors: Rewadee Ungpho

Abstract:

The research on the musical culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago, Satun Province, is considered as an anthropology research. Research objectives were to study the history and information culture and also to find the basis information for the restoration and preservation of the music culture of Sea Gypsies who live in Bulon archipelago. Findings of the research are as follows: 1) Musical characteristics of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago is still traditional. It does not mix with any external musical influence such as musical instruments, language, and other musical characteristics. There are various kind of songs which can play a complete melody and rhythm, including a total of 8 songs as follows; Lagu-Ayam-Dide, Lagu-Sitipayong, Lagu-Bulong-pute, Lagu-Chemamat, Laguduwo, Lagu-Ma-I-nang, Lagu-Mana-Ikan. 2) The roles of culture/music in Bulon archipelago correlate with Urak Lawoi society. They use music in the ceremony of votive offering, in the floating ceremony held in Lipe Island and in various festivals. Therefore, music is a spiritual sacrifice and a spiritual instrument that conveys an Urak Lawoi, which makes the Urak Lawoi still unique and has a sense of ethnic identity. 3) The inheritance of Urak Lawoi music is still being made in a traditional way, as an oral tradition with no record. The teaching and learning must be one on one, and it required length of time to practice and accumulate the knowledge. Due to above mentioned reasons, a few people attend in the inheritance. Those who are interested may not be able to practice constantly. As a result, there is only a few, or even none, descendants left.

Keywords: sea gypsy, music, Bulon archipelago, ethnomusicology

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
170 Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit

Authors: Elizabeth McLean, Katrina Skewes-McFerran, Grace Thompson

Abstract:

Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.

Keywords: grounded theory, musical engagement, music therapy, parental identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
169 Evaluation of Musical Conductor Exposure to Noise

Authors: Ahmed Saleh Summan

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a technical report on the evaluation of occupational noise exposures among a musical conductor in a musical rehearsal hall (party–center). A calibrated noise dosimeter was used to measure the personal exposure of a music teacher/conductor for 8 hours in two days of rehearsal involving 90 players. Results showed that noise exposure levels were much higher than the permissible levels regulated 85dBA/8hr by NIOSH. In fact, the first day of measurements recorded the highest exposure levels (91 dBA). A number of factors contributed to these results, such as players number, types of instruments used, and activities. Noise control measures were recommended to solve this situation.

Keywords: noise exposure, music conductors, occupational noise, noise in rooms

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
168 The Use of Themes and Variations in Early and Contemporary Juju Music

Authors: Olupemi E. Oludare

Abstract:

This paper discusses the thematic structure of Yoruba popular music of Southwest Nigeria. It examines the use of themes and variations in early and contemporary Juju music. The work is an outcome of a research developed by the author in his doctoral studies at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, with the aim of analyzing the thematic and motivic developments in Yoruba popular genres. Observations, interviews, live recordings and CDs were used as methods for eliciting information. Field recordings and CDs of selected musical samples were also transcribed and notated. The research established the prevalent use of string of themes by Juju musicians as a compositional technique in moving from one musical section to another, as they communicate the verbal messages in their song. These themes consisting of the popular ‘call and response’ form found in most African music, analogous to the western ‘subject and answer’ style of the fugue or sonata form, although without the tonic–dominant relations. Due to the short and repetitive form of African melodies and rhythms, a theme is restated as a variation, where its rhythmic and melodic motifs are stylistically developed and repeated, but still retaining its recognizable core musical structure. The findings of this study showed that Juju musicians generally often employ a thematic plan where new themes are used to arrange the songs into sections, and each theme is developed into variations in order to further expand the music, eliminate monotony, and create musical aesthetics, serving as hallmark of its musical identity. The study established the musical and extra-musical attributes of the genre, while recommending further research towards analyzing the various compositional techniques employed in African popular genres.

Keywords: compositional techniques, popular music, theme and variation, thematic development

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
167 Emotional Skills and Musical Performance in the Elementary Music Education in Conservatoires: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Emilia A. Campayo-Munoz, Alberto Cabedo-Mas

Abstract:

Music students have to face the challenges of musical practice -such as discipline in study, competitiveness, or performance anxiety- that require good emotional management to enable successful performance. However, few rigorous implementations focused on studying the influence of emotional skills in student's musical performance. Responding to this gap in the literature, this study aims to explore the relationship between emotional skills and musical performance in the context of elementary music education in conservatoires. Given the individual nature of the instrumental studies and the difficult availability of teachers to be trained in emotional education, it was decided to conduct a multiple case study in a Spanish music conservatoire. Author 1 carried out the implementation of the research with three 10-year-old students who were selected from her piano class. All of them attended the third year of their piano studies. The research processes consisted of the implementation of a set of specific and cross-sectional activities designed 'ad hoc' to be articulated in the subjects of individual instrument -piano- and ensemble in parallel to the contents of musical nature. The CE-360º questionnaire was used to measure different aspects of the students' emotional skills from a multi-angle perspective, each of the questionnaires being responded by oneself, three teachers and three peers, before and after the implementation. The data from the questionnaire were compared with the grades that the students obtained during the first and last quarter of the school year in the attended subjects. Acknowledging the complexity of emotional development, the results indicate possible relations between emotional skills and musical performance in music education in conservatoires. The results show that for the cases explored; there exists a relationship between emotional skills and musical performance. Although generalizations cannot be made, this study reinforces the need to further explore emotional development in instrumental teaching and suggest the importance of inviting teachers to reflect on the pedagogical practices extended in the conservatoires and to develop and implement those that promote the work of the students' emotions.

Keywords: conservatoires, emotional skills, music education, musical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
166 Multimodal Convolutional Neural Network for Musical Instrument Recognition

Authors: Yagya Raj Pandeya, Joonwhoan Lee

Abstract:

The dynamic behavior of music and video makes it difficult to evaluate musical instrument playing in a video by computer system. Any television or film video clip with music information are rich sources for analyzing musical instruments using modern machine learning technologies. In this research, we integrate the audio and video information sources using convolutional neural network (CNN) and pass network learned features through recurrent neural network (RNN) to preserve the dynamic behaviors of audio and video. We use different pre-trained CNN for music and video feature extraction and then fine tune each model. The music network use 2D convolutional network and video network use 3D convolution (C3D). Finally, we concatenate each music and video feature by preserving the time varying features. The long short term memory (LSTM) network is used for long-term dynamic feature characterization and then use late fusion with generalized mean. The proposed network performs better performance to recognize the musical instrument using audio-video multimodal neural network.

Keywords: multimodal, 3D convolution, music-video feature extraction, generalized mean

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
165 Creative Practice and Consciousness in Juju Music: A Nigerian Musical and Cultural Perspective

Authors: Olupemi E. Oludare

Abstract:

This paper investigates the creative practice engaged in Juju music, a Nigerian Neo-traditional genre of the Yoruba, and its influence on the consciousness of societal praxis. It takes a musical and cultural perspective, as representational indices of how the people’s religious, social, educational, and political consciousness is expressed in their music. The study adopts the historical cum descriptive design in its methodology, tracing the historical development of Juju music, the appropriation of musical and cultural materials in its creative process, and a descriptive analysis of its musical practice, in order to substantiate the role and function of Juju music and its musicians in the political, philosophical, and social consciousness of Nigeria’s pre- and post-independence epoch. Data were collected through oral interviews of selected Juju practitioners, stakeholders, and enthusiasts. It also employed the use of discography of Juju musicians. This paper discusses musical factors such as form, melodic and rhythmic patterns, and thematic materials, while highlighting cultural factors such as linguistic elements, with textual analysis, as a conscious avenue of expression. The study revealed that Juju musicians composed their music by engaging both indigenous and foreign musical materials, as a means of creative practice for musical entertainment, while expressing the people’s consciousness of their beliefs, values, and socio-political issues, hence the music functioning as a vehicle for social commentaries. The popularization and commercialization of Juju music brought the musicians national and international accolades, subsequently attracting contributions from contemporary musicians, which led to innovations of new brands, such as ‘Afro-Juju’, ‘Gospel-Juju’, ‘Hip-Hop-Juju’, etc., albeit retaining the basic musical elements of its progenitor, as a conscious music for socio-cultural functions. This study concludes that Juju music and its musicians remain germane in the musical scene of the nation’s social, educational, and political terrain, especially in the current Nigerian democratic climate. This paper recommends the promotion and patronage of the Juju music in its original form, to prevent its decline in current times, since it serves as an enrichment of national identity both in Nigeria, and Internationally.

Keywords: appropriation, consciousness, creative practice, national identity, neo-traditional

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
164 Prime Ministers of Malaysia Musicals: Political Performances Trend in Istana Budaya (2007-2012)

Authors: Abdul Walid Ali

Abstract:

The trend of publishing political musicals in Istana Budaya has been popular since 2007 when Malaysia celebrated its 50th anniversary of independence. Istana Budaya has at least one musical of any politician since then. Normally, the politicians are former Prime Ministers and renowned ministers prior to Malaysia's independence in 1957. The first performance in Istana Budaya which represented a politician as a theme was Muzikal Cheng Lock (2007) followed by Muzikal Tun Abdul Razak (2009), Muzikal Tun Mahathir (2010), and Muzikal Tun Mahathir 2 (2011). In 2012, Lawak Ke Der has changed the trend with comic performance and put an end to politician musical. Tun Siti Hasmah the Musical (2012) is not listed in the research because she did not hold any position as a minister. This qualitative research focuses on musicals of political figures as a theme. Some factors of making this type of performance are analyzed based on Istana Budaya’s decisions during that time in Malaysia between 2007 and 2011. This research aims to document these musical themed performances in Istana Budaya for further research in the future. Political performances are listed and analyzed from 2007 to 2012 based on reports and previous research. The declination of audiences in 2012 and a new theme in theatre performances in Istana Budaya are important factors for the downfall of the political theatres' theme.

Keywords: musical, politician, Istana Budaya, theatre

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
163 Myers-Briggs Type Index Personality Type Classification Based on an Individual’s Spotify Playlists

Authors: Sefik Can Karakaya, Ibrahim Demir

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between musical preferences and personality traits has been investigated in terms of Spotify audio analysis features. The aim of this paper is to build such a classifier capable of segmenting people into their Myers-Briggs Type Index (MBTI) personality type based on their Spotify playlists. Music takes an important place in the lives of people all over the world and online music streaming platforms make it easier to reach musical contents. In this context, the motivation to build such a classifier is allowing people to gain access to their MBTI personality type and perhaps for more reliably and more quickly. For this purpose, logistic regression and deep neural networks have been selected for classifier and their performances are compared. In conclusion, it has been found that musical preferences differ statistically between personality traits, and evaluated models are able to distinguish personality types based on given musical data structure with over %60 accuracy rate.

Keywords: myers-briggs type indicator, music psychology, Spotify, behavioural user profiling, deep neural networks, logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
162 Assessment the Home Musical Environment in Greek Families: Validation of the [email protected] Questionnaires

Authors: Nina Polytimou, Christina Anagnostopoulou, Orianna Bairaktari, Katerina Drakoulaki, Fabia Franco

Abstract:

A growing body of research has recently revealed a beneficial role of formal musical training on early cognitive and linguistic development. The majority of these studies have focused on musical training given in formal settings such as classrooms. For children under the age of 5 however, music is experienced informally through singing songs, dancing and playing musical games with a lot of these activities taking place in the home environment. Given the spontaneous enjoyment that children show for such activities, informal musical engagement between young children and their caregivers may hold potential for fostering cognitive and socio-emotional development. Given this promising potential, the [email protected] questionnaire has recently been developed in the UK to systematically assess the home musical environment in young families. Two versions are available, an Infant version for children aged 3 to 23 months and a Preschool version for children aged 2 to 5.5 years. Indeed, recent studies using the [email protected] have shown that this is associated with affective attachment between caregivers and their typically and atypically developing children in the USA, and with better language outcomes in infants and toddlers in the UK and Germany. With the aim of extending this research to other cultural contexts, the present study sought to adapt and validate the [email protected] in the Greek population. To this end, a large-scale online survey has been launched to collect responses from 200 Greek-speaking families on the musical activities they do at home with their children. Parents of infants are also being asked to complete a report evaluating their infants’ communicative development. Confirmatory factor analysis is being used to confirm the factor structure of the [email protected] in the Greek population. Correlational methods will also be used to investigate the validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the Greek [email protected] instrument. Furthermore, this study will test the hypothesis that the Greek [email protected] is associated with communicative development of infants between the ages of 8 to 18 months. This research provides the Greek population with a systematic instrument to assess musical engagement, a potentially significant aspect of the home environment, and generates insights for the use of cost-effective activities that may foster early learning across different cultures.

Keywords: home musical environment, language development, questionnaire validation, systematic assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
161 Explaining Irregularity in Music by Entropy and Information Content

Authors: Lorena Mihelac, Janez Povh

Abstract:

In 2017, we conducted a research study using data consisting of 160 musical excerpts from different musical styles, to analyze the impact of entropy of the harmony on the acceptability of music. In measuring the entropy of harmony, we were interested in unigrams (individual chords in the harmonic progression) and bigrams (the connection of two adjacent chords). In this study, it has been found that 53 musical excerpts out from 160 were evaluated by participants as very complex, although the entropy of the harmonic progression (unigrams and bigrams) was calculated as low. We have explained this by particularities of chord progression, which impact the listener's feeling of complexity and acceptability. We have evaluated the same data twice with new participants in 2018 and with the same participants for the third time in 2019. These three evaluations have shown that the same 53 musical excerpts, found to be difficult and complex in the study conducted in 2017, are exhibiting a high feeling of complexity again. It was proposed that the content of these musical excerpts, defined as “irregular,” is not meeting the listener's expectancy and the basic perceptual principles, creating a higher feeling of difficulty and complexity. As the “irregularities” in these 53 musical excerpts seem to be perceived by the participants without being aware of it, affecting the pleasantness and the feeling of complexity, they have been defined as “subliminal irregularities” and the 53 musical excerpts as “irregular.” In our recent study (2019) of the same data (used in previous research works), we have proposed a new measure of the complexity of harmony, “regularity,” based on the irregularities in the harmonic progression and other plausible particularities in the musical structure found in previous studies. We have in this study also proposed a list of 10 different particularities for which we were assuming that they are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity in harmony. These ten particularities have been tested in this paper, by extending the analysis in our 53 irregular musical excerpts from harmony to melody. In the examining of melody, we have used the computational model “Information Dynamics of Music” (IDyOM) and two information-theoretic measures: entropy - the uncertainty of the prediction before the next event is heard, and information content - the unexpectedness of an event in a sequence. In order to describe the features of melody in these musical examples, we have used four different viewpoints: pitch, interval, duration, scale degree. The results have shown that the texture of melody (e.g., multiple voices, homorhythmic structure) and structure of melody (e.g., huge interval leaps, syncopated rhythm, implied harmony in compound melodies) in these musical excerpts are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity. High information content values were found in compound melodies in which implied harmonies seem to have suggested additional harmonies, affecting the participant’s perception of the chord progression in harmony by creating a sense of an ambiguous musical structure.

Keywords: entropy and information content, harmony, subliminal (ir)regularity, IDyOM

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
160 The Next Game Changer: 3-D Printed Musical Instruments

Authors: Leonardo Ko

Abstract:

In an era marked by rapid technological innovation, the classical instrument industry nonetheless has not seen significant change. Is this a matter of stubborn traditionalism, or do old, conventional instruments really sound better? Because of the widespread use of 3-D printing, it seems feasible to produce modern, 3-D printed instruments that adhere to the basic conventions of standard construction. This study aimed to design and create a practical, effective 3-D printed acoustic violin. A cost-benefit analysis of materials and design is presented in addition to a report on sound tests in which a pool of professional musicians compared the traditional violin to its synthetic counterpart with regard to acoustic properties. With a low-cost yet functional instrument, musicians of all levels would be able to afford instruments with much greater ease; the present study thus hopes to contribute to efforts to increase the accessibility of classical music education.

Keywords: acoustic musical instrument, classical musical education, low-cost, 3-D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
159 Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation

Authors: Piotr Podlipniak

Abstract:

Social consolidation has often been indicated as an adaptive function of music which led to the evolution of music faculty. According to many scholars this function is possible thanks to musical rhythm that enables sensorimotor synchronization to a musical beat. The ability to synchronize to music allows performing music collectively which enhances social cohesion. However, the collective performance of music consists also in spectral synchronization that depends on musical pitch structure. Similarly to rhythmic synchronization, spectral synchronization is a result of ‘brain states alignment’ between people who collectively listen to or perform music. In order to successfully synchronize pitches performers have to adequately expect the pitch structure. The most common form of music which predominates among all human societies is tonal music. In fact tonality understood in the broadest sense as such an organization of musical pitches in which some pitch is more important than others is the only kind of musical pitch structure that has been observed in all currently known musical cultures. The perception of such a musical pitch structure elicits specific emotional reactions which are often described as tensions and relaxations. These facts provoke some important questions. What is the evolutionary reason that people use pitch structure as a form of vocal communication? Why different pitch structures elicit different emotional states independent of extra-musical context? It is proposed in the current presentation that in the course of evolution pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially before it became an evolutionary innovation of Homo sapiens. It means that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. The hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of tonal pitch structure will be proposed. In this scenario social forces such as a need for closer cooperation play the crucial role.

Keywords: emotion, evolution, tonality, social consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241