Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Priya Tomar

69 Bioremediation of Paper Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Bacterial and Fungal Strain and Optimizing the Effect of Carbon Source

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

Abstract:

Bioremediation has been recognized as an environment friendly and less expensive method which involves the natural processes resulting in the efficient conversion of hazardous compounds into innocuous products. The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluents amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin, and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem we present this paper with some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of paper mill effluents. In the present study we utilized the consortia of fungal and bacterial strain and the treatment named as C1, C2, and C3 for the decolourization of paper mill effluent. During the study, role of carbon source i.e. glucose was studied for decolourization. From the results it was observed that a maximum colour reduction of 66.9%, COD reduction of 51.8%, TSS reduction of 0.34%, TDS reduction of 0.29% and pH changes of 4.2 is achieved by consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data indicated that consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is giving better result with glucose.

Keywords: Bioremediation, decolourization, black liquor, mycoremediation

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68 Evaluation of Paper Effluent with Two Bacterial Strain and Their Consortia

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

Abstract:

As industrialization is inevitable and progress with rapid acceleration, the need for innovative ways to get rid of waste has increased. Recent advancement in bioresource technology paves novel ideas for recycling of factory waste that has been polluting the agro-industry, soil and water bodies. Paper industries in India are in a considerable number, where molasses and impure alcohol are still being used as raw materials for manufacturing of paper. Paper mills based on nonconventional agro residues are being encouraged due to increased demand of paper and acute shortage of forest-based raw materials. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. This paper presents some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of bioremediation on paper industry. A short introduction to paper industry and a variety of presently available methods of bioremediation on paper industry and different strategies are also discussed here. For solving the above problem, two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) and their consortia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) were utilized for the pulp and paper mill effluent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis named as T–1, T–2, T–3, T–4, T–5, T–6, for the decolourisation of paper industry effluent. The results indicated that a maximum colour reduction is (60.5%) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and COD reduction is (88.8%) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, maximum pH changes is (4.23) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TSS reduction is (2.09 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, and TDS reduction is (0.95 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis. When the wastewater was supplemented with carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) source and data revealed the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis, having more with glucose than Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Lignin, paper and pulp mill effluent, treated effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
67 Non Performing Asset Variations across Indian Commercial Banks: Some Findings

Authors: Sanskriti Singh, Ankit Tomar

Abstract:

Banks are the instrument of growth of a country. Banks mobilize the savings of the public in the form of deposits and channelize it as advances for various activities required for the development of society at large. The advance which becomes unpaid for a certain period is called Non Performing Asset of the bank. The study makes an attempt to bring out the magnitude of NPA and its impact on profit, advances. An attempt is also made to bring out the challenges NPA poses to the banks and suggestions to overcome and to manage NPA effectively.

Keywords: India, NPAs, private banks, public banks

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
66 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Vikas Tomar, Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash

Abstract:

The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: Composites, interfaces, fracture, chitin

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
65 Design and Implementation of Wireless Syncronized AI System for Security

Authors: Saradha Priya

Abstract:

Developing virtual human is very important to meet the challenges occurred in many applications where human find difficult or risky to perform the task. A robot is a machine that can perform a task automatically or with guidance. Robotics is generally a combination of artificial intelligence and physical machines (motors). Computational intelligence involves the programmed instructions. This project proposes a robotic vehicle that has a camera, PIR sensor and text command based movement. It is specially designed to perform surveillance and other few tasks in the most efficient way. Serial communication has been occurred between a remote Base Station, GUI Application, and PC.

Keywords: camera, Wireless Transmission, ZigBee, DC motor, pirsensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
64 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya

Abstract:

Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
63 Luminescent Enhancement with Morphology Controlled Gd2O3:Eu Phosphors

Authors: Ruby Priya, Om Parkash Pandey

Abstract:

Eu doped Gd₂O₃ phosphors are synthesized via co-precipitation method using ammonia as a precipitating agent. The concentration of the Eu was set as 4 mol% for all the samples. The effect of the surfactants (CTAB, PEG, and SDS) on the structural, morphological and luminescent properties has been studied in details. The as-synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence technique. It was observed that the surfactants have not changed the crystal structure, but influenced the morphology of as-synthesized phosphors to a great extent. The as-synthesized phosphors are expected to be promising candidates for optoelectronic devices, biosensors, MRI contrast agents and various biomedical applications.

Keywords: Surfactants, Photoluminescence, co-precipitation, europium

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62 Portrayal of Women in Television Advertisement

Authors: Priya Sarah Vijoy

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the Portrayal of women in Television Advertisements. This research study is conducted to analyze how women are portrayed in Television Advertisements. Advertising dates back to several hundreds of years. Right from the beginning, the seller wanted his goods to be sold and he used various techniques for achieving his objective. Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother, home, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of women’s diversity. Currently, in our society the television stereotyping of woman is the dominating forces in the media that degrade women and limit their representation. Thus the study analyzes how women are portrayed in Television advertisements and find whether roles of women in Television Advertisement are related to the product or not.

Keywords: Advertising, Women, Television, stereotyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
61 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
60 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: Extraction, Carotenoids, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
59 Cocrystals of Etodolac: A Crystal Engineering Approach with an Endeavor to Enhance Its Biopharmaceutical Assets

Authors: Renu Chadha, Sakshi Tomar

Abstract:

Cocrystallization comprises a selective route to the intensive design of pharmaceutical products with desired physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The present study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of etodolac (ET) co-crystals with coformers nicotinamide (ETNI) and Glutaric acid (ETGA), using cocrystallization approach. Preliminarily examination of the prepared co-crystal was done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermographs of ETNI and ETGA cocrystals showed single sharp melting endotherms at 144°C and 135°C, respectively, which were different from the melting of drugs and coformers. FT-IR study points towards carbonyl-acid interaction sandwiched between the involving molecules. The emergence of new peaks in the PXRD pattern confirms the formation of new crystalline solid forms. Both the cocrystals exhibited better apparent solubility, and 3.8-5.0 folds increase in IDR were established, as compared to pure etodolac. Evaluations of these solid forms were done using anti-osteoarthritic activities. All the results indicate that etodolac cocrystals possess better anti-osteoarthritic efficacy than free drug. Thus loom of cocrystallization has been found to be a viable approach to resolve the solubility and bioavailability issues that circumvent the use of potential antiosteoarthritic molecules.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Bioavailability, nicotinamide, etodolac

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58 Advanced Fuzzy Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Authors: Santhosh Kumat T., Priya E.

Abstract:

The control of a doubly fed induction generator by fuzzy is described. The active and reactive power can be controlled by rotor and grid side converters with fuzzy controller. The main objective is to maintain constant voltage and frequency at the output of the generator. However the Line Side Converter (LSC) can be controlled to supply up to 50% of the required reactive current. When the crowbar is not activated the DFIG can supply reactive power from the rotor side through the machine as well as through the LSC.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Rotor Side Converter (RSC), Grid Side Converter (GSC), Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
57 Pin Count Aware Volumetric Error Detection in Arbitrary Microfluidic Bio-Chip

Authors: Kunal Das, Priya Sengupta, Abhishek K. Singh

Abstract:

Pin assignment, scheduling, routing and error detection for arbitrary biochemical protocols in Digital Microfluidic Biochip have been reported in this paper. The research work is concentrating on pin assignment for 2 or 3 droplets routing in the arbitrary biochemical protocol, scheduling and routing in m × n biochip. The volumetric error arises due to droplet split in the biochip. The volumetric error detection is also addressed using biochip AND logic gate which is known as microfluidic AND or mAND gate. The algorithm for pin assignment for m × n biochip required m+n-1 numbers of pins. The basic principle of this algorithm is that no same pin will be allowed to be placed in the same column, same row and diagonal and adjacent cells. The same pin should be placed a distance apart such that interference becomes less. A case study also reported in this paper.

Keywords: cross-contamination, digital microfludic biochip, pin assignment, microfluidic AND gate

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56 Employee Branding: An Exploratory Study Applied to Nurses in an Organization

Authors: Pawan Hinge, Priya Gupta

Abstract:

Due to cutting edge competitions between organizations and war for talent, the workforce as an asset is gaining significance. The employees are considered as the brand ambassadors of an organization, and their interactions with the clients and customers might impact directly or indirectly on the overall value of the organization. Especially, organizations in the healthcare industry the value of an organization in the perception of their employees can be one of the revenue generating and talent retention strategy. In such context, it is essential to understand that the brand awareness among employees can effect on employer brand image and brand value since the brand ambassadors are the interface between organization and customers and clients. In this exploratory study, we have adopted both quantitative and qualitative approaches for data analysis. Our study shows existing variation among nurses working in different business units of the same organization in terms of their customer interface or interactions and brand awareness.

Keywords: Brand Image, Brand Awareness, brand value, customer interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
55 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi

Abstract:

In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
54 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: Emission Inventory, GIS, PM2.5, fugitive, AERMOD, CMB

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
53 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: spectral indices, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, aromatic fractions

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
52 Protective Approach of Mentha Piperita against Cadmium Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj

Abstract:

Cadmium is the second most hazardous heavy metal occurring in both elemental as well as compound forms. It is a highly toxic metal with a very high bio-concentration factor (BCF>100). WHO permitted groundwater cadmium concentration is 0.005 mg/L only, but reality is far away from this limit. A number of natural and anthropogenic industrial activities contribute to the spread of cadmium into the environment. The present study had been designated to find out the renal changes at functional level after cadmium intoxication and protection against these changes offered by Mentha piperata. For the purpose, albino rats were selected as the model organism. Cadmium significantly increases the serum level of serum proteins and nitrogenous wastes showing reduced filtration rate of kidneys. Pretreatment with Mentha piperata leaf extract causes significant retention of these levels to normalcy. These findings conclude that Cadmium exposure affects renal functioning but Mentha could prevent it, proving its nephro-protective potential against heavy metal toxicity.

Keywords: cadmium, nephrotoxicity, albino rat, Mentha piperata

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
51 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

Abstract:

Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: barium, ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
50 Pachhedi: A Material Culture Study on Folk Textile of India

Authors: Shrutisingh Tomar, Madhu Sharan

Abstract:

It has been an undisputed fact that the culture of a nation has always been reflected in its practice, visual content and in forms of its oral traditions. Regional and communal costumes in India since ancient times have worked as a strong repository for its people to comprehend not only the locality but also the community of the wearer. Such a strong visual language apparently was ordained to communicate basic details about the person such as age, marital status, and socio-cultural status. Most of the fragments of this visual vocabulary have been intensively investigated, recorded, diversified and revived, while a limited range of these has died a slow death. Some of the rare existent kinds of such threads have survived as a mainstream article of clothing: simpler, apparent and a product for daily life yet unique in their own kind. The paper intends to consider and elaborate the investigated repository pertinent to the Pacchedi weaving tradition of Gujarat. The research involved field surveys across seven districts of the two states of India namely Gujarat and Rajasthan. Ethnographic interviews, observations, recording of oral histories and archival research was conducted through multi-timed and multi-cited studies between from the year 2012 to 2015. The results include varied forms of Pacchedi based on the sartorial expressions in the male costume. The characteristic features of these textiles were accorded by the sumptuous use of brocaded cross borders and weft heavy ends along with the details on the languishing fabrication procedure.

Keywords: material culture, handloom weaving, sartorial expressions and vernacular textile craft

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49 Mobile Microscope for the Detection of Pathogenic Cells Using Image Processing

Authors: P. S. Surya Meghana, K. Lingeshwaran, C. Kannan, V. Raghavendran, C. Priya

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One of the most basic and powerful tools in all of science and medicine is the light microscope, the fundamental device for laboratory as well as research purposes. With the improving technology, the need for portable, economic and user-friendly instruments is in high demand. The conventional microscope fails to live up to the emerging trend. Also, adequate access to healthcare is not widely available, especially in developing countries. The most basic step towards the curing of a malady is the diagnosis of the disease itself. The main aim of this paper is to diagnose Malaria with the most common device, cell phones, which prove to be the immediate solution for most of the modern day needs with the development of wireless infrastructure allowing to compute and communicate on the move. This opened up the opportunity to develop novel imaging, sensing, and diagnostics platforms using mobile phones as an underlying platform to address the global demand for accurate, sensitive, cost-effective, and field-portable measurement devices for use in remote and resource-limited settings around the world.

Keywords: Image Processing, cellular, Health Care, hand-held, malarial parasites, microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
48 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: Sand, Settlement, Geogrid Reinforcement, granular pile, load-carrying capacity

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47 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, IL-1β, meniscal tear, synovial fluid

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46 Parkinson's Disease Gene Identification Using Physicochemical Properties of Amino Acids

Authors: Priya Arora, Ashutosh Mishra

Abstract:

Gene identification, towards the pursuit of mutated genes, leading to Parkinson’s disease, puts forward a challenge towards proactive cure of the disorder itself. Computational analysis is an effective technique for exploring genes in the form of protein sequences, as the theoretical and manual analysis is infeasible. The limitations and effectiveness of a particular computational method are entirely dependent on the previous data that is available for disease identification. The article presents a sequence-based classification method for the identification of genes responsible for Parkinson’s disease. During the initiation phase, the physicochemical properties of amino acids transform protein sequences into a feature vector. The second phase of the method employs Jaccard distances to select negative genes from the candidate population. The third phase involves artificial neural networks for making final predictions. The proposed approach is compared with the state of art methods on the basis of F-measure. The results confirm and estimate the efficiency of the method.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Protein Sequences, disease gene identification, physicochemical properties of amino acid

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45 Preparation of Superparamagnetic Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetically Separable Catalysis

Authors: Priya Arora, Jaspreet K. Rajput

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism has accelerated the research and use of more economical and ecological magnetically separable catalysts due to their more efficient isolation by response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetite nanomaterials coated by SiO2 shell have received a great deal of focus in the last decades as it provides high stability and also easy further surface functionalization depending upon the application. In this protocol, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation combined with sonication method. Further, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized by various moieties to serve as efficient catalysts for multicomponent reactions. The functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The as prepared nanocatalysts can be reused for several times without any significant loss in its activity. The utilization of magnetic nanoparticles as catalysts for this reaction is one approach i.e. green, inexpensive, facile and widely applicable.

Keywords: Multicomponent Reactions, functionalized, superparamagnetic, magnetite

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44 Impact of Social Media on the Functioning of the Indian Government: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Priya Sepaha

Abstract:

Social media has loomed as the most effective tool in recent times to flag the causes, contents, opinions and direction of any social movement and has demonstrated that it will have a far-reaching effect on government as well. This study focuses on India which has emerged as the fastest growing community on social media. Social movement activists, in particular, have extensively utilized the power of digital social media to streamline the effectiveness of social protest on a particular issue through extensive successful mass mobilizations. This research analyses the role and impact of social media as a power to catalyze the social movements in India and further seeks to describe how certain social movements are resisted, subverted, co-opted and/or deployed by social media. The impact assessment study has been made with the help of cases, policies and some social movement which India has witnessed the assertion of numerous social issues perturbing the public which eventually paved the way for remarkable judicial decisions. The paper concludes with the observations that despite its pros and cons, the impacts of social media on the functioning of the Indian Government have demonstrated that it has already become an indispensable tool in the hands of social media-suave Indians who are committed to bring about a desired change.

Keywords: Social Media, Government, Law, Social Movements, Impact

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43 Parametric Study of Ball and Socket Joint for Bio-Mimicking Exoskeleton

Authors: Ravi Prakash, Basant Singh Sikarwar, Mukesh Roy, Ayush Goyal, Priya Ranjan

Abstract:

More than 11% of people suffer from weakness in the bone resulting in inability in walking or climbing stairs or from limited upper body and limb immobility. This motivates a fresh bio-mimicking solution to the design of an exo-skeleton to support human movement in the case of partial or total immobility either due to congenital or genetic factors or due to some accident or due to geratological factors. A deeper insight and detailed understanding is required into the workings of the ball and socket joints. Our research is to mimic ball and socket joints to design snugly fitting exoskeletons. Our objective is to design an exoskeleton which is comfortable and the presence of which is not felt if not in use. Towards this goal, a parametric study is conducted to provide detailed design parameters to fabricate an exoskeleton. This work builds up on real data of the design of the exoskeleton, so that the designed exo-skeleton will be able to provide required strength and support to the subject.

Keywords: Exoskeleton, Human-Machine Interface, Wearable Robotics, joints, ball joint, bio-mimicking, socket joint, artificial limb, patient rehabilitation

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42 Convex Restrictions for Outage Constrained MU-MISO Downlink under Imperfect Channel State Information

Authors: A. Preetha Priyadharshini, S. B. M. Priya

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In this paper, we consider the MU-MISO downlink scenario, under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The main issue in imperfect CSI is to keep the probability of each user achievable outage rate below the given threshold level. Such a rate outage constraints present significant and analytical challenges. There are many probabilistic methods are used to minimize the transmit optimization problem under imperfect CSI. Here, decomposition based large deviation inequality and Bernstein type inequality convex restriction methods are used to perform the optimization problem under imperfect CSI. These methods are used for achieving improved output quality and lower complexity. They provide a safe tractable approximation of the original rate outage constraints. Based on these method implementations, performance has been evaluated in the terms of feasible rate and average transmission power. The simulation results are shown that all the two methods offer significantly improved outage quality and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel State Information, outage probability, imperfect channel state information, multiuser- multi input single output

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41 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: startup, nitrogen removal, anammox, granulation, hybrid reactor, mixed seed culture

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40 Effect of Acute Ingestion of Ice Water on Blood Pressure in Relation to Body Mass Index

Authors: Shantala Herlekar, Savitri Siddanagoudra, Priya Arjunwadekar

Abstract:

Background: The physiological response to water drinking in healthy subjects is an integrated response with an increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity with induced bradycardia. Obesity is a modern pandemic, implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In autonomic failure patients, water drinking has been shown the increased high blood pressure and bradycardia. Acute effects of ice water ingestion on blood pressure (BP) in relation to body mass index (BMI) is not addressed in literature. Objectives: Objective of this study is to evaluate BP before and after ingestion of cold water in all the three groups. Methods and Material: 60 healthy subjects between the age group of 18-24 yrs were selected and assigned into 3 groups based on BMI. BMI less than and equal to 25 kg/m2 is selected as Normal BMI group ,between 25- 29 kg/m2 as Overweight and BMI more than and equal to 30 kg/m2 as Obese. Procedure: Basal and after ingestion of 250 ml of cold water (7 0C ± 0.5 0C)BP was recorded in all the 3 groups. Results: Basal and after ice water ingestion BP increased statistically in all 3 groups. Conclusion: On acute ingestion of ice water overweight, obese may have more sympathoexcitaion compared to normal subjects.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, body mass index, ice water, symathoexcitation

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