Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Pallavi Mittal

43 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu

Abstract:

The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
42 Bioremediation of Paper Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Bacterial and Fungal Strain and Optimizing the Effect of Carbon Source

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

Abstract:

Bioremediation has been recognized as an environment friendly and less expensive method which involves the natural processes resulting in the efficient conversion of hazardous compounds into innocuous products. The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluents amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin, and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem we present this paper with some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of paper mill effluents. In the present study we utilized the consortia of fungal and bacterial strain and the treatment named as C1, C2, and C3 for the decolourization of paper mill effluent. During the study, role of carbon source i.e. glucose was studied for decolourization. From the results it was observed that a maximum colour reduction of 66.9%, COD reduction of 51.8%, TSS reduction of 0.34%, TDS reduction of 0.29% and pH changes of 4.2 is achieved by consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data indicated that consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is giving better result with glucose.

Keywords: Bioremediation, decolourization, black liquor, mycoremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
41 Evaluation of Paper Effluent with Two Bacterial Strain and Their Consortia

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

Abstract:

As industrialization is inevitable and progress with rapid acceleration, the need for innovative ways to get rid of waste has increased. Recent advancement in bioresource technology paves novel ideas for recycling of factory waste that has been polluting the agro-industry, soil and water bodies. Paper industries in India are in a considerable number, where molasses and impure alcohol are still being used as raw materials for manufacturing of paper. Paper mills based on nonconventional agro residues are being encouraged due to increased demand of paper and acute shortage of forest-based raw materials. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. This paper presents some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of bioremediation on paper industry. A short introduction to paper industry and a variety of presently available methods of bioremediation on paper industry and different strategies are also discussed here. For solving the above problem, two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) and their consortia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) were utilized for the pulp and paper mill effluent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis named as T–1, T–2, T–3, T–4, T–5, T–6, for the decolourisation of paper industry effluent. The results indicated that a maximum colour reduction is (60.5%) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and COD reduction is (88.8%) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, maximum pH changes is (4.23) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TSS reduction is (2.09 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, and TDS reduction is (0.95 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis. When the wastewater was supplemented with carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) source and data revealed the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis, having more with glucose than Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Lignin, paper and pulp mill effluent, treated effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
40 Acute Exposure Of Two Classes Of Fungicides And Its Effects On Hematological Indices Of Fish (Clarius batrachus) - A Comparative Study

Authors: Ajay Singh, Pallavi Srivastava

Abstract:

Hematological assay has used for evaluation of blood changes according to its environment. It’s studies employed to evaluate possible eco-toxic risk due to the exposure of chemicals and pesticides in aquatic organisms. Fishes serve as a sensitive bio-indicator, as changes occur in its surrounding environment. The aim of present study has two-folds first we observed that after exposure of two doses of each class of fungicide i.e. 1.11mg/l, 2.23mg/l for Propiconazole and 11.43mg/l, 22.87mg/l for Mancozeb show maximum blood changes. Second we conclude that toxic effects and blood changes induced by Propiconazole is greater than Mancozeb.

Keywords: Fungicides, hematological assay, bio-indicator, eco-toxic risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
39 Privacy Policy Prediction for Uploaded Image on Content Sharing Sites

Authors: Pallavi Mane, Nikita Mankar, Shraddha Mazire, Rasika Pashankar

Abstract:

Content sharing sites are very useful in sharing information and images. However, with the increasing demand of content sharing sites privacy and security concern have also increased. There is need to develop a tool for controlling user access to their shared content. Therefore, we are developing an Adaptive Privacy Policy Prediction (A3P) system which is helpful for users to create privacy settings for their images. We propose the two-level framework which assigns the best available privacy policy for the users images according to users available histories on the site.

Keywords: Security and protection, prediction, online information services, web based services

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
38 Reduction Study of As(III)-Cysteine Complex through Linear Sweep Voltammetry

Authors: Sunil Mittal, Sukhpreet Singh, Hardeep Kaur

Abstract:

A simple voltammetric technique for on-line analysis of arsenite [As (III)] is reported. Owing to the affinity of As (III) with thiol group of proteins and enzymes, cysteine has been employed as reducing agent. The reduction study of As(III)-cysteine complex on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode has been explored. The experimental parameters such as scan rate, cysteine concentration, pH etc. were optimized to achieve As (III) determination. The developed method provided dynamic linear range of detection from 0.1 to 1 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 mM. The method is applicable to environmental monitoring of As (III) from highly contaminated sources such as industrial effluents, wastewater sludge etc.

Keywords: Reduction, Linear Sweep Voltammetry, arsenite, cysteine

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
37 Effect of Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Inhalation on Voice Resonances

Authors: Pallavi Marathe

Abstract:

Voice is considered to be a unique biometric property of human beings. Unlike other biometric evidence, for example, fingerprints and retina scans, etc., voice can be easily changed or mimicked. The present paper talks about how the inhalation of helium and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas affects the voice formant frequencies that are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. Helium gas is low-density gas; hence, the voice travels with a higher speed than that of air. On the other side in SF6 gas voice travels with lower speed than that of air due to its higher density. These results in decreasing the resonant frequencies of voice in helium and increasing in SF6. Results are presented with the help of Praat software, which is used for voice analysis.

Keywords: Sulfur Hexafluoride, helium, voice formants, gas inhalation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
36 Development of Evolutionary Algorithm by Combining Optimization and Imitation Approach for Machine Learning in Gaming

Authors: Bright Keswani, Rohit Mittal, Amit Mithal

Abstract:

This paper provides a sense about the application of computational intelligence techniques used to develop computer games, especially car racing. For the deep sense and knowledge of artificial intelligence, this paper is divided into various sections that is optimization, imitation, innovation and combining approach of optimization and imitation. This paper is mainly concerned with combining approach which tells different aspects of using fitness measures and supervised learning techniques used to imitate aspects of behavior. The main achievement of this paper is based on modelling player behaviour and evolving new game content such as racing tracks as single car racing on single track.

Keywords: Innovation, Optimization, Genetic, racing, Gaming, Imitation, evolution algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
35 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: shishir sinha, Varun Mittal

Abstract:

The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: Composite, Hardness, sodium hydroxide, bagasse fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
34 Study of Icons in Enterprise Application Software Context

Authors: Shiva Subhedar, Abhishek Jain, Shivin Mittal

Abstract:

Icons are not merely decorative elements in enterprise applications but very often used because of their many advantages such as compactness, visual appeal, etc. Despite these potential advantages, icons often cause usability problems when they are designed without consideration for their many potential downsides. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of articulatory distance – the distance between the physical appearance of an interface element and what it actually means. In other words, will the subject find the association of the function and its appearance on the interface natural or is the icon difficult for them to associate with its function. We have calculated response time and quality of identification by varying icon concreteness, the context of usage and subject experience in the enterprise context. The subjects were asked to associate icons (prepared for study purpose) with given function options in context and out of context mode. Response time and their selection were recorded for analysis.

Keywords: HCI, icons, icon concreteness, icon recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
33 Importance of Ethics in Cloud Security

Authors: Pallavi Malhotra

Abstract:

This paper examines the importance of ethics in cloud computing. In the modern society, cloud computing is offering individuals and businesses an unlimited space for storing and processing data or information. Most of the data and information stored in the cloud by various users such as banks, doctors, architects, engineers, lawyers, consulting firms, and financial institutions among others require a high level of confidentiality and safeguard. Cloud computing offers centralized storage and processing of data, and this has immensely contributed to the growth of businesses and improved sharing of information over the internet. However, the accessibility and management of data and servers by a third party raise concerns regarding the privacy of clients’ information and the possible manipulations of the data by third parties. This document suggests the approaches various stakeholders should take to address various ethical issues involving cloud-computing services. Ethical education and training is key to all stakeholders involved in the handling of data and information stored or being processed in the cloud.

Keywords: Cloud computing technology, IT ethics, cloud privacy and security, ethical education

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
32 Application of Response Surface Methodology (Rsm) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N, Gayatri Jadhav

Abstract:

Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: response surface methodology, fluoride, banana peel, dosage

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
31 Competitive Advantage: Sustainable or Transient

Authors: Pallavi Thacker, H. P. Mathur

Abstract:

This paper tries to find out from the available literature the status of Competitive Advantage. It has been stated a number of times that firms must strive to attain sustainable competitive advantage; but is the concept of sustainability of advantage still valid in this new diversified and too-rapidly changing world? The paper reaches a conclusion that the answer is “no”. Gone is the time when once attained position could easily be retained forever or at-least for a substantial amount of time. We live in a time which is very much globalised. We are used to a high level of competition from all directions. Technological advances, developed human capital, flexibility and end number of factors make the sustenance of competitive advantage difficult. This paper analyses competitive advantage from the view points of Michael Porter (who talks about sustainability) and Rita Gunther McGrath (who says competitive advantage can no more be sustained). It uses many examples and evidences from papers, journals and news. A research in this area is very much required (especially in a developing country like India) so that industries, firms and people can find out the suitable strategies that match with the changing times.

Keywords: Sustainable, Globalisation, competitive advantage, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
30 Electrochemical Study of Interaction of Thiol Containing Proteins with As (III)

Authors: Sunil Mittal, Sukhpreet Singh, Hardeep Kaur

Abstract:

The affinity of thiol group with heavy metals is a well-established phenomenon. The present investigation has been focused on electrochemical response of cysteine and thioredoxin against arsenite (As III) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It was observed that both the compounds produce distinct response in free and immobilised form at the electrode. The SEM, FTIR, and impedance studies of the modified electrode were conducted for characterization. Various parameters were optimized to achieve As (III) effect on the reduction potential of the compounds. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were employed as the analysis techniques. The optimum response was observed at neutral pH in both the cases, at optimum concentration of 2 mM and 4.27 µM for cysteine and thioredoxin respectively. It was observed that presence of As (III) increases the reduction current of both the moieties. The linear range of detection for As (III) with cysteine was from 1 to 10 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 0.8 mg L⁻¹. The thioredoxin was found more sensitive to As (III) and displayed a linear range from 0.1 to 1 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 10 µg L⁻¹.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, arsenite, cysteine, thioredoxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
29 Therapeutic Role of Polygonum bistorta and Zingiber roseum by in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Deepmala Joshi, Deepak Kumar Mittal, Alok Kumar Jena

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of Polygonum bistorta (PB) (200 mg/kg) and Zingiber roseum (ZR) (250 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.15 ml/kg, i.p.). Extract of PB and ZR at the tested doses restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, significantly. The activities of MTT assay significantly recovered the damage and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that Zingiber roseum has a higher protective effect on liver, compared to Polygonum bistorta, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and possesses antioxidant activities. Also, extracts exhibited moderate anticancer activity towards cell viability at higher concentration.

Keywords: Polygonum bistorta, Zingiber roseum, hepatoprotective effect, carbon tetrachloride, anti-cancerous

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
28 Slope Stability Assessment of Himalayan Slope under Static and Seismic Conditions

Authors: P. Singh, S. Mittal

Abstract:

Stability of slope in Chamoli Distt. near River Alaknanda in Uttarakhand is essential to safeguard the infrastructure of the slope where a dam is proposed to be built near this slope. Every year the areas near the slope have been facing severe landslides (small or big) due to intensive precipitation inflicting substantial damages as per Geological Survey of India records. The stability analysis of the slope under static and pseudo static conditions are presented in this study by using FEM software PHASE2. As per the earthquake zonation map of India, the slope is found in zone V, and hence, pseudo static stability of slope has been performed considering pseudo static analysis. For analysing the slope Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criteria is adopted for soil material and self-drilling anchors are modelled as bolts with parameters like modulus of elasticity, diameter of anchors and peak pull-out resistance of the anchors with the soil present there. The slope is found to be unstable under pseudo static conditions with computed factor of safety= 0.93. Stability is provided to the slope by using Self Drilling Anchors (SDA) which gives factor of safety= 1.15 under pseudo static condition.

Keywords: Slope Stability, FEM, pseudo static, self-drilling anchors

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
27 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: J. S. Bedi, J. P. S. Gill, R. S. Aulakh, Pallavi Moudgil

Abstract:

Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Milk, Health Risks, Ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1, maximum residue limit

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
26 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti

Abstract:

Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Damage Analysis, Damage Assessment, Nepal earthquake, damage scales

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
25 Herbal Based Fingerprint Powder Formulation for Latent Fingermark Visualization: Catechu (Kattha)

Authors: Pallavi Thakur, Rakesh K. Garg

Abstract:

Latent fingerprints are commonly encountered evidence at the scene of the crime. It is very important to decipher these fingerprints in order to explore their identity and a lot of research has been made on the visualization of latent fingermarks on various substrates by numerous researchers. During the past few years large number of powder formulations has been evolved for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple fingerprint powder which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks upto the time period of twelve days in varying temperature conditions. In this study, a less expensive, simple and easily available catechu (kattha) powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely glass, plastic, metal, aluminium foil, white paper, wall tile and wooden sheet. It is observed that it gives very clear results on all the mentioned substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of twelve days old latent fingermarks in varying temperature conditions on wall tiles.

Keywords: Visualization, fingermarks, catechu, aged fingermarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
24 Tumor Boundary Extraction Using Intensity and Texture-Based on Gradient Vector

Authors: Namita Mittal, Himakshi Shekhawat, Ankit Vidyarthi

Abstract:

In medical research study, doctors and radiologists face lot of complexities in analysing the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Brain tumor detection is difficult due to amorphous tumor shape and overlapping of similar tissues in nearby region. So, radiologists require one such clinically viable solution which helps in automatic segmentation of tumor inside brain MR image. Initially, segmentation methods were used to detect tumor, by dividing the image into segments but causes loss of information. In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed which detect Region of Interest (ROI) on the basis of difference in intensity values and texture values of tumor region using nearby tissues with Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) technique in the identification of ROI. Proposed approach uses both intensity and texture values for identification of abnormal section of the brain MR images. Experimental results show that proposed method outperforms GVF method without any loss of information.

Keywords: Segmentation, Texture, brain tumor, intensity, GVF, MR images

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
23 The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability

Authors: Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal

Abstract:

Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Memory, planning navigational ability

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
22 Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction in Primary Obesity through an Observational Study

Authors: Aravind Bagade Shankaranarayana, Parampalli Geetha, Pallavi Gupta

Abstract:

Objective: This study intends to evaluate sexual dysfunction qualitatively and quantitatively in males suffering from primary obesity through a single centered, observational study. Design and Methods: Sexual function of 33 obese males from the outpatient department of the hospital was assessed using IIEF questionnaire and semen analysis and the results were assessed for statistical significance. Results: A varying degree of sexual dysfunction was observed in four out of five areas of sexual functioning viz. erectile function (p<0.02), orgasmic function (p<0.02), sexual desire (p<0.08) and overall satisfaction (p<0.000) in obese individuals. Statistically significant dysfunction was not observed in intercourse satisfaction. Semen analysis was normal in 19 individuals (63.3%) and abnormal in 11 individuals (36.7%), with statistically insignificant p value 0.144, suggesting mild to moderate variation in semen parameters. Conclusions: Varying degree of sexual dysfunction is present in obese males, suggesting that obesity has a possible role in reducing the quality of sexual functioning in males as indicated in the classical Ayurvedic literature.

Keywords: Obesity, erectile dysfunction, krucchra vyavaya, sthoulya

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
21 Effect of Band Application of Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

Authors: S. B. Kalaghatagi, A. K. Guggari, Pallavi S. Manikashetti

Abstract:

A field experiment to study the effect of band application of organic manures on growth and yield of pigeon pea was conducted during 2016-17 at Kharif Seed Farm, College of Agriculture, Vijayapura. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments viz., T1 to T6 were band application of vermicompost at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 t ha⁻¹, respectively. The treatments T7 to T12 include band application of sieved FYM at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 t ha⁻¹, respectively and were compared with already recommended practice of broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha⁻¹ (T13); and recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:0 NPK kg ha⁻¹) was applied commonly to all the treatments. The results revealed that band application of vermicompost (VC) at 3 t ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher number of pods plant⁻¹ (116), grain weight plant⁻¹ (37.35 g), grain yield (1,647 kg ha⁻¹), stalk yield (2,920 kg ha⁻¹) and harvest index (0.36) and was on par with the band application of VC at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4.0 and 5.0 t ha⁻¹ as compared to broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha-1 (99.33, 24.07 g, 1,061 kg ha⁻¹, 2,920 kg ha⁻¹ and 0.36, respectively). Significantly higher net return (Rupees 59,410 ha⁻¹) and benefit cost ratio of 2.92 recorded with band application of VC at 3 t ha⁻¹ over broadcasting of FYM at 6 tonnes per ha (Rupees 25,401 ha⁻¹ and 1.78, respectively). It indicates from the above results that, growing of pigeon pea with band application of VC at 2, 2.5 and 3 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4 and 5 t ha⁻¹ leads to saving of 1 tonne of VC and 2 tonnes of FYM per ha.

Keywords: vermicompost, organic manures, rainfed pigeonpea, sieved FYM

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
20 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: KRISHAN KUMAR, Pramod Kumar, Mohit Mittal

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Artificial Neural Network, Data Clustering, self organization feature map

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
19 Breast Cancer Risk Factors: A Big Data Analysis of Black and White Women in the USA

Authors: Tejasvi Parupudi, Mochen Li, Lakshya Mittal, Ignacio G. Camarillo, Raji Sundararajan

Abstract:

With breast cancer becoming a global pandemic, it is very important to assess a woman’s risk profile accurately in a timely manner. Providing an estimate of the risk of developing breast cancer to a woman gives her an opportunity to consider options to decrease this risk. Women at low risk may be suggested yearly screenings whereas women with a high risk of developing breast cancer would be candidates for aggressive surveillance. Fortunately, there is a set of risk factors that are used to predict the probability of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. Studying risk factors and understanding how they correlate to cancer is important for early diagnosis, prevention and reducing mortality rates. The effect of crucial risk factors among black and white women was compared in this study. The various risk factors analyzed include breast density, age, cancer in a first-degree relative, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI) and prior breast cancer diagnosis, etc. Breast density, age at first full-term birth and BMI were utilized in this study as important risk factors for the comparison of incidence rates between women of black and white races in the USA. Understanding the differences could lead to the development of solutions to reduce disparity in mortality rates among black women by improving overall access to care.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Big Data, Race, Mortality, Risk Factors, incidence rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
18 Simulation Study of Enhanced Terahertz Radiation Generation by Two-Color Laser Plasma Interaction

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha

Abstract:

Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization and spectroscopic techniques. Due to non ionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser - plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the simulation study of the enhanced THz radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through magnetized plasma. The two laser pulses orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: Terahertz Radiation, magnetized plasma, two-color laser pulses, ordinary and extraordinary mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
17 Anti-Corruption in Adverse Contexts: A Strategic Approach

Authors: Mushtaq H. Khan, Antonio Andreoni, Pallavi Roy

Abstract:

Developing countries are characterized by political settlements where formal rules are generally weakly enforced and widely violated. Conventional anti-corruption strategies that focus on improving the general enforcement of a rule of law and raising the costs of corruption facing individual public officials have typically delivered poor results in these contexts. Our alternative approach is to identify anti-corruption strategies that have a high impact and that are feasible to implement in these contexts. Our alternative approach identifies anti-corruption strategies from the bottom up. This involves identifying the characteristics of the corruption constraining particular development outcomes. By drawing on theories of rents and rent seeking, and theories of political settlements, we can assess the developmental impact of particular anti-corruption strategies and the feasibility of implementing these strategies. We argue that feasible anti-corruption in these contexts cannot be solely based on conventional anti-corruption strategies. In societies that have widespread rule violations, high-impact anti-corruption is only likely to be feasible if the overall strategy succeeds in aligning the interests and capabilities of powerful organizations at the sectoral level to support the enforcement of particular sets of rules. We examine four related strategies for changing these incentives and capabilities of critical stakeholders at the local or sectoral level, and we argue that this can provide a framework for organizing research on the impact and feasibility of anti-corruption activities in different priority areas in particular countries.

Keywords: Development, Rule of Law, Anti-Corruption, political settlements analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
16 Electromagnetic Radiation Generation by Two-Color Sinusoidal Laser Pulses Propagating in Plasma

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha

Abstract:

Generation of the electromagnetic radiation oscillating at the frequencies in the terahertz range by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization, and spectroscopic techniques. Due to nonionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals, when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser-plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the study of the enhanced electromagnetic radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through the magnetized plasma. The two lasers pulse orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through the homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, magnetized plasma, two-color laser pulses, ordinary and extraordinary modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
15 Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Therapy of Alzeheimer's Disease

Authors: Nirupama Dixit, Anyaa Mittal, Neeru Sood

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia, contributing to up to 70% of cases, mostly observed in elderly but is not restricted to old age. The pathophysiology of the disease is characterized by specific pathological changes in brain. The changes (i.e. accumulation of metal ions in brain, formation of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates and tangle of hyper phosphorylated Tau protein inside neurons) damage the neuronal connections irreversibly. The current issues in improvement of life quality of Alzheimer's patient lies in the fact that the diagnosis is made at a late stage of the disease and the medications do not treat the basic causes of Alzheimer's. The targeted delivery of drug through the blood brain barrier (BBB) poses several limitations via traditional approaches for treatment. To overcome these drug delivery limitation, nanoparticles provide a promising solution. This review focuses on current strategies for efficient targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles and improving the quality of therapy provided to the patient. Nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drug (which is generally hydrophobic) to ensure its passage to brain; they can be conjugated to metal ion chelators to reduce the metal load in neural tissue thus lowering the harmful effects of oxidative damage; can be conjugated with drug and monoclonal antibodies against BBB endogenous receptors. Finally this review covers how the nanoparticles can play a role in diagnosing the disease.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, alzheimer's disease, Blood Brain Barrier, β-amyloid plaques, metal chelators

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
14 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Rajesh Gupta, Arvind Mittal

Abstract:

Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 166