Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Radek Novotný

18 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Radek Novotný, Martina Maněnová


This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender differences, gender and ICT

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17 The Role of Creative Thinking in Science Education

Authors: Jindriska Svobodova, Jan Novotny


A teacher’s attitude to creativity plays an essential role in the thinking development of his/her students. The purpose of this study is to understand if a science teacher's personal creativity can modify his/her ability to produce various kinds of questions. This research used an education activity based on cosmic sketches and pictures by K.E. Tsiolkovsky, the founder of astronautics, to explore if any relationship between individual creativity and the asking questions skill exists. As a screening instrument, which allows an assessment of the respondent's creative potential, a common test of creative thinking was used. The results of the creativity test and the diversity of the questions are mentioned.

Keywords: science education, active learning, physics teaching, religious cosmology

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16 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou


Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

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15 The Visualizer for Real-Time Analysis of Internet Trends

Authors: Radek Malinský, Ivan Jelínek


The current web has become a modern encyclopedia, where people share their thoughts and ideas on various topics around them. Such kind of encyclopedia is very useful for other people who are looking for answers to their questions. However, with the growing popularity of social networking and blogging and ever expanding network services, there has also been a growing diversity of technologies along with different structure of individual websites. It is, therefore, difficult to directly find a relevant answer for a common Internet user. This paper presents a web application for the real-time end-to-end analysis of selected Internet trends; where the trend can be whatever the people post online. The application integrates fully configurable tools for data collection and analysis using selected webometric algorithms, and for its chronological visualization to user. It can be assumed that the application facilitates the users to evaluate the quality of various products that are mentioned online.

Keywords: Trend, visualizer, web analysis, web 2.0.

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14 Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size

Authors: Robert Prucek, Aleš Panáček, Jan Filip, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil


The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.

Keywords: copper, nanoparticles, sodium polyacrylate, catalyst, 4-nitrophenol

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13 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Ruzek


Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: T-joint, shear, composite, mechanical testing, finite element analysis, methodology

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12 Synthesis of Flower-Like Silver Nanoarchitectures in Special Shapes and Their Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Authors: Radka Králová, Libor Kvítek, Václav Ranc, Aleš Panáček, Radek Zbořil


Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an optical spectroscopic technique with very good potential for sensitive detection of substances. In this research, active substrates with high enhancement were provided. Novel silver particles (nanostructures) with high roughened, flower–like morphology were prepared by reduction of cation complex [Ag(NH3)2]+ in presence of sodium borohydride as reducing agent and stabilized polyacrylic acid. The products were characterized by UV/VIS absorption spectrophotometry. Special shapes of silver particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). Dispersions of this particle were put on fixed substrate to producing suitable layer for SERS. Adenine was applied as basic substance whose effect of enhancement on the layer of silver nanostructures was studied. By comparison with our work, the important influence of stabilizers, polyacrylic acid with various molecular weight and concentration, on the transfer of particles and formation of new structure was confirmed.

Keywords: metals, nanostructures, chemical reduction, Raman spectroscopy, optical properties

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11 From Data Processing to Experimental Design and Back Again: A Parameter Identification Problem Based on FRAP Images

Authors: Stepan Papacek, Jiri Jablonsky, Radek Kana, Ctirad Matonoha, Stefan Kindermann


FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) is a widely used measurement technique to determine the mobility of fluorescent molecules within living cells. While the experimental setup and protocol for FRAP experiments are usually fixed, data processing part is still under development. In this paper, we formulate and solve the problem of data selection which enhances the processing of FRAP images. We introduce the concept of the irrelevant data set, i.e., the data which are almost not reducing the confidence interval of the estimated parameters and thus could be neglected. Based on sensitivity analysis, we both solve the problem of the optimal data space selection and we find specific conditions for optimizing an important experimental design factor, e.g., the radius of bleach spot. Finally, a theorem announcing less precision of the integrated data approach compared to the full data case is proven; i.e., we claim that the data set represented by the FRAP recovery curve lead to a larger confidence interval compared to the spatio-temporal (full) data.

Keywords: FRAP, inverse problem, parameter identification, sensitivity analysis, optimal experimental design

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10 Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Radek Řídký, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký


The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm, combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed. Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physico-mechanical parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step, the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.

Keywords: blast energy absorber, SHPB, expanded glass, expanded ceramics

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9 Determination of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Based on Combination of Nanocomposite [email protected]@JB303 and Magnetically Assisted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MA-SERS)

Authors: Zuzana Chaloupková, Zdeňka Marková, Václav Ranc, Radek Zbořil


Prostate cancer is now one of the most serious oncological diseases in men with an incidence higher than that of all other solid tumors combined. Diagnosis of prostate cancer usually involves detection of related genes or detection of marker proteins, such as PSA. One of the new potential markers is PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen). PSMA is a unique membrane bound glycoprotein, which is considerably overexpressed on prostate cancer as well as neovasculature of most of the solid tumors. Commonly applied methods for a detection of proteins include techniques based on immunochemical approaches, including ELISA and RIA. Magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) can be considered as an interesting alternative to generally accepted approaches. This work describes a utilization of MA-SERS in a detection of PSMA in human blood. This analytical platform is based on magnetic nanocomposites [email protected], functionalized by a low-molecular selector labeled as JB303. The system allows isolating the marker from the complex sample using application of magnetic force. Detection of PSMA is than performed by SERS effect given by a presence of silver nanoparticles. This system allowed us to analyze PSMA in clinical samples with limits of detection lower than 1 ng/mL.

Keywords: diagnosis, cancer, PSMA, MA-SERS, Ag nanoparticles

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8 Arboretum: Community Mixed Reality Nature Environment

Authors: Radek Richtr, Petr Paus


The connection to the primal environment, living and growing nature is disappearing for most of the residents in urban core areas nowadays. Most of the residents perceive scattered green mass like more technical objects than sentient living organisms. The Arboretum is a type of application from the 'serious games' genre -it is a research experiment masked as a gaming environment. In used virtual and augmented reality environments, every city district is represented by central objects; Pillars created as a result of resident’s consensus. Every player can furthermore plant and grow virtual organic seeds everywhere he wants. Seeds sprout, and their form is determined by both players’ choice and nearest pillar. Every house, private rooms, and even workspace get their new living virtual avatar-connected 'residents' growing from player-planted seeds. Every room or workspace is transformed into (calming) nature scene, reflecting in some way both players and community spirit and together create a vicinity environment. The conceptual design phase of the project is crucial and allows for the identification of the fundamental problems through abstraction. The project that centers on wide community usage needs a clear and accessible interface. Simultaneously the conceptual design allows early sharing of project ideas and creating public concern. The paper discusses the current conceptual model of an Arboretum project (which is part of a whole widespread project) and its validation.

Keywords: augmented reality, conceptual design, mixed reality, social engineering

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7 The Role of the STAT3 Signaling for Melatonergic Synthetic Pathway in the Rat Pineal Gland

Authors: Simona Moravcova, Jiri Novotny, Zdenka Bendova


The pineal gland of the vertebrate brain is a circumventricular organ which serves as a major neuroendocrine gland with the primary function of rhythmic secretion of neurohormone melatonin under the control of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Soon after the onset of the darkness, the activity of the key rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), raises due to the increased release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons terminating on the parenchymal cells where it binds to β-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin codes the length of the night, and it is well recognized for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the effect of the immune system on the melatonin biosynthesis and the precise role of the STAT3 in the signaling pathway leading to the expression of AANAT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the essential component in the outer surface membrane of gram-negative bacteria and acts as a strong stimulator of natural and innate immunity. STAT3 acts as an important factor in immune response. Here we investigated the effect of LPS on the components of the melatonergic synthetic pathway in the pineal gland. The experiments were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The changes in AANAT activity were determined by radioenzymatic assay. PCR analyses were carried out to detect aa-nat, icer, spi-3 and stat3 gene expression. From our results, it is apparent that the high basal level of phosphorylated forms of STAT3 can be elevated after systemic as well as in vitro administration of LPS. Our experiments have shown that LPS reduces melatonin synthesis, nevertheless, the activity of AANAT was increased. Moreover, the basal level of phosphorylated STAT3 counteracts β-adrenergic receptor-mediated aa-nat gene expression and sustains its own and spi-3 gene expression. In conclusion, LPS can affect immunomodulators such as melatonin in the pineal gland.

Keywords: AANAT, lipopolysaccharide, pineal gland, rat, STAT3

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6 Stoa: Urban Community-Building Social Experiment through Mixed Reality Game Environment

Authors: Radek Richtr, Petr Pauš


Social media nowadays connects people more tightly and intensively than ever, but simultaneously, some sort of social distance, incomprehension, lost of social integrity appears. People can be strongly connected to the person on the other side of the world but unaware of neighbours in the same district or street. The Stoa is a type of application from the ”serious games” genre- it is research augmented reality experiment masked as a gaming environment. In the Stoa environment, the player can plant and grow virtual (organic) structure, a Pillar, that represent the whole suburb. Everybody has their own idea of what is an acceptable, admirable or harmful visual intervention in the area they live in; the purpose of this research experiment is to find and/or define residents shared subconscious spirit, genius loci of the Pillars vicinity, where residents live in. The appearance and evolution of Stoa’s Pillars reflect the real world as perceived by not only the creator but also by other residents/players, who, with their actions, refine the environment. Squares, parks, patios and streets get their living avatar depictions; investors and urban planners obtain information on the occurrence and level of motivation for reshaping the public space. As the project is in product conceptual design phase, the function is one of its most important factors. Function-based modelling makes design problem modular and structured and thus decompose it into sub-functions or function-cells. Paper discuss the current conceptual model for Stoa project, the using of different organic structure textures and models, user interface design, UX study and project’s developing to the final state.

Keywords: augmented reality, urban computing, interaction design, mixed reality, social engineering

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5 Association of Mir-196a Expression in Esophageal Tissue with Barrett´s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Petra Borilova Linhartova, Michaela Ruckova, Sabina Sevcikova, Natalie Mlcuchova, Jan Bohm, Katerina Zukalova, Monika Vlachova, Jiri Dolina, Lumir Kunovsky, Radek Kroupa, Zdenek Pavlovsky, Zdenek Danek, Tereza Deissova, Lydie Izakovicova Holla, Ondrej Slaby, Zdenek Kala


Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that frequently develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant pathologic change occurring in the lower end of the esophagus. Specific microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, were repeatedly proved to play key roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. This pilot study aimed to analyze four selected miRNAs in esophageal tissues from healthy controls (HC) and patients with reflux esophagitis (RE)/BE/EAC, as well as to compare expression at the site of Barrett's mucosa/adenocarcinoma and healthy esophageal tissue outside the area of the main pathology in patients with BE/EAC. In this pilot study, 22 individuals (3 HC, 8 RE, 5 BE, 6 EAC) were included and endoscopically examined. RNA was isolated from the fresh-frozen esophageal tissue (stored in the RNAlater™ Stabilization Solution −70°C) using the AllPrep DNA/RNA/miRNA Universal Kit. Subsequent RT-qPCR analysis was performed using selected TaqMan MicroRNA Assays for miR-21, miR-34a, miR-196a, miR-196b, and endogenous control (RNU44). While the expression of miR-21 in the esophageal tissue with the main pathology was decreased in BE and EAC patients in comparison to the group of HC and RE patients (p=0.01), the expression of miR-196a was increased in the BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). Correlations between those miRNAs expression in tissue and severity of diagnosis were observed (p<0.05). In addition, miR-196a was significantly more expressed at the site with the main pathology than in paired adjacent esophageal tissue in BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). In conclusion, our pilot results showed that miR-196a, which regulates the proliferation, invasion, and migration (and was previously associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and marked as a potential therapeutic target), could be a diagnostic tissue biomarker for BE and EAC as well.

Keywords: microRNA, barrett´s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, biomarker

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4 Effect of Operative Stabilization on Rib Fracture Healing in Porcine Experimental Model: A Pilot Study

Authors: Maria Stepankova, Lucie Vistejnova, Pavel Klein, Tereza Blassova, Marketa Slajerova, Radek Sedlacek, Martin Bartos, Jaroslav Chlupac


Background: Clinical outcome benefits of the segment rib fracture surgical therapy are well known and follow from better stabilization of the chest wall. Despite this, some authors still incline to conservative therapy and point out to possible rib fracture healing failure in connection with the bone vascular supply disturbance caused by metal plate implantation. This suggestion met neither experimental nor clinical verification and remains the object of discussion. In our pilot study we investigated the titanium plate fixation effect on the rib fracture healing in porcine model and its histological, biomechanical and radiological aspects. Materials and Method: Two porcine models (experimental group) underwent the operative chest wall stabilization with a titanium plate implantation after osteotomy. Two other porcine models (control group) were treated conservatively after osteotomy. Three weeks after surgery, all animals were sacrificed, treated ribs were explanted and the histological analysis, µCT imaging and biomechanical testing of the calluses tissue were performed. Results: In µCT imaging, experimental group showed a higher cortical bone volume compared to the control group. Histological analysis using the non-decalcified bone tissue blocks demonstrated more maturated callus with higher newly-formed osseous tissue ratio in experimental group in comparison to controls. In contrast, no significant differences in bone blood vessels supply in both groups were observed. This finding suggests that the bone blood supply in experimental group was not impaired. Biomechanical analysis using 3-point bending test demonstrated significantly higher bending stiffness and the maximum force in experimental group. Conclusion: Based on our observation, it could be concluded, that the titanium plate fixation of the rib fractures leads to faster bone callus maturation whereas does not cause the vascular supply impairment after 3 weeks and thus has a beneficial effect on the rib fracture healing.

Keywords: bone vascular supply, chest wall stabilization, fracture healing, histological analysis, titanium plate implantation

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3 Comparison of the Toxicity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles in Murine Fibroblasts

Authors: Šárka Hradilová, Aleš Panáček, Radek Zbořil


Nanotechnologies are considered the most promising fields with high added value, brings new possibilities in various sectors from industry to medicine. With the growing of interest in nanomaterials and their applications, increasing nanoparticle production leads to increased exposure of people and environment with ‘human made’ nanoparticles. Nanoparticles (NPs) are clusters of atoms in the size range of 1–100 nm. Metal nanoparticles represent one of the most important and frequently used types of NPs due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties, which significantly differ from those of bulk material. Biological properties including toxicity of metal nanoparticles are generally determined by their size, size distribution, shape, surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry, stability in the environment and ability to release metal ions. Therefore, the biological behavior of NPs and their possible adverse effect cannot be derived from the bulk form of material because nanoparticles show unique properties and interactions with biological systems just due to their nanodimensions. Silver and gold NPs are intensively studied and used. Both can be used for instance in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a considerable number of applications of silver NPs is associated with antibacterial effects, while gold NPs are associated with cancer treatment and bio imaging. Antibacterial effects of silver ions are known for centuries. Silver ions and silver-based compounds are highly toxic to microorganisms. Toxic properties of silver NPs are intensively studied, but the mechanism of cytoxicity is not fully understood. While silver NPs are considered toxic, gold NPs are referred to as toxic but also innocuous for eukaryotic cells. Therefore, gold NPs are used in various biological applications without a risk of cell damaging, even when we want to suppress the growth of cancer cells. Thus, gold NPs are toxic or harmless. Because most studies comparing particles of various sizes prepared in various ways, and testing is performed on different cell lines, it is very difficult to generalize. The novelty and significance of our research is focused to the complex biological effects of silver and gold NPs prepared by the same method, have the same parameters and the same stabilizer. That is why we can compare the biological effects of pure nanometals themselves based on their chemical nature without the influence of other variable. Aim of our study therefore is to compare the cytotoxic effect of two types of noble metal NPs focusing on the mechanisms that contribute to cytotoxicity. The study was conducted on murine fibroblasts by selected common used tests. Each of these tests monitors the selected area related to toxicity and together provides a comprehensive view on the issue of interactions of nanoparticles and living cells.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, gold nanoparticles, mechanism of cytotoxicity, silver nanoparticles

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2 Exploring the Neural Correlates of Different Interaction Types: A Hyperscanning Investigation Using the Pattern Game

Authors: Beata Spilakova, Daniel J. Shaw, Radek Marecek, Milan Brazdil


Hyperscanning affords a unique insight into the brain dynamics underlying human interaction by simultaneously scanning two or more individuals’ brain responses while they engage in dyadic exchange. This provides an opportunity to observe dynamic brain activations in all individuals participating in interaction, and possible interbrain effects among them. The present research aims to provide an experimental paradigm for hyperscanning research capable of delineating among different forms of interaction. Specifically, the goal was to distinguish between two dimensions: (1) interaction structure (concurrent vs. turn-based) and (2) goal structure (competition vs cooperation). Dual-fMRI was used to scan 22 pairs of participants - each pair matched on gender, age, education and handedness - as they played the Pattern Game. In this simple interactive task, one player attempts to recreate a pattern of tokens while the second player must either help (cooperation) or prevent the first achieving the pattern (competition). Each pair played the game iteratively, alternating their roles every round. The game was played in two consecutive sessions: first the players took sequential turns (turn-based), but in the second session they placed their tokens concurrently (concurrent). Conventional general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed activations throughout a diffuse collection of brain regions: The cooperative condition engaged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC); in the competitive condition, significant activations were observed in frontal and prefrontal areas, insula cortices and the thalamus. Comparisons between the turn-based and concurrent conditions revealed greater precuneus engagement in the former. Interestingly, mPFC, PCC and insulae are linked repeatedly to social cognitive processes. Similarly, the thalamus is often associated with a cognitive empathy, thus its activation may reflect the need to predict the opponent’s upcoming moves. Frontal and prefrontal activation most likely represent the higher attentional and executive demands of the concurrent condition, whereby subjects must simultaneously observe their co-player and place his own tokens accordingly. The activation of precuneus in the turn-based condition may be linked to self-other distinction processes. Finally, by performing intra-pair correlations of brain responses we demonstrate condition-specific patterns of brain-to-brain coupling in mPFC and PCC. Moreover, the degree of synchronicity in these neural signals related to performance on the game. The present results, then, show that different types of interaction recruit different brain systems implicated in social cognition, and the degree of inter-player synchrony within these brain systems is related to nature of the social interaction.

Keywords: brain-to-brain coupling, hyperscanning, pattern game, social interaction

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1 Detection, Analysis and Determination of the Origin of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay (ID/DD) Patients and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Patients by Molecular and Cytogenetic Methods

Authors: Pavlina Capkova, Josef Srovnal, Vera Becvarova, Marie Trkova, Zuzana Capkova, Andrea Stefekova, Vaclava Curtisova, Alena Santava, Sarka Vejvalkova, Katerina Adamova, Radek Vodicka


ASDs are heterogeneous and complex developmental diseases with a significant genetic background. Recurrent CNVs are known to be a frequent cause of ASD. These CNVs can have, however, a variable expressivity which results in a spectrum of phenotypes from asymptomatic to ID/DD/ASD. ASD is associated with ID in ~75% individuals. Various platforms are used to detect pathogenic mutations in the genome of these patients. The performed study is focused on a determination of the frequency of pathogenic mutations in a group of ASD patients and a group of ID/DD patients using various strategies along with a comparison of their detection rate. The possible role of the origin of these mutations in aetiology of ASD was assessed. The study included 35 individuals with ASD and 68 individuals with ID/DD (64 males and 39 females in total), who underwent rigorous genetic, neurological and psychological examinations. Screening for pathogenic mutations involved karyotyping, screening for FMR1 mutations and for metabolic disorders, a targeted MLPA test with probe mixes Telomeres 3 and 5, Microdeletion 1 and 2, Autism 1, MRX and a chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) (Illumina or Affymetrix). Chromosomal aberrations were revealed in 7 (1 in the ASD group) individuals by karyotyping. FMR1 mutations were discovered in 3 (1 in the ASD group) individuals. The detection rate of pathogenic mutations in ASD patients with a normal karyotype was 15.15% by MLPA and CMA. The frequencies of the pathogenic mutations were 25.0% by MLPA and 35.0% by CMA in ID/DD patients with a normal karyotype. CNVs inherited from asymptomatic parents were more abundant than de novo changes in ASD patients (11.43% vs. 5.71%) in contrast to the ID/DD group where de novo mutations prevailed over inherited ones (26.47% vs. 16.18%). ASD patients shared more frequently their mutations with their fathers than patients from ID/DD group (8.57% vs. 1.47%). Maternally inherited mutations predominated in the ID/DD group in comparison with the ASD group (14.7% vs. 2.86 %). CNVs of an unknown significance were found in 10 patients by CMA and in 3 patients by MLPA. Although the detection rate is the highest when using CMA, recurrent CNVs can be easily detected by MLPA. CMA proved to be more efficient in the ID/DD group where a larger spectrum of rare pathogenic CNVs was revealed. This study determined that maternally inherited highly penetrant mutations and de novo mutations more often resulted in ID/DD without ASD in patients. The paternally inherited mutations could be, however, a source of the greater variability in the genome of the ASD patients and contribute to the polygenic character of the inheritance of ASD. As the number of the subjects in the group is limited, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this conclusion. Inherited CNVs have a role in aetiology of ASD possibly in combination with additional genetic factors - the mutations elsewhere in the genome. The identification of these interactions constitutes a challenge for the future. Supported by MH CZ – DRO (FNOl, 00098892), IGA UP LF_2016_010, TACR TE02000058 and NPU LO1304.

Keywords: autistic spectrum disorders, copy number variant, chromosomal microarray, intellectual disability, karyotyping, MLPA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

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