Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: bioremediation

94 Bioremediation Influence on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils

Authors: Tawar Mahmoodzadeh

Abstract:

Today soil contamination is an unavoidable issue; Irrespective of environmental impact, which happens during the soil contaminating and remediating process, the influence of this phenomenon on soil has not been searched thoroughly. In this study, unconfined compression and compaction tests were done on samples, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results show that rising in the amount of oil, cause decreased optimum water content and maximum dry density and increased strength. However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Shear Strength, compaction, oil contamination soil

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93 Implementing Bioremediation Technologies to Degrade Chemical Warfare Agents and Explosives from War Affected Regions in Sri Lanka

Authors: Elackiya Sithamparanathan

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Chemical agents used during the Sri Lankan civil war continue to threaten human and environmental health as affected areas are re-settled. Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to degrading chemical agents, and has greater public acceptance than chemical degradation. Baseline data on contaminant distribution, environmental parameters, and indigenous microbes are required before bioremediation can commence. The culture and isolate of suitable microbes and enzymes should be followed by laboratory trials, before field application and long-term monitoring of contaminant concentration, soil parameters, microbial ecology, and public health to monitor environmental and public health. As local people are not aware of the persistence of warfare chemicals and do not understand the potential impacts on human health, community awareness programs are required. Active community participation, and collaboration with international and local agencies, would contribute to the success of bioremediation and the effective removal of chemical agents in war affected areas of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environmental protection, Human Health, war affected regions in Sri Lanka

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92 Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Spore-Forming Bacteria from Oman: Potential Applications in Bioremediation

Authors: Saif N. Al-Bahry, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E. Elshafie, Ali S. Al-Bemani, Sanket J. Joshi

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Environmental pollution is a global problem and best possible solution is identifying and utilizing native microorganisms. One possible application of microbial product -biosurfactant is in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We have screened forty two different petroleum contaminated sites from Oman, for biosurfactant producing spore-forming bacterial isolates. Initial screening showed that out of 42 soil samples, three showed reduction in surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) within 24h of incubation at 40°C. Out of those 3 soil samples, one was further selected for isolation of bacteria and 14 different bacteria were isolated in pure form. Of those 14 spore-forming, rod shaped bacteria, two showed highest reduction in ST and IFT in the range of 70mN/m to < 35mN/m and 26.69mN/m to < 9mN/m, respectively within 24h. These bacterial biosurfactants may be utilized for bioremediation of oil-spills.

Keywords: Bioremediation, hydrocarbon pollution, spore-forming bacteria, bio-surfactant

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91 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar

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Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman

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90 Chromium Reduction Using Bacteria: Bioremediation Technologies

Authors: Baljeet Singh Saharan

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Bioremediation is the demand of the day. Tannery and textile effluents/waste waters have lots of pollution due to presence of hexavalent Chromium. Methodologies used in the present investigations include isolation, cultivation and purification of bacterial strain. Further characterization techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Efficient bacterial strain capable of reducing hexavalent chromium was obtained. The strain can be used for bioremediation of industrial effluents containing hexavalent Cr. A gram negative, rod shaped and yellowish pigment producing bacterial strain from tannery effluent was isolated using nutrient agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that isolate SA13A is associated with genus Luteimonas (99%). This isolate has been found to reduce 100% of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (100 mg L-1) 100% in 16 h. Growth conditions were optimized for Cr (VI) reduction. Maximum reduction was observed at a temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. Additionally, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A showed resistance against various heavy metals like Cr+6, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cd+2 . Hence, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A could be used as potent Cr (VI) reducing strain as well as significant bioremediator in heavy metal contaminated sites.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Heavy Metals, Chromium, eco-friendly

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89 Bioremediation Potentials of Some Indigenous Microorganisms Isolated from Auto Mechanic Workshops on Irrigation Water Used in Lokoja Kogi State of Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ekpa, Adaji Andrew, Queen Opaluwa, Isreal Daraobong

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Three (3) indigenous bacteria species (Bacillus spp, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp) previously isolated from contaminated soil of some auto mechanic workshops were used for bioremediation studies on some irrigation water used at Sarkin-noma Fadama farms located in Lokoja Kogi State, Nigeria. This was done in order to investigate their bioremediation potentials using a simple pour plate method. The physicochemical parameters and heavy metal analysis (using AAS iCE 3000) of the irrigation water were performed before and after inoculation of the isolated organisms. Nitrate and phosphate concentration were found to be 10.56mg/L and 12.63mg/L prior to inoculation while iron and zinc were 0.9569mg/L and 0.2245mg/L respectively. Other physicochemical parameters were also observed to be high prior to inoculation. After the bioremediation test (inoculation with the isolated organisms), a nitrate and phosphate content of 2.53mg/L and 2.61mg/L were recorded respectively, iron and zinc gave 0.1694mg/L and 0.0174mg/L concentrations while other physicochemical parameters measured were also found to be lower in their respective values. The implication of this present study is that a number of carefully isolated indigenous bacteria species are capable of reducing the amount of heavy metal concentrations in water. Also, non-metallic contaminants like nitrate and phosphate are susceptible to bioremediation in the presence of such efficient system.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Heavy Metals, Bacillus spp, AAS, physicochemical parameters, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp, spectrometer 3000

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88 Production, Optimization, Characterization, and Kinetics of a Partially Purified Laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Its Application in Swift Bioremediation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Ankita Kushwaha, M. P. Singh

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Background: In the present investigation the efficiency of laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) from Pleurotus citrinopileatus was assessed for the decolorization of azo dyes. Aim: Enzyme production, characterization and kinetics of a partially purified laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus were determined for its application in bioremediation of azo dyes. Methods & Results: Laccase has been partially purified by using 80% ammonium sulphate solution. Total activity, total protein, specific activity and purification fold for partially purified laccase were found to be 40.38U, 293.33mg/100ml, 0.91U/mg and 2.84, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of laccase were 5.0 and 50ºC, respectively, while the enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 and temperature 30ºC when exposed for one hour. The Km of the partially purified laccase for substrates guaiacol, DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringaldazine (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine) were 60, 95 and 26, respectively. This laccase has been tested for the use in the bioremediation of azo dyes in the absence of mediator molecules. Two dyes namely congo red and bromophenol blue were tested. Discussion: It was observed that laccase enzyme was very effective in the decolorization of these two dyes. More than 80% decolorization was observed within half an hour even in the absence of mediator and their lower Km value indicates that efficiency of the enzyme is very high. The results were promising due to quicker decolorization in the absence of mediators showing that it can be used as a valuable biocatalyst for quick bioremediation of azo dyes. Conclusion: The enzymatic properties of laccase from P. citrinopileatus should be considered for a potential environmental (biodegradation and bioremediation) or industrial applications.

Keywords: decolorization, laccase, azo dyes, P.citrinopileatus

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87 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello

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Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Pollution, enzyme, Bacteria, spent engine oil, mechanic workshop

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86 Potential of Ozonation and Phytoremediation to Reduce Hydrocarbon Levels Remaining after the Pilot Scale Microbial Based Bioremediation (Land-Farming) of a Heavily Polluted Soil

Authors: Hakima Althalb

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Petroleum contamination of sandy soils is a severe environmental problem in Libya, but relatively little work has been carried out to optimize the bioremediation of such heavily contaminated soil, particularly at a pilot scale. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for the microbial-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil obtained from an oil refinery in Libya and to assess the potential of both ozonation and phytoremediation (both applied after initial bioremediation) to reduce residual hydrocarbon levels. Plots containing 500 kg soil (triplicates) (contaminated soil diluted with clean soil 50% volume) were set up, (designated as Land Treatment Units; LTUs) containing five different nutrient levels and mixtures (Urea + NPK (nitrogen; phosphor; potassium) mixtures) to obtain C:N:P ratios 100:10:1, and monitored for 90 days. Hydrocarbon levels, microbial numbers, and toxicity (EC50 using luminescent microbial based tests) were assessed. Hydrocarbon levels in non-diluted and diluted soil ranged from 20 733-22 366 mg/kg and from 16 000-17 000 mg/kg respectively. Although all the land treatment units revealed a significant hydrocarbon reduction over time, the highest reduction in hydrocarbon levels obtained was around 60%. For example, 63% hydrocarbon removal was observed using a mixture of urea and NPK with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1). Soil toxicity (as assessed using luminescence based toxicity assays) reduced in line with the reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons observed. However, as relatively high residual TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) levels (ranging from 6033-14166mg/kg) were still present after initial bioremediation two ‘post-treatments’ (phytoremediation and ozonation) were attempted to remove residual hydrocarbons remaining. Five locally grown (agriculturally important) plant species were tested. The germination of all plants examined was strongly inhibited (80-100%) and seedlings failed to grow well in the contaminated soil, indicating that the previously bioremediated soils were still toxic to the plants. Subsequent ozonation followed by another bioremediation of soil was more successful than phytoremediation. But even the most promising successful treatment in this study (ozonation for 6 hours at 25ppm followed by bioremediation) still only removed approximately 31% of the residual hydrocarbons. Overall, this work showed that the bioremediation of such highly contaminated soils is difficult and that a combination of treatments would be required to achieve successful remediation. Even after initial dilution and bioremediation the soils remained toxic to plant growth and were therefore not suitable for phytoremediation.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, ozone

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85 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur

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The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environment, Dyes, cultural growth

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84 Bioremediation Effect on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils

Authors: Samira Abbaspour

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Soil contamination by oil industry is unavoidable issue; irrespective of environmental impact, which occurs during the process of soil contaminating and remediating. Effect of this phenomenon on the geotechnical properties of the soil has not been investigated thoroughly. Some researchers studied the environmental aspects of these phenomena more than geotechnical point of view. In this research, compaction and unconfined compression tests were conducted on samples of natural, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results manifest that increasing the amount of crude oil, leads to decreased values of maximum dry density and optimum water content and increased values of unconfined compression strength (UCS). However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent. Foremost, as bioremediation takes place, values of maximum dry density, unconfined compression strength and failure strain increase.

Keywords: Contamination, Shear Strength, compaction, oil contamination

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83 Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon and Some Heavy Metal Polluted Wastewater Effluent of a Typical Refinery

Authors: S. Abdulsalam, A. D. I. Suleiman, N. M. Musa, M. Yusuf

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Environment free of pollutants should be the concern of every individual but with industrialization and urbanization it is difficult to achieve. In view of achieving a pollution limited environment at low cost, a study was conducted on the use of bioremediation technology to remediate hydrocarbons and three heavy metals namely; copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) from a typical petroleum refinery wastewater in a closed system. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics on the wastewater sample revealed that it was polluted with the aforementioned pollutants. Isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the wastewater sample revealed the presence of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bioremediation experiments carried out on five batch reactors with different compositions but at same environmental conditions revealed that treatment T5 (boosted with the association of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) gave the best result in terms of oil and grease content removal (i.e. 67% in 63 days). In addition, these microorganisms were able of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in the sample. Treatments T5, T3 (boosted with Bacillus subtilis only) and T4 (boosted with Micrococcus luteus only) gave optimum percentage uptakes of 65, 75 and 25 for Cu, Zn and Fe respectively.

Keywords: Bioremediation, wastewater, uptake, aeration, boosted, closed system

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82 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo

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In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bioprocess, Copper, biosorption

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81 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

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Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: Site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment/bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance/quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water were observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: Bioremediation, contaminated sediment, land farming, oily sludge, oil terminal

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80 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan

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The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: Bioremediation, toluene, pseudomonas putida, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX

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79 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes

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The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthemore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the bio-degradation, up to 40.5 % of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, mobilization, fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant

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78 Potential Use of Spore-Forming Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in Oil-Pollution Bioremediation

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. J. Joshi, E. A. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bimani

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Oman is one of the oil producing countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf region. About 30-40 % of oil produced from the Gulf is transported globally along the seacoast of Oman. Oil pollution from normal tanker operations, ballast water, illegal discharges and accidental spills are always serious threats to terrestrial and marine habitats. Due to Oman’s geographical location at arid region where the temperature ranges between high 40s and low 50s Celsius in summers with low annual rainfall, the main source of fresh water is desalinated sea and brackish water. Oil pollution, therefore, pose a major threat to drinking water. Biosurfactants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms in hydrophobic environments to release nutrients from solid surfaces, such as oil. In this study, indigenous oil degrading thermophilic spore forming bacteria were isolated from oil fields contaminated soil. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF biotyper and 16s RNA. Their growth conditions were optimized for the production of biosurfactant. Surface tension, interfacial tensions and microbial oil biodegradation capabilities were tested. Some thermophilic bacteria degraded either completely or partially heavy crude oil (API 10-15) within 48h suggesting their high potential in oil spill bioremediation and avoiding the commonly used physical and chemical methods which usually lead to other environmental pollution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bacteria, biosurfactant, crude-oil-pollution

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77 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka

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Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, hydrocarbon contamination

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76 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

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Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: phenanthrene, consortia, acinetobacter sp. P3d, bacillus sp. P4a, pseudomonas sp. P6

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
75 Bioremediation of Paper Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Bacterial and Fungal Strain and Optimizing the Effect of Carbon Source

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

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Bioremediation has been recognized as an environment friendly and less expensive method which involves the natural processes resulting in the efficient conversion of hazardous compounds into innocuous products. The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluents amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin, and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem we present this paper with some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of paper mill effluents. In the present study we utilized the consortia of fungal and bacterial strain and the treatment named as C1, C2, and C3 for the decolourization of paper mill effluent. During the study, role of carbon source i.e. glucose was studied for decolourization. From the results it was observed that a maximum colour reduction of 66.9%, COD reduction of 51.8%, TSS reduction of 0.34%, TDS reduction of 0.29% and pH changes of 4.2 is achieved by consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data indicated that consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is giving better result with glucose.

Keywords: Bioremediation, decolourization, black liquor, mycoremediation

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74 Effects of the Type of Soil on the Efficiency of a Bioremediation Dispositive by Using Bacterium Hydrocarbonoclastes

Authors: Amel Bouderhem, Aminata Ould El Hadj Khelil, Amina N. Djrarbaoui, Aroussi Aroussi

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The present work aims to find the influence of the nature of the soil on the effectiveness of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons by a mixture of bacterial strains hydrocarbonoclastes. Processes of bioaugmentation and biostimulation trial are applied to samples of soils polluted voluntarily by the crude oil. For the evaluation of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, the bacterial load, the pH and organic carbon total are followed in the different experimental batches. He bacterial load of the sandy soil varies among the witnesses of 45,2 .108 CFU/ml at the beginning of the experimentation to 214,07.108 CFU/ml at the end of the experiment. Of the soil silty-clay varies between 103,31 .108 CFU/ml and 614,86.108 CFU/ml . It was found a strong increase in the bacterial biomass during the processing of all samples. This increase is more important in the samples of sand bioaugmente or biomass increased from 63.16 .108 CFU/ml to 309.68 .108 CFU/ml than in soil samples silty clay- bioaugmente whose content in bacteria evolved of 73,01 .108 CFU/ml to 631.80 . 108CFU/ml

Keywords: Bioremediation, Pollution, Hydrocarbons, Texture, ground, bacteria hydrocarbonoclastes

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73 Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.

Authors: Ahmed M. Haddad, Hadeel S. El-Shaal, Gadallah M. Abu-Elreesh

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Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Lipids, Biodiesel, Heavy Metals, Fungi, oleaginous

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72 Bioremediation of Arsenic from Industrially Polluted Soil of Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Authors: C. Makwana, S. R. Dave

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Arsenic is toxic to almost all living cells. Its contamination in natural sources affects the growth of microorganisms. The presence of arsenic is associated with various human disorders also. The attempt of this sort of study provides information regarding the performance of our isolated microorganisms in the presence of Arsenic, which have ample scope for bioremediation. Six isolates were selected from the polluted sample of industrial zone Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, out of which two were Thermophilic organisms. The thermophilic exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Bacillus was used for microbial enhance oil recovery (MEOR) and in the bio beneficiation. Inorganic arsenic primarily exists in the form of arsenate or arsenite. This arsenic resistance isolate was capable of transforming As +3 to As+5. This isolate would be useful for arsenic remediation standpoint from aquatic systems. The study revealed that the thermophilic microorganism was growing at 55 degree centigrade showed considerable remediation property. The results on the growth and enzyme catalysis would be discussed in response to Arsenic remediation.

Keywords: Arsenic, thermophilic, aquatic systems, exopolysacchride

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71 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Fermentation, Dyes, laccase

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70 Application of Phenol Degrading Microorganisms for the Treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW)

Authors: M. A. El-Khateeb

Abstract:

The growth of the olive oil production in Saudi Arabia peculiarly in Al Jouf region in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the discharge of associated processing waste. Olive mill waste is produced throughout the extraction of oil from the olive fruit using the traditional mill and press process. Deterioration of the environment due to olive mill disposal wastes is a serious problem. When olive mill waste disposed into the soil, it affects soil quality, soil micro flora, and also toxic to plants. The aim of this work is to isolate microorganism (bacterial or fungal strains) from OMW capable of degrading phenols. Olive mill wastewater, olive mill waste and soil (beside oil production mill) contaminated with olive waste were used for isolation of phenol tolerant microorganisms. Four strains (two fungal and two bacterial) were isolated from olive mill waste. The isolated strains were Candida tropicalis and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (fungal strains) and Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. (bacterial strains). These strains were able to degrade phenols and could be used for bioremediation of olive mill waste.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bacteria, Fungi, Sakaka

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69 Multi-Criteria Optimal Management Strategy for in-situ Bioremediation of LNAPL Contaminated Aquifer Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Jahangeer, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Shashi Mathur

Abstract:

In-situ remediation is a technique which can remediate either surface or groundwater at the site of contamination. In the present study, simulation optimization approach has been used to develop management strategy for remediating LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) contaminated aquifers. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene are the main component of LNAPL contaminant. Collectively, these contaminants are known as BTEX. In in-situ bioremediation process, a set of injection and extraction wells are installed. Injection wells supply oxygen and other nutrient which convert BTEX into carbon dioxide and water with the help of indigenous soil bacteria. On the other hand, extraction wells check the movement of plume along downstream. In this study, optimal design of the system has been done using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm. A comprehensive management strategy for pumping of injection and extraction wells has been done to attain a maximum allowable concentration of 5 ppm and 4.5 ppm. The management strategy comprises determination of pumping rates, the total pumping volume and the total running cost incurred for each potential injection and extraction well. The results indicate a high pumping rate for injection wells during the initial management period since it facilitates the availability of oxygen and other nutrients necessary for biodegradation, however it is low during the third year on account of sufficient oxygen availability. This is because the contaminant is assumed to have biodegraded by the end of the third year when the concentration drops to a permissible level.

Keywords: Groundwater, Particle Swarm Optimization, BTEX, in-situ bioremediation, light non-aqueous phase liquid

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68 Combined Use of Microbial Consortia for the Enhanced Degradation of Type-IIx Pyrethroids

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Chandrajit B. Majumder

Abstract:

The unrestrained usage of pesticides to meet the burgeoning demand of enhanced crop productivity has led to the serious contamination of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of mixture of pesticides is a challenging affair regarding inadvertent mixture of pesticides from agricultural lands treated with various compounds. Global concerns about the excessive use of pesticides have driven the need to develop more effective and safer alternatives for their remediation. We focused our work on the microbial degradation of a mixture of three Type II-pyrethroids, namely Cypermethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin commonly applied for both agricultural and domestic purposes. The fungal strains (Fusarium strain 8-11P and Fusarium sp. zzz1124) had previously been isolated from agricultural soils and their ability to biotransform this amalgam was studied. In brief, the experiment was conducted in two growth systems (added carbon and carbon-free) enriched with variable concentrations of pyrethroids between 100 to 300 mgL⁻¹. Parameter optimization (pH, temperature, concentration and time) was done using a central composite design matrix of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). At concentrations below 200 mgL⁻¹, complete removal was observed; however, degradation of 95.6%/97.4 and 92.27%/95.65% (in carbon-free/added carbon) was observed for 250 and 300 mgL⁻¹ respectively. The consortium has been shown to degrade the pyrethroid mixture (300 mg L⁻¹) within 120 h. After 5 day incubation, the residual pyrethroids concentration in unsterilized soil were much lower than in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation predominates in pyrethroids elimination with the half-life (t₁/₂) of 1.6 d and R² ranging from 0.992-0.999. Overall, these results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains. The findings will complement our current understanding of the bioremediation of mixture of Type II pyrethroids with microbial consortia and potentially heighten the importance for considering bioremediation as an effective alternative for the remediation of such pollutants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Fungi, pyrethroids

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67 Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene

Authors: Jian Peng, Wenhui Xiong, Zheng Lu

Abstract:

An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.

Keywords: Benzene, enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, stable isotope probing, biosep biotrap

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66 Soil Bioremediation Monitoring Systems Powered by Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: András Fülöp, Lejla Heilmann, Zsolt Szabó, Ákos Koós

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present a sustainable biotechnological solution to future energy demands. The aim of this study was to construct soil based, single cell, membrane-less MFC systems, operated without treatment to continuously power on-site monitoring and control systems during the soil bioremediation processes. Our Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 isolate is an ideal choice for MFCs, because it is able to produce pyocyanin which behaves as electron-shuttle molecule, furthermore, it also has a significant antimicrobial effect. We tested several materials and structural configurations to obtain long term high power output. Comparing different configurations, a proton exchange membrane-less, 0.6 m long with 0.05 m diameter MFC tubes offered the best long-term performances. The long-term electricity production were tested from starch, yeast extract (YE), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with humic acid (HA) as a mediator. In all cases, 3 kΩ external load have been used. The two best-operated systems were the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 containing MFCs with 1 % carboxymethyl cellulose and the MFCs with 1% yeast extract in the anode area and 35% hydrogel in the cathode chamber. The first had 3.3 ± 0.033 mW/m2 and the second had 4.1 ± 0.065 mW/m2 power density values. These systems have operated for 230 days without any treatment. The addition of 0.2 % HA and 1 % YE referred to the volume of the anode area resulted in 1.4 ± 0.035 mW/m2 power densities. The mixture of 1% starch with 0.2 % HA gave 1.82 ± 0.031 mW/m2. Using CMC as retard carbon source takes effect in the long-term bacterial survivor, thus enable the expression of the long term power output. The application of hydrogels in the cathode chamber significantly increased the performance of the MFC units due to their good water retention capacity.

Keywords: Bioremediation, microbial fuel cell, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biotechnological solution

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65 A Review on Bioremediation of Waste Effluent Associated with Pulp and Paper Industry

Authors: Adamu Muhammed Tukur

Abstract:

Pulp and paper industry is one of the fastest growing industries due to an increased demand in paper products. For it to satisfy this ever increasing demand, it adopts new technological innovations some of which are proved to affect our environment negatively. Global consumption of paper has increased by 400% in the last four decades and this suggests that more research is required to assess the impact of industrial effluents to our environment and public health. Paper products are generally biodegradable, however, the processes involved in its production which involve the use of mainly bleaching agents and other non-biodegradable substances pose serious problem to the environment. There are more than 250 chemicals released in paper mill waste and some are xenobiotics. Different methods such as physical and chemical methods can be adopted for the remediation of the effluents but are proved to be costly and not safe to the environment. On the other hand, biological method is shown to be less costly and environmentally friendly. Microorganisms and their enzymes have shown a promising future for bioremediation of effluents related to paper mill. Many studies prove that one of the major pollutants in the paper mill effluent is phenol especially its chlorinated derivatives. Pentachlorophenol is extremely hazardous to living cells and therefore need to be removed from the environment. Microorganisms including bacteria and fungi have the potential to degrade phenolic compounds e.g. Bacillus stearothermiphilus, Pseudomonas putida, Coricus versicolor, Sphingomonas chlorophenolica, Fusarium sp, Bacillus subtilis and P. aeroginosa. Enzymes used for the degradation include phenol hydrooxylase, polyphenoloxylase, laccase, peroxidase among others. Lignin is another important pollutant and is resistant to microbial degradation but it has been proved that certain bacteria and fungi like can degrade it. Among the fungi white-rot fungi like Fomes lividus and Trametes vesicolor are the most important bioremediators. This review focused on use of microorganism to reduce or eradicate pollutants released from the paper industry. It can serve as a review for further research to be conducted especially in the field of Biotechnology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environment, pulp and paper, pentachlorophenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 217