Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Ankita Kushwaha

31 Production, Optimization, Characterization, and Kinetics of a Partially Purified Laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Its Application in Swift Bioremediation of Azo Dyes

Authors: M. P. Singh, Ankita Kushwaha

Abstract:

Background: In the present investigation the efficiency of laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) from Pleurotus citrinopileatus was assessed for the decolorization of azo dyes. Aim: Enzyme production, characterization and kinetics of a partially purified laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus were determined for its application in bioremediation of azo dyes. Methods & Results: Laccase has been partially purified by using 80% ammonium sulphate solution. Total activity, total protein, specific activity and purification fold for partially purified laccase were found to be 40.38U, 293.33mg/100ml, 0.91U/mg and 2.84, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of laccase were 5.0 and 50ºC, respectively, while the enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 and temperature 30ºC when exposed for one hour. The Km of the partially purified laccase for substrates guaiacol, DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringaldazine (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine) were 60, 95 and 26, respectively. This laccase has been tested for the use in the bioremediation of azo dyes in the absence of mediator molecules. Two dyes namely congo red and bromophenol blue were tested. Discussion: It was observed that laccase enzyme was very effective in the decolorization of these two dyes. More than 80% decolorization was observed within half an hour even in the absence of mediator and their lower Km value indicates that efficiency of the enzyme is very high. The results were promising due to quicker decolorization in the absence of mediators showing that it can be used as a valuable biocatalyst for quick bioremediation of azo dyes. Conclusion: The enzymatic properties of laccase from P. citrinopileatus should be considered for a potential environmental (biodegradation and bioremediation) or industrial applications.

Keywords: decolorization, laccase, azo dyes, P.citrinopileatus

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30 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

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The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young's modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Bending, stress concentration, circular hole, FGM plate

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29 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Santosh Kumar Sahu, Hari Mohan Kushwaha

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In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

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28 Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India

Authors: Shivam Kushwaha, Veena Bansal

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Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.

Keywords: Tourism, timeshare, holiday, customer perception, intent to use, Indian tourism

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27 Artificial Reproduction System and Imbalanced Dataset: A Mendelian Classification

Authors: Anita Kushwaha

Abstract:

We propose a new evolutionary computational model called Artificial Reproduction System which is based on the complex process of meiotic reproduction occurring between male and female cells of the living organisms. Artificial Reproduction System is an attempt towards a new computational intelligence approach inspired by the theoretical reproduction mechanism, observed reproduction functions, principles and mechanisms. A reproductive organism is programmed by genes and can be viewed as an automaton, mapping and reducing so as to create copies of those genes in its off springs. In Artificial Reproduction System, the binding mechanism between male and female cells is studied, parameters are chosen and a network is constructed also a feedback system for self regularization is established. The model then applies Mendel’s law of inheritance, allele-allele associations and can be used to perform data analysis of imbalanced data, multivariate, multiclass and big data. In the experimental study Artificial Reproduction System is compared with other state of the art classifiers like SVM, Radial Basis Function, neural networks, K-Nearest Neighbor for some benchmark datasets and comparison results indicates a good performance.

Keywords: Data Mining, Natural Computing, bio-inspired computation, nature- inspired computation

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26 Virtual Computing Lab for Phonics Development among Deaf Students

Authors: Ankita R. Bansal, Naren S. Burade

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Idea is to create a cloud based virtual lab for Deaf Students, “A language acquisition program using Visual Phonics and Cued Speech” using VMware Virtual Lab. This lab will demonstrate students the sounds of letters associated with the Language, building letter blocks, making words, etc Virtual labs are used for demos, training, for the Lingual development of children in their vernacular language. The main potential benefits are reduced labour and hardware costs, faster response times to users. Virtual Computing Labs allows any of the software as a service solutions, virtualization solutions, and terminal services solutions available today to offer as a service on demand, where a single instance of the software runs on the cloud and services multiple end users. VMWare, XEN, MS Virtual Server, Virtuoso, and Citrix are typical examples.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, visual phonics, vernacular language, cued speech, virtual lab

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25 Difference Expansion Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Edge Directions

Authors: Toshanlal Meenpal, Ankita Meenpal

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A very important technique in reversible data hiding field is Difference expansion. Secret message as well as the cover image may be completely recovered without any distortion after data extraction process due to reversibility feature. In general, in any difference expansion scheme embedding is performed by integer transform in the difference image acquired by grouping two neighboring pixel values. This paper proposes an improved reversible difference expansion embedding scheme. We mainly consider edge direction for embedding by modifying the difference of two neighboring pixels values. In general, the larger difference tends to bring a degraded stego image quality than the smaller difference. Image quality in the range of 0.5 to 3.7 dB in average is achieved by the proposed scheme, which is shown through the experimental results. However payload wise it achieves almost similar capacity in comparisons with previous method.

Keywords: Information Hiding, wedge direction, difference expansion, integer transform

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24 Pathway and Differential Gene Expression Studies for Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ankita Shukla, Tiratha Raj Singh

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) imposes serious mortality burden worldwide and it has been increasing for past consecutive years. Continuous efforts have been made so far to diagnose the disease condition and to identify the root cause for it. In this study, we performed the pathway level as well as the differential gene expression studies for CRC. We analyzed the gene expression profile GSE24514 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) along with the gene pathways involved in the CRC. This analysis helps us to understand the behavior of the genes that have shown differential expression through their targeted pathways. Pathway analysis for the targeted genes covers the wider area which therefore decreases the possibility to miss the significant ones. This will prove to be beneficial to expose the ones that have not been given attention so far. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the various neighboring genes that have close relationship to the targeted one and thus proved to be significantly controlling the CRC. It is anticipated that the identified hub and neighboring genes will provide new directions to look at the pathway level differently and will be crucial for the regulatory processes of the disease.

Keywords: Carcinogenesis, morbidity, mismatch repair, microsatellite instability

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23 'Wandering Uterus': An Analogy of Perception of Women in Hippocratic Corpus and Post-Modern Times

Authors: Ankita Sharma

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The study proposes to review the perception of women in the Classical Age (500-336 BC) when Greek Philosophy was in bloom. It was observed that women had very few rights and were still under the control of men. One of the possible reasons for this exclusion was woman’s biology that had a huge influence on her being seen as inferior to men. The text ‘Hippocratic Corpus’ focuses on the biological construct of the female body in classical Greek science that perpetuated the idea of women as second-class citizens and were considered inherently weaker than men. The research highlights the significance of the text that was used to encourage women of that time to get married and produce children and how till today the perception remains the same. The Greek belief of need for confinement and control of 'wandering uterus' has led to superior understanding of men. The pivotal emphasis of this research is to women and their bodies that are depicted in a misogynistic way which paved the way for Hippocratic writers to influence the society’s attitude towards women in their writings. It is intended to draw attention to the prevailing cultural assumptions and preconceived notions about female anatomy that had a pervasive influence in the following centuries with its roots being in ancient science.

Keywords: Women, classical Greek theory, wandering womb, modern ideology

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22 Socio-Economic Inequality in Breastfeeding Patterns in India

Authors: Ankita Shukla

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The promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority with benefits for maternal and infant health, especially in low income and middle-income countries where the probability of child survival is still very low. In India too it has been well established that breastfeeding increases the survival of the child. However, the breastfeeding levels are quite low in the country. Examining the socio-economic inequality in breastfeeding pattern can help to the causal pathways responsible for early breastfeeding termination. This paper tries to understand the socio-economic differential in breastfeeding patterns among Indian women. Data is used from nationally representative National Family Health Survey-3. Using Cox regression modelling techniques, the analysis found that the likelihood of having small breastfeeding duration increased with increasing household wealth status similarly education also has negative effect on breastfeeding duration. The considerable gender difference is also visible in India, likelihood of stopping breastfeeding was significantly higher among female children compared with male children. To understand the cultural factors or norms responsible for the early termination of breastfeeding more in depth/qualitative studies are needed.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, India, women education, socio-economic inequality

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21 Sensitivity Enhancement in Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, Angad S. Kushwaha, Monika Srivastava

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A lot of research work is going on in the field of graphene based SPR biosensor. In the conventional SPR based biosensor, graphene is used as a biomolecular recognition element. Graphene adsorbs biomolecules due to carbon based ring structure through sp2 hybridization. The proposed SPR based biosensor configuration will open a new avenue for efficient biosensing by taking the advantage of Graphene and its fascinating nanofabrication properties. In the present study, we have studied an SPR biosensor based on graphene mediated by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Gold. In the proposed structure, prism (BK7) base is coated with Zinc Oxide followed by Gold and Graphene. Using the waveguide approach by transfer matrix method, the proposed structure has been investigated theoretically. We have analyzed the reflectance versus incidence angle curve using He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. Angle, at which the reflectance is minimized, termed as SPR angle. The shift in SPR angle is responsible for biosensing. From the analysis of reflectivity curve, we have found that there is a shift in SPR angle as the biomolecules get attached on the graphene surface. This graphene layer also enhances the sensitivity of the SPR sensor as compare to the conventional sensor. The sensitivity also increases by increasing the no of graphene layer. So in our proposed biosensor we have found minimum possible reflectivity with optimum level of sensitivity.

Keywords: Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Sensitivity, transfer matrix method

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20 Choice of Landscape Elements for Residents' Quality of Life Living in Apartment Housing: Case Study of Bhopal, India

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Yogesh K. Garg

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Housing provides comforts and well being leading towards the quality of life. Earlier research had established that landscape elements enhance the residents’ quality of life through its significant experiences occur due to their presence in the housing. This paper tries to identify the preference of landscape elements that enhance residents’ quality of life living in the apartment. Hence, landscape elements that can be planned in the open spaces of housing and quality of life components were identified from the secondary data sources. Experts’ were asked to identify the quality of life components with respect to landscape elements. A questionnaire survey of residents’ living in the apartment housing in Bhopal, India was conducted. The statistical analysis of survey data facilitated to explore the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life in the apartment housing. The final ranking compiled from the experts’ opinion, residents’ perception as well as factor analysis results to have an insight of the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life living in the apartment. Preference of landscape elements present in the paper may provide an overview of planning for apartment housing that may be used by architects, planners and developers for enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords: Housing, Quality of Life, residents, landscape elements

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19 Homology Modelling of Beta Defensin 3 of Bos taurus and Its Docking Studies with Molecules Responsible for Formation of Biofilm

Authors: RAVINDER SINGH, Ankita Gurao, Saroj Bandhan, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap

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The Bos taurus Beta defensin 3 is a defensin peptide secreted by neutrophils and epithelial that exhibits anti-microbial activity. It is one of the crucial components forming an innate defense against intra mammary infections in livestock. The beta defensin 3 by virtue of its anti-microbial activity inhibits major mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa etc, which are also responsible for biofilm formation leading to antibiotic resistance phenomenon. Therefore, the defensin may prove as a non-conventional option to treat mastitis. In this study, computational analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species and homology modeling of Bos taurus beta defensin 3 protein. The assessments of protein structure were done using the protein structure and model assessment tools integrated in Swiss Model server, which employs various local and global quality evaluation parameters. Further, molecular docking was also carried out between the defensin peptide and the components of biofilm to gain insight into various interactions and structural differences crucial for functionality of this protein.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, docking, beta defensin 3, bos taurus

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18 Pharmacovigilance: An Empowerment in Safe Utilization of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Bimlesh Kumar, Pankaj Prashar, Ankita Sood, Anamika Gautam

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Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a rapidly growing discipline in pharmaceutical industries as an integral part of clinical research and drug development over the past few decades. PV carries a breadth of scope from drug manufacturing to its regulation with safer utilization. The fundamental steps of PV not only includes data collection and verification, coding of drugs with adverse drug reactions, causality assessment and timely reporting to the authorities but also monitoring drug manufacturing, safety issues, product quality and conduction of due diligence. Standardization of adverse event information, collaboration of multiple departments in different companies, preparation of documents in accordance to both governmental as well as non-governmental organizations (FDA, EMA, GVP, ICH) are the advancements in discipline of PV. De-harmonization, lack of predictive drug safety models, improper funding by government, non-reporting, and non-acceptability of ADRs by developing countries and reports directly from patients to the monitoring centres respectively are the major road backs of PV. Mandatory pharmacovigilance reporting, frequent inspections, funding by government, educating and training medical students, pharmacists and nurses in this segment can bring about empowerment in PV. This area needs to be addressed with a sense of urgency for the safe utilization of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Regulatory, Drug Safety, Pharmacovigilance, Adverse event

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17 Providing a Secure, Reliable and Decentralized Document Management Solution Using Blockchain by a Virtual Identity Card

Authors: Meet Shah, Ankita Aditya, Dhruv Bindra, V. S. Omkar, Aashruti Seervi

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In today's world, we need documents everywhere for a smooth workflow in the identification process or any other security aspects. The current system and techniques which are used for identification need one thing, that is ‘proof of existence’, which involves valid documents, for example, educational, financial, etc. The main issue with the current identity access management system and digital identification process is that the system is centralized in their network, which makes it inefficient. The paper presents the system which resolves all these cited issues. It is based on ‘blockchain’ technology, which is a 'decentralized system'. It allows transactions in a decentralized and immutable manner. The primary notion of the model is to ‘have everything with nothing’. It involves inter-linking required documents of a person with a single identity card so that a person can go anywhere without having the required documents with him/her. The person just needs to be physically present at a place wherein documents are necessary, and using a fingerprint impression and an iris scan print, the rest of the verification will progress. Furthermore, some technical overheads and advancements are listed. This paper also aims to layout its far-vision scenario of blockchain and its impact on future trends.

Keywords: Identity Management, Blockchain, decentralized system, fingerprint impression, iris scan

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16 Synthesis of Green Silver Nanoparticles with Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Characterization

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ankita Thakur

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Glycyrrhiza glabra grows in the sub- tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, in Mediterranean countries and China, America, Europe, Asia and Australia. It grows in areas with sunny, dry and hot climates. It has numerous medicinal properties like it is used to cure Peptic Ulcers, Canker sores, Eczema, Indigestion and Upper Respiratory Infections. Biosynthetic methods such as plant extract have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silver nanoparticles synthesis. In the present work, Green Silver nanoparticles were successfully formulated from bioreduction of silver nitrate solutions using Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. These Green Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized using Visible spectroscopy, colour change. The Antimicrobial activity was done by Agar disc diffusion assay. AgNPs were developed by using aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The green synthetic method is a fast, low cost and eco-friendly process in the field of nanotechnology. The study revealed that the green-synthesized silver nanoparticle provides a promising approach for antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract, Glycyrrhiza glabra

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15 A Comparative Study of Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique in Treatment of Patients with Upper Trapezius Spasm

Authors: Daxa Mishra, R. Harihara, Ankita

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Trapezius muscle pain is the most common musculoskeletal disorder occurring in individuals who work with awkward positions, have repetitive movements and movements with precision demands. Treatment techniques like active release technique (ART) and myofascial release (MFR) can be used to relieve muscle spasm. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of ART and MFR on the upper trapezius muscle spasm. Methodology: A series of 60 patients of both sexes between the age group of 20 and 55 with upper trapezius spasm were divided into two groups by computerized randomization. Subjects in each group received treatment in the form of either ART or MFR for the period of seven days. cervical range of motion (ROM), neck disability index scale (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) tools were used to measure the outcome. Results: Paired Sample ‘t’ test was used to compare the Outcome differences within each group, while Independent ‘t’ test was used to compare the differences between the two groups for the same outcome measures. The improvement was found in both the groups at 7th day following intervention, but the group which received ART showed significant improvements as compared to group which received MFR. Conclusion: Although both techniques are effective in alleviation of symptoms and associated disability in upper trapezius muscle spasm, ART gave better results as compared to MRF.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, myofascial release, goniometer, active release

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14 Assessing Significance of Correlation with Binomial Distribution

Authors: Jitendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar Singh, Pooja Kushwaha, Prabhat Ranjan, Krishna Kumar Ojha

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Present day high-throughput genomic technologies, NGS/microarrays, are producing large volume of data that require improved analysis methods to make sense of the data. The correlation between genes and samples has been regularly used to gain insight into many biological phenomena including, but not limited to, co-expression/co-regulation, gene regulatory networks, clustering and pattern identification. However, presence of outliers and violation of assumptions underlying Pearson correlation is frequent and may distort the actual correlation between the genes and lead to spurious conclusions. Here, we report a method to measure the strength of association between genes. The method assumes that the expression values of a gene are Bernoulli random variables whose outcome depends on the sample being probed. The method considers the two genes as uncorrelated if the number of sample with same outcome for both the genes (Ns) is equal to certainly expected number (Es). The extent of correlation depends on how far Ns can deviate from the Es. The method does not assume normality for the parent population, fairly unaffected by the presence of outliers, can be applied to qualitative data and it uses the binomial distribution to assess the significance of association. At this stage, we would not claim about the superiority of the method over other existing correlation methods, but our method could be another way of calculating correlation in addition to existing methods. The method uses binomial distribution, which has not been used until yet, to assess the significance of association between two variables. We are evaluating the performance of our method on NGS/microarray data, which is noisy and pierce by the outliers, to see if our method can differentiate between spurious and actual correlation. While working with the method, it has not escaped our notice that the method could also be generalized to measure the association of more than two variables which has been proven difficult with the existing methods.

Keywords: correlation, Transcriptome, Microarray, outliers, binomial distribution

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13 Real-Time Gesture Recognition System Using Microsoft Kinect

Authors: Parteek Kumar, Umesh Kumar, Ankita Wadhawan

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Gesture is any body movement that expresses some attitude or any sentiment. Gestures as a sign language are used by deaf people for conveying messages which helps in eliminating the communication barrier between deaf people and normal persons. Nowadays, everybody is using mobile phone and computer as a very important gadget in their life. But there are some physically challenged people who are blind/deaf and the use of mobile phone or computer like device is very difficult for them. So, there is an immense need of a system which works on body gesture or sign language as input. In this research, Microsoft Kinect Sensor, SDK V2 and Hidden Markov Toolkit (HTK) are used to recognize the object, motion of object and human body joints through Touch less NUI (Natural User Interface) in real-time. The depth data collected from Microsoft Kinect has been used to recognize gestures of Indian Sign Language (ISL). The recorded clips are analyzed using depth, IR and skeletal data at different angles and positions. The proposed system has an average accuracy of 85%. The developed Touch less NUI provides an interface to recognize gestures and controls the cursor and click operation in computer just by waving hand gesture. This research will help deaf people to make use of mobile phones, computers and socialize among other persons in the society.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Sign Language, Indian sign language, microsoft kinect, natural user interface

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12 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash

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Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: energy metabolites, wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, cross protection

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11 A Comparative Study of Linearly Graded and without Graded Photonic Crystal Structure

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Angad Singh Kushwaha, Amritanshu Pandey, S. K. Srivastava

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Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much attention due to its electromagnetic properties and potential applications. In PCs, there is certain range of wavelength where electromagnetic waves are not allowed to pass are called photonic band gap (PBG). A localized defect mode will appear within PBG, due to change in the interference behavior of light, when we create a defect in the periodic structure. We can also create different types of defect structures by inserting or removing a layer from the periodic layered structure in two and three-dimensional PCs. We can design microcavity, waveguide, and perfect mirror by creating a point defect, line defect, and palanar defect in two and three- dimensional PC structure. One-dimensional and two-dimensional PCs with defects were reported theoretically and experimentally by Smith et al.. in conventional photonic band gap structure. In the present paper, we have presented the defect mode tunability in tilted non-graded photonic crystal (NGPC) and linearly graded photonic crystal (LGPC) using lead sulphide (PbS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the infrared region. A birefringent defect layer is created in NGPC and LGPC using potassium titany phosphate (KTP). With the help of transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of proposed structure is investigated for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. NGPC and LGPC without defect layer is also investigated. We have found that a photonic band gap (PBG) arises in the infrared region. An additional defect layer of KTP is created in NGPC and LGPC structure. We have seen that an additional transmission mode appers in PBG region. It is due to the addition of defect layer. We have also seen the effect, linear gradation in thickness, angle of incidence, tilt angle, and thickness of defect layer, on PBG and additional transmission mode. We have observed that the additional transmission mode and PBG can be tuned by changing the above parameters. The proposed structure may be used as channeled filter, optical switches, monochromator, and broadband optical reflector.

Keywords: photonic crystal, tilt angle, defect modes, graded photonic crystal

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10 Impulsivity Leads to Compromise Effect

Authors: Ankita Sharma, Sana Maidullah

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The present study takes naturalistic decision-making approach to examine the role of personality in information processing in consumer decision making. In the technological era, most of the information comes in form of HTML or similar language via the internet; processing of this situation could be ambiguous, laborious and painful. The present study explores the role of impulsivity in creating an extreme effect on consumer decision making. Specifically, the study explores the role of impulsivity in extreme effect, i.e., extremeness avoidance (compromise effect) and extremeness seeking; the role of demographic variables, i.e. age and gender, in the relation between impulsivity and extreme effect. The study was conducted with the help of a questionnaire and two experiments. The experiment was designed in the form of two shopping websites with two product types: Hotel choice and Mobile choice. Both experimental interfaces were created with the Xampp software, the frontend of interfaces was HTML CSS JAVASCRIPT and backend was PHP MySQL. The mobile experiment was designed to measure the extreme effect and hotel experiment was designed to measure extreme effect with alignability of attributes. To observe the possibilities of the combined effect of individual difference and context effects, the manipulation of price, a number of alignable attributes and number of the non-alignable attributes is done. The study was conducted on 100 undergraduate and post-graduate engineering students within the age range of 18-35. The familiarity and level of use of internet and shopping website were assessed and controlled in the analysis. The analysis was done by using a t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis. The results indicated that the impulsivity leads to compromise effect and at the same time it also increases the relationship between alignability of attribute among choices and the compromise effect. The demographic variables were found to play a significant role in the relationship. The subcomponents of impulsivity were significantly influencing compromise effect, but the cognitive impulsivity was significant for women, and motor impulsivity was significant for males only. The impulsivity was significantly positively predicted by age, though there were no significant gender differences in impulsivity. The results clearly indicate the importance of individual factors in decision making. The present study, with precise and direct results, provides a significant suggestion for market analyst and business providers.

Keywords: Personality, Consumer Decision Making, impulsivity, extreme effect, alignability

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9 Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Endurance Related Traits in a Native Pony Breed of Zanskar at High Altitude

Authors: Om Prakash Chaurasia, Ankita Sharma, Prince Vivek, Vijay K. Bharti, Manishi Mukesh, Bhuvnesh Kumar

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High performance of endurance in equid requires adaptive changes involving physio-biochemical, and molecular responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the suitable reference genes might be considered for assessing of endurance related traits in pony at high altitude and may ensure for individuals struggling to potent endurance trait in ponies at high altitude. A total of 12 mares of ponies, Zanskar breed, were divided into three groups, group-A (without load), group-B, (60 Kg) and group-C (80 Kg) on backpack loads were subjected to a load carry protocol, on a steep climb of 4 km uphill, and of gravel, uneven rocky surface track at an altitude of 3292 m to 3500 m (endpoint). Blood was collected before and immediately after the load carry on sodium heparin anticoagulant, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell was separated for total RNA isolation and thereafter cDNA synthesis. Real time-PCR reactions were carried out to evaluate the mRNAs expression profile of a panel of putative internal control genes (ICGs), related to different functional classes, namely glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β₂ microglobulin (β₂M), β-actin (ACTB), ribosomal protein 18 (RS18), hypoxanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ubiquitin B (UBB), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), transferrin receptor protein (TFRC), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of native pony’s. Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software, were used to evaluate the stability of reference genes. The result showed that GAPDH was best stable gene and stability value for the best combination of two genes was observed TFRC and β₂M. In conclusion, the geometric mean of GAPDH, TFRC and β₂M might be used for accurate normalization of transcriptional data for assessing endurance related traits in Zanskar ponies during load carrying.

Keywords: Endurance Exercise, high altitude, ubiquitin B (UBB), β₂ microglobulin (β₂M), Zanskar ponies, reference gene

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8 Sequential Padding: A Method to Improve the Impact Resistance in Body Armor Materials

Authors: Abhijit Majumdar, Bhupendra S. Butola, Ankita Srivastava

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Application of shear thickening fluid (STF) has been proved to increase the impact resistance performance of the textile structures to further use it as a body armor material. In the present research, STF was applied on Kevlar woven fabric to make the structure lightweight and flexible while improving its impact resistance performance. It was observed that getting a fair amount of add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric is difficult as Kevlar fabric comes with a pre-coating of PTFE which hinders its absorbency. Hence, a method termed as sequential padding is developed in the present study to improve the add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric. Contrary to the conventional process, where Kevlar fabric is treated with STF once using any one pressure, in sequential padding method, the Kevlar fabrics were treated twice in a sequential manner using combination of two pressures together in a sample. 200 GSM Kevlar fabrics were used in the present study. STF was prepared by adding PEG with 70% (w/w) nano-silica concentration. Ethanol was added with the STF at a fixed ratio to reduce viscosity. A high-speed homogenizer was used to make the dispersion. Total nine STF treated Kevlar fabric samples were prepared by using varying combinations and sequences of three levels of padding pressure {0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 bar). The fabrics were dried at 80°C for 40 minutes in a hot air oven to evaporate ethanol. Untreated and STF treated fabrics were tested for add-on%. Impact resistance performance of samples was also tested on dynamic impact tester at a fixed velocity of 6 m/s. Further, to observe the impact resistance performance in actual condition, low velocity ballistic test with 165 m/s velocity was also performed to confirm the results of impact resistance test. It was observed that both add-on% and impact energy absorption of Kevlar fabrics increases significantly with sequential padding process as compared to untreated as well as single stage padding process. It was also determined that impact energy absorption is significantly better in STF treated Kevlar fabrics when 1st padding pressure is higher, and 2nd padding pressure is lower. It is also observed that impact energy absorption of sequentially padded Kevlar fabric shows almost 125% increase in ballistic impact energy absorption (40.62 J) as compared to untreated fabric (18.07 J).The results are owing to the fact that the treatment of fabrics at high pressure during the first padding is responsible for uniform distribution of STF within the fabric structures. While padding with second lower pressure ensures the high add-on of STF for over-all improvement in the impact resistance performance of the fabric. Therefore, it is concluded that sequential padding process may help to improve the impact performance of body armor materials based on STF treated Kevlar fabrics.

Keywords: Impact Resistance, Kevlar, body armor, shear thickening fluid

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7 Prevalence of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes at a Tertiary Cancer Institute

Authors: Nahush Modak, Meena Pangarkar, Anand Pathak, Ankita Tamhane

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Background: Breast cancer is the prominent cause of cancer and mortality among women. This study was done to show the statistical analysis of a cohort of over 250 patients detected with breast cancer diagnosed by oncologists using Immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was performed by using ER; PR; HER2; Ki-67 antibodies. Materials and methods: Formalin fixed Paraffin embedded tissue samples were obtained by surgical manner and standard protocol was followed for fixation, grossing, tissue processing, embedding, cutting and IHC. The Ventana Benchmark XT machine was used for automated IHC of the samples. Antibodies used were supplied by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS for windows. Statistical tests performed were chi-squared test and Correlation tests with p<.01. The raw data was collected and provided by National Cancer Insitute, Jamtha, India. Result: Luminal B was the most prevailing molecular subtype of Breast cancer at our institute. Chi squared test of homogeneity was performed to find equality in distribution and Luminal B was the most prevalent molecular subtype. The worse prognostic indicator for breast cancer depends upon expression of Ki-67 and her2 protein in cancerous cells. Our study was done at p <.01 and significant dependence was observed. There exists no dependence of age on molecular subtype of breast cancer. Similarly, age is an independent variable while considering Ki-67 expression. Chi square test performed on Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses of patients and strong dependence was observed in percentage of Ki-67 expression and Her2 (+/-) character which shows that, value of Ki depends upon Her2 expression in cancerous cells (p<.01). Surprisingly, dependence was observed in case of Ki-67 and Pr, at p <.01. This shows that Progesterone receptor proteins (PR) are over-expressed when there is an elevation in expression of Ki-67 protein. Conclusion: We conclude from that Luminal B is the most prevalent molecular subtype at National Cancer Institute, Jamtha, India. There was found no significant correlation between age and Ki-67 expression in any molecular subtype. And no dependence or correlation exists between patients’ age and molecular subtype. We also found that, when the diagnosis is Luminal A, out of the cohort of 257 patients, no patient shows >14% Ki-67 value. Statistically, extremely significant values were observed for dependence of PR+Her2- and PR-Her2+ scores on Ki-67 expression. (p<.01). Her2 is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Chi squared test for Her2 and Ki-67 shows that the expression of Ki depends upon Her2 statuses. Moreover, Ki-67 cannot be used as a standalone prognostic factor for determining breast cancer.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, correlation, immunohistochemistry, breast cancer molecular subtypes, Ki-67 and HR

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6 Immuno-Protective Role of Mucosal Delivery of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Functionally Active JlpA Protein on Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chickens

Authors: Ankita Singh, Chandan Gorain, Amirul I. Mallick

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Successful adherence of the mucosal epithelial cells is the key early step for Campylobacter jejuni pathogenesis (C. jejuni). A set of Surface Exposed Colonization Proteins (SECPs) are among the major factors involved in host cell adherence and invasion of C. jejuni. Among them, constitutively expressed surface-exposed lipoprotein adhesin of C. jejuni, JlpA, interacts with intestinal heat shock protein 90 (hsp90α) and contributes in disease progression by triggering pro-inflammatory response via activation of NF-κB and p38 MAP kinase pathway. Together with its ability to express in the bacterial surface, higher sequence conservation and predicted predominance of several B cells epitopes, JlpA protein reserves its potential to become an effective vaccine candidate against wide range of Campylobacter sps including C. jejuni. Given that chickens are the primary sources for C. jejuni and persistent gut colonization remain as major cause for foodborne pathogenesis to humans, present study explicitly used chickens as model to test the immune-protective efficacy of JlpA protein. Taking into account that gastrointestinal tract is the focal site for C. jejuni colonization, to extrapolate the benefit of mucosal (intragastric) delivery of JlpA protein, a food grade Nisin inducible Lactic acid producing bacteria, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) was engineered to express recombinant JlpA protein (rJlpA) in the surface of the bacteria. Following evaluation of optimal surface expression and functionality of recombinant JlpA protein expressed by recombinant L. lactis (rL. lactis), the immune-protective role of intragastric administration of live rL. lactis was assessed in commercial broiler chickens. In addition to the significant elevation of antigen specific mucosal immune responses in the intestine of chickens that received three doses of rL. lactis, marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene expression in association with mixed pro-inflammatory responses (both Th1 and Th17 type) was observed. Furthermore, intragastric delivery of rJlpA expressed by rL. lactis, but not the injectable form, resulted in a significant reduction in C. jejuni colonization in chickens suggesting that mucosal delivery of live rL. lactis expressing JlpA serves as a promising vaccine platform to induce strong immune-protective responses against C. jejuni in chickens.

Keywords: chickens, Lactococcus lactis, lipoprotein adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni, immuno-protection, mucosal delivery

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5 Density Functional Theory Study of the Surface Interactions between Sodium Carbonate Aerosols and Fission Products

Authors: Sidi Souvi, Ankita Jadon, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez

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The interaction of fission products (FP) with sodium carbonate (Na₂CO₃) aerosols is of a high safety concern because of their potential role in the radiological source term mitigation by FP trapping. In a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor (SFR) experiencing a severe accident, sodium (Na) aerosols can be formed after the ejection of the liquid Na coolant inside the containment. The surface interactions between these aerosols and different FP species have been investigated using ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP). In addition, an improved thermodynamic model has been proposed to treat DFT-VASP calculated energies to extrapolate them to temperatures and pressures of interest in our study. A combined experimental and theoretical chemistry study has been carried out to have both atomistic and macroscopic understanding of the chemical processes; the theoretical chemistry part of this approach is presented in this paper. The Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof functional were applied in combination with Grimme’s van der Waals correction to compute exchange-correlational energy at 0 K. Seven different surface cleavages were studied of Ƴ-Na₂CO₃ phase (stable at 603.15 K), it was found that for defect-free surfaces, the (001) facet is the most stable. Furthermore, calculations were performed to study surface defects and reconstructions on the ideal surface. All the studied surface defects were found to be less stable than the ideal surface. More than one adsorbate-ligand configurations were found to be stable confirming that FP vapors could be trapped on various adsorption sites. The calculated adsorption energies (Eads, eV) for the three most stable adsorption sites for I₂ are -1.33, -1.088, and -1.085. Moreover, the adsorption of the first molecule of I₂ changes the surface in a way which would favor stronger adsorption of a second molecule of I2 (Eads, eV = -1.261). For HI adsorption, the most favored reactions have the following Eads (eV) -1.982, -1.790, -1.683 implying that HI would be more reactive than I₂. In addition to FP species, adsorption of H₂O was also studied as the hydrated surface can have different reactivity than the bare surface. One thermodynamically favored site for H₂O adsorption was found with an Eads, eV of -0.754. Finally, the calculations of hydrated surfaces of Na₂CO₃ show that a layer of water adsorbed on the surface significantly reduces its affinity for iodine (Eads, eV = -1.066). According to the thermodynamic model built, the required partial pressure at 373 K to have adsorption of the first layer of iodine is 4.57×10⁻⁴ bar. The second layer will be adsorbed at partial pressures higher than 8.56×10⁻⁶ bar; a layer of water on the surface will increase these pressure almost ten folds to 3.71×10⁻³ bar. The surface interacts with elemental Cs with an Eads (eV) of -1.60, while interacts even strongly with CsI with an Eads (eV) of -2.39. More results on the interactions between Na₂CO₃ (001) and cesium-based FP will also be presented in this paper.

Keywords: DFT calculations, iodine uptake, sodium carbonate surface, sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor, fission products

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4 Comparative Study of Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique in Patients with Upper Trapezius Spasm

Authors: Harihara Prakash Ramanathan, Daksha Mishra, Ankita Dhaduk

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Relevance: This qualitative study will educate the clinician in putting into practice the advanced method of movement science in restoring the function. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique and myofascial release technique on range of motion, neck function and pain in patients with upper trapezius spasm. Methods/Analysis: The study was approved by the institutional Human Research and Ethics committee. This study included sixty patients of age group between 20 to 55 years with upper trapezius spasm. Patients were randomly divided into two groups receiving Active Release Technique (Group A) and Myofascial Release Technique (Group B). The patients were treated for 1 week and three outcome measures ROM, pain and functional level were measured using Goniometer, Visual analog scale(VAS), Neck disability Index Questionnaire(NDI) respectively. Paired Sample 't' test was used to compare the differences of pre and post intervention values of Cervical Range of motion, Neck disability Index, Visual analog scale of Group A and Group B. Independent't' test was used to compare the differences between two groups in terms of improvement in cervical range of motion, decrease in visual analogue scale(VAS), decrease in Neck disability index score. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in cervical ROM, reduction in pain and in NDI scores. However, mean change in Cervical flexion, cervical extension, right side flexion, left side flexion, right side rotation, left side rotation, pain, neck disability level showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0. 05)) in the patients who received Active Release Technique as compared to Myofascial release technique. Discussion and conclusions: In present study, the average improvement immediately post intervention is significantly greater as compared to before treatment but there is even more improvement after seven sessions as compared to single session. Hence, this proves that several sessions of Manual techniques are necessary to produce clinically relevant results. Active release technique help to reduce the pain threshold by removing adhesion and promote normal tissue extensibility. The act of tensioning and compressing the affected tissue both with digital contact and through the active movement performed by the patient can be a plausible mechanism for tissue healing in this study. This study concluded that both Active Release Technique (ART) and Myofascial release technique (MFR) are equally effective in managing upper trapezius muscle spasm, but more improvement can be achieved by Active Release Technique (ART). Impact and Implications: Active Release Technique can be adopted as mainstay of treatment approach in treating trapezius spasm for faster relief and improving the functional status.

Keywords: Pain, trapezius spasm, myofascial release, active release technique

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3 Benzenepropanamine Analogues as Non-detergent Microbicidal Spermicide for Effective Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Authors: Veenu Bala, Yashpal S. Chhonker, Bhavana Kushwaha, Rabi S. Bhatta, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L. Sharma

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According to UNAIDS 2013 estimate nearly 52% of all individuals living with HIV are now women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Seventy-five percent cases of HIV acquisition are through heterosexual contacts and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), attributable to unsafe sexual behaviour. Each year, an estimated 500 million people acquire atleast one of four STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is exclusively sexually transmitted in adults, accounting for 30% of STI cases and associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), vaginitis and pregnancy complications in women. TV infection resulted in impaired vaginal milieu, eventually favoring HIV transmission. In the absence of an effective prophylactic HIV vaccine, prevention of new infections has become a priority. It was thought worthwhile to integrate HIV prevention and reproductive health services including unintended pregnancy protection for women as both are related with unprotected sex. Initially, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) had been proposed as a spermicidal agent with microbicidal activity but on the contrary it increased HIV susceptibility due to surfactant action. Thus, to accomplish an urgent need of novel woman controlled non-detergent microbicidal spermicides benzenepropanamine analogues have been synthesized. At first, five benzenepropanamine-dithiocarbamate hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated for their spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas and anti-fungal activities along with safety profiling to cervicovaginal cells. In order to further enhance the scope of above study benzenepropanamine was hybridized with thiourea as to introduce anti-HIV potential. The synthesized hybrid molecules were evaluated for their reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition, spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas and antimicrobial activities as well as their safety against vaginal flora and cervical cells. simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) stability and pharmacokinetics of most potent compound versus N-9 was examined in female Newzealand (NZ) rabbits to observe its absorption into systemic circulation and subsequent exposure in blood plasma through vaginal wall. The study resulted in the most promising compound N-butyl-4-(3-oxo-3-phenylpropyl) piperazin-1-carbothioamide (29) exhibiting better activity profile than N-9 as it showed RT inhibition (72.30 %), anti-Trichomonas (MIC, 46.72 µM against MTZ susceptible and MIC, 187.68 µM against resistant strain), spermicidal (MEC, 0.01%) and antifungal activity (MIC, 3.12–50 µg/mL) against four fungal strains. The high safety against vaginal epithelium (HeLa cells) and compatibility with vaginal flora (lactobacillus), SVF stability and least vaginal absorption supported its suitability for topical vaginal application. Docking study was performed to gain an insight into the binding mode and interactions of the most promising compound, N-butyl-4-(3-oxo-3-phenylpropyl) piperazin-1-carbothioamide (29) with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase. The docking study has revealed that compound (29) interacted with HIV-1 RT similar to standard drug Nevirapine. It may be concluded that hybridization of benzenepropanamine and thiourea moiety resulted into novel lead with multiple activities including RT inhibition. A further lead optimization may result into effective vaginal microbicides having spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas, antifungal and anti-HIV potential altogether with enhanced safety to cervico-vaginal cells in comparison to Nonoxynol-9.

Keywords: reverse transcriptase, microbicidal, nonoxynol-9, spermicide

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2 Interactions between Sodium Aerosols and Fission Products: A Theoretical Chemistry and Experimental Approach

Authors: Sidi Souvi, Ankita Jadon, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez

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Safety requirements for Generation IV nuclear reactor designs, especially the new generation sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) require a risk-informed approach to model severe accidents (SA) and their consequences in case of outside release. In SFRs, aerosols are produced during a core disruptive accident when primary system sodium is ejected into the containment and burn in contact with the air; producing sodium aerosols. One of the key aspects of safety evaluation is the in-containment sodium aerosol behavior and their interaction with fission products. The study of the effects of sodium fires is essential for safety evaluation as the fire can both thermally damage the containment vessel and cause an overpressurization risk. Besides, during the fire, airborne fission product first dissolved in the primary sodium can be aerosolized or, as it can be the case for fission products, released under the gaseous form. The objective of this work is to study the interactions between sodium aerosols and fission products (Iodine, toxic and volatile, being the primary concern). Sodium fires resulting from an SA would produce aerosols consisting of sodium peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and bicarbonates. In addition to being toxic (in oxide form), this aerosol will then become radioactive. If such aerosols are leaked into the environment, they can pose a danger to the ecosystem. Depending on the chemical affinity of these chemical forms with fission products, the radiological consequences of an SA leading to containment leak tightness loss will also be affected. This work is split into two phases. Firstly, a method to theoretically understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of the heterogeneous reaction between sodium aerosols and fission products: I2 and HI are proposed. Ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package are carried out to develop an understanding of the surfaces of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) aerosols and hence provide insight on its affinity towards iodine species. A comprehensive study of I2 and HI adsorption, as well as bicarbonate formation on the calculated lowest energy surface of Na2CO3, was performed which provided adsorption energies and description of the optimized configuration of adsorbate on the stable surface. Secondly, the heterogeneous reaction between (I2)g and Na2CO3 aerosols were investigated experimentally. To study this, (I2)g was generated by heating a permeation tube containing solid I2, and, passing it through a reaction chamber containing Na2CO3 aerosol deposit. The concentration of iodine was then measured at the exit of the reaction chamber. Preliminary observations indicate that there is an effective uptake of (I2)g on Na2CO3 surface, as suggested by our theoretical chemistry calculations. This work is the first step in addressing the gaps in knowledge of in-containment and atmospheric source term which are essential aspects of safety evaluation of SFR SA. In particular, this study is aimed to determine and characterize the radiological and chemical source term. These results will then provide useful insights for the developments of new models to be implemented in integrated computer simulation tool to analyze and evaluate SFR safety designs.

Keywords: iodine adsorption, sodium aerosols, sodium cooled reactor, DFT calculations, sodium carbonate

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