Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3166

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3166 Generic Risk Assessment Models with Enhanced Reliability Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nabeel Mahmood, Tarunjit Butalia, Rongjun Qin

Abstract:

A generic risk assessment model is presented to overcome reliability limitations related to operational logic misuse and fuzzy sets rounding leading to misestimation of top risk events. Expanding fuzzy model to quantify possible subjective risk values is proposed to be used along with Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA) model for risk assessment. The model is provided to combine the influence of concurrent risks from basic events at the bottom of the tree to the top risk event defined by risk assessor. A fault tree is built upon a generic but inclusive risk breakdown structure that can be further deducted depending on top risk events under assessment. Adequate operational logic gates are suggested to avoid assessment overestimation related to accumulating the effect of dependent, redundant, and non-concurrent risks, and ignoring the effectiveness of the existing safety precautions and measures that may reduce or eliminate risks. Fuzzy sets are used to represent subjective linguistic truth values in computational sets; this study suggests additional power functions to represent best fit linguistic values to enhance the gradation in truth values of the rotational fuzzy set model.

Keywords: concurrent risk events, dependent independent risks, operational logic gates, fuzzy fault tree analysis, rotational fuzzy set model, linguistic truth values

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3165 Safety Risk Assessment Intelligent System for On-Foot Construction Worker Using Fuzzy Fault Tree

Authors: Nabeel Mahmood, Taranjit Butalia, Rongjun Qin

Abstract:

The risk assessment model is developed to estimate the potential combined influence of concurrent safety risks facing on-foot construction worker at a certain point in space or instant of time. The model is based on a holistic approach that comprehensively systemizes principal types and subjective values of possible safety risk events. Fuzzy fault tree is built using a deductive approach to identify possible concurrent basic and conditional risk events, not risk symptoms, from the major subgroups of triggering, enabling, and environment-related risks. The inclusive risk breakdown structure helps in combating assessment underestimation related to overlooking influential risks. Adequate logic gates are suggested at tree junctions to overcome assessment overestimation related to accumulating the effect of dependent, redundant, and non-concurrent risks, and ignoring the effectiveness of safety precautions and measures that may reduce or eliminate risks. Operational logic gates are applied to properly combine the residual risk of static (non-moving) events and dynamic (moving) events that can concurrently influence safety. The model is programmed into an interactive interfaced intelligent system to simulate cases of risk assessment input, computations, and output. The system shows the advantages of using the model as a prognostic or diagnostic tool to estimate top risk events. Subjective linguistic risk values can be induced for basic risk events at the bottom of the tree, and conditional risk events controlling residual risk values can be induced at different levels of the tree. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in hosting subjective risk evaluation into computational truth values to generate realistic and meaningful assessment values that are helpful for risk control.

Keywords: on-foot building construction worker, safety risk assessment model, concurrent risk events, linguistic truth values, fuzzy fault tree analysis, static dynamic risks, operational logic gates

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3164 Real-Time Site Safety Risk Assessment and Intervention Method Using Radio Frequency Identification Based Multi-Sensor Intelligent System

Authors: Nabeel Mahmood, Tarunjit Butalia, Rongjun Qin

Abstract:

One of the main problems that may put people’s safety in danger is the lack of real-time detection, evaluation, and recognition of predictable safety risks by the exposed person at the time of exposure. Current real-time risk identification solutions are limited to proximity sensing of objects which lack providing risk-specific information in real-time. Combined values of concurrently presented risks are either unrecognized or underestimated. This study goes beyond the proximity sensing state-of-the-art by envisioning, planning, designing, developing, assembling, and examining an automated intelligent real-time risk assessment system (AIR). This mobile wearable solution, along with its operational method, can predict and real-time deliver a combined evaluation of concurrent safety risks in a person’s range at any point in space or instant of time. Multi-sensor technologies based on radio frequency identification (RFID) are integrated with a risk assessment intelligent system for advancing the holistic safety assessment approach that includes identification, prioritization, detection, evaluation, and control at risk exposure time. System prototype was developed and examined to prove the concept for on-foot building construction workers at the site. The AIR system’s examined performance proved its success to achieve main design guidelines of validity, significance, simplicity, representation, reliability, and precision, and timeliness. The developed AIR system had acceptable functionality and deployment performance, namely, (1) RFID based multi-sensors integrates with intelligent system to concurrently detect multiple risks (receive), assess (compute), and deliver (sound declare) risk values in real-time at any point in space or instant of time, (2) automatic identification of concurrent multiple objects in real-time without direct contact and direct line of sight (LOS), (3) supports key mobility and deployment requirements at site related to power, size, weight, mobility, wearability, transparency and natural transmission, (4) precision and timeliness of intelligent system's risk assessment computations, (5) detection of risk locations at controllable range with some signal degradation under different site obstructions, (6) unify communications of integrated multi-sensors for real-time diverse risks detection along with anomaly and change updates. Ultimately, the end-user, which is the person wearing the AIR device, can receive real-time meaningful linguistic risk assessment value and individual risk values along with their proximity, i.e., near or far, at exposure time. The system can have post-time diagnostic uses along with its real-time prognostic primary use. Also, the paper introduced the concept of risk rose for a visual illustration of risk scenarios. The practicality of the system’s deployment, wearability, and result delivery at the site environment makes the RFID based multi-sensor system a significant risk assessment solution; the system can be applied to many industries for early risk detection, assessment, and control.

Keywords: real-time safety risk assessment, combined evaluation of concurrent risk events, RFID multi-sensor system, sound delared linguistic assessment values, proximity of risk, visual risk rose, on-foot and equipment operators

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3163 The Evaluation of Complete Blood Cell Count-Based Inflammatory Markers in Pediatric Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Obesity is defined as a severe chronic disease characterized by a low-grade inflammatory state. Therefore, inflammatory markers gained utmost importance during the evaluation of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a disease characterized by central obesity, elevated blood pressure, increased fasting blood glucose and elevated triglycerides, or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values. Recently, some complete blood cell count (CBC)-based inflammatory markers have been introduced. In this study, it was questioned which inflammatory marker was the best to evaluate the differences among various obesity groups. Five hundred and fourteen pediatric individuals were recruited. One hundred and thirty-two children with MetS, one hundred and fifty-five morbid obese (MO), ninety obese (OB), thirty-eight overweight (OW), and ninety-nine children with normal BMI (N-BMI) were included into the scope of this study. Obesity groups were constituted using age- and sex-dependent body mass index (BMI) percentiles tabulated by the World Health Organization. Metabolic syndrome components were determined to be able to specify children with MetS. Complete blood cell counts were determined using automated hematology analyzer. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol analysis was performed. Using CBC parameters and HDL-C values, ratio markers of inflammation, which cover neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), monocyte-to-HDL-C ratio (MHR) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed. The statistical significance degree was considered as p < 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of platelet count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and NLR. The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio differed significantly between OW and N-BMI as well as MetS. Monocyte-to HDL-C value exhibited statistical significance between MetS and N-BMI, OB, and MO groups. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol value differed between MetS and N-BMI, OW, OB, MO groups. The monocyte-to-HDL-C ratio was the ratio, which exhibits the best performance among the other CBC-based inflammatory markers. On the other hand, when monocyte-to-HDL-C ratio was compared to HDL-C only, it was suggested that HDL-C has given much more valuable information. Therefore, this parameter still keeps its value from the diagnostic point of view. Our results suggest that the monocyte-to-HDL-C ratio can be an inflammatory marker during the evaluation of pediatric MetS, but the predictive value of this parameter was not superior to HDL-C during the evaluation of obesity.

Keywords: children, complete blood cell count, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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3162 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung

Abstract:

Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

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3161 Mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA Genes: The Association with Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Egyptian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

Authors: Ayman K. El Essawy, Amal M. Hosny, Hala M. Abu Shady

Abstract:

The rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, both optimizes treatment and improves outcomes. In the current study, respiratory specimens were collected from 155 patients. Conventional susceptibility testing and MIC determination were performed for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Genotype MTBDRplus assay, which is a molecular genetic assay based on the DNA-STRIP technology and specific gene sequencing with primers for rpoB, KatG, and mab-inhA genes were used to detect mutations associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. In comparison to other categories, most of rifampicin resistant (61.5%) and isoniazid resistant isolates (47.1%) were from patients relapsed in treatment. The genotypic profile (using Genotype MTBDRplus assay) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates showed missing of katG wild type 1 (WT1) band and appearance of mutation band katG MUT2. For isoniazid mono-resistant isolates, 80% showed katG MUT1, 20% showed katG MUT1, and inhA MUT1, 20% showed only inhA MUT1. Accordingly, 100% of isoniazid resistant strains were detected by this assay. Out of 17 resistant strains, 16 had mutation bands for katG distinguished high resistance to isoniazid. The assay could clearly detect rifampicin resistance among 66.7% of MDR isolates that showed mutation band rpoB MUT3 while 33.3% of them were considered as unknown. One mono-resistant rifampicin isolate did not show rifampicin mutation bands by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, but it showed an unexpected mutation in Codon 531 of rpoB by DNA sequence analysis. Rifampicin resistance in this strain could be associated with a mutation in codon 531 of rpoB (based on molecular sequencing), and Genotype MTBDRplus assay could not detect the associated mutation. If the results of Genotype MTBDRplus assay and sequencing were combined, this strain shows hetero-resistance pattern. Gene sequencing of eight selected isolates, previously tested by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, could detect resistance mutations mainly in codon 315 (katG gene), position -15 in inhA promotes gene for isoniazid resistance and codon 531 (rpoB gene) for rifampicin resistance. Genotyping techniques allow distinguishing between recurrent cases of reinfection or reactivation and supports epidemiological studies.

Keywords: M. tuberculosis, rpoB, KatG, inhA, genotype MTBDRplus

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3160 Exploring Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Male Youth in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Subas Chandra Biswas, Kazi Sameen Naser, Farzana Misha

Abstract:

Little is known about the sexual behavior of male youth, particularly unmarried young men in Bangladesh as most of the sexual and reproductive health and rights-related research and intervention are mainly focused on females and married couples. To understand the unmarried youth’s sexual behavior, data from a nationwide survey conducted in all 64 districts of Bangladesh were analyzed. Using multistage systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted among 11,113 male youth aged 15-24 years from May-August, 2019. This article analyzed and presented findings of the sexual behavior of unmarried respondents based on the data collected from 10,026 unmarried male youth. Findings showed that 18% had ever experience of sexual relationship, and the reported mean age of first sexual intercourse was 16.5years. For unmarried male youth, those who had a sexual experience, their first sexual partners were female friends/classmate (57%), female neighbors (16%), and female sex workers (12%), relatives (6%) and girlfriends with whom they had love relationship (4%). However, about 36% reported that they had a love relationship with girlfriends, and among them, 23% reported that they had sexual intercourse with their girlfriend. Those who had sexual relations with their girlfriend, 47% reported that they did not use the condom in their last sex with their girlfriend. Furthermore, 29% reported that they had sexual relationships with others besides their girlfriends. Other reported partners were female sex workers (32%), neighbors (29%), female friends (19%), relatives (12%), and cousins (5%). Also, 46% reported that they did not even use the condom during sex with other partners. About 9% used some sort of sexual stimulant to increase their libido. Among the respondents, 376 reported that they bought sex in the last six months, and the mean expenditure of buying sex for the respondent was 1,140 Taka (13.46 US Dollar). Though premarital sexual relations are not socially accepted, findings showed a large portion of male youth are engaged in these relationships and risky sexual behavior. Lack of awareness of sexual and reproductive health, unprotected sexual intercourse, use of the drug during sexual intercourse also increase the threats to health. Thus these findings are important to understand the sexual behavior of male youth in policy and programmatic implications. Therefore, to ensure a healthy sexual life and wellbeing, an immediate and culturally sensitive sexual health promotion intervention is needed for male youth in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, male youth, sexual and reproductive health, sexual behavior

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3159 Challenging Weak Central Coherence: An Exploration of Neurological Evidence from Visual Processing and Linguistic Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Jessica Scher Lisa, Eric Shyman

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (i.e. deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors, and establishing/maintaining social relationships), as well as by the presence of repetitive behaviors and perseverative areas of interest (i.e. stereotyped or receptive motor movements, use of objects, or speech, rigidity, restricted interests, and hypo or hyperactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment). Additionally, diagnoses of ASD require the presentation of symptoms in the early developmental period, marked impairments in adaptive functioning, and a lack of explanation by general intellectual impairment or global developmental delay (although these conditions may be co-occurring). Over the past several decades, many theories have been developed in an effort to explain the root cause of ASD in terms of atypical central cognitive processes. The field of neuroscience is increasingly finding structural and functional differences between autistic and neurotypical individuals using neuro-imaging technology. One main area this research has focused upon is in visuospatial processing, with specific attention to the notion of ‘weak central coherence’ (WCC). This paper offers an analysis of findings from selected studies in order to explore research that challenges the ‘deficit’ characterization of a weak central coherence theory as opposed to a ‘superiority’ characterization of strong local coherence. The weak central coherence theory has long been both supported and refuted in the ASD literature and has most recently been increasingly challenged by advances in neuroscience. The selected studies lend evidence to the notion of amplified localized perception rather than deficient global perception. In other words, WCC may represent superiority in ‘local processing’ rather than a deficit in global processing. Additionally, the right hemisphere and the specific area of the extrastriate appear to be key in both the visual and lexicosemantic process. Overactivity in the striate region seems to suggest inaccuracy in semantic language, which lends itself to support for the link between the striate region and the atypical organization of the lexicosemantic system in ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, neurology, visual processing, weak coherence

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3158 Correlates of Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Acceptance Attitude Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study among Unmarried Young Women in Uganda

Authors: Tesfaldet Mekonnen Estifanos, Chen Hui, Afewerki Weldezgi

Abstract:

Background: Youth in general and young females in particular, remain at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Sexual risk-taking among young unmarried women is relatively high and are the most vulnerable and highly exposed to HIV/AIDS. Improvements in the status of HIV/AIDS knowledge and acceptance attitude towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) plays a great role in averting the incidence of HIV/AIDS. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the level and correlates of HIV/AIDS knowledge and accepting attitude toward PLWHIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Uganda Demographic Health Survey 2016 (UDHS-2016). National level representative household surveys using a multistage cluster probability sampling method, face to face interviews with standard questionnaires were performed. Unmarried women aged 15-24 years with a sample size of 2019 were selected from the total sample of 8674 women aged 15-49 years and were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Independent variables such as age, religion, educational level, residence, and wealth index were included. Two binary outcome variables (comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and acceptance attitude toward PLWHIV) were utilized. We used the chi-square test as well as multivariate regression analysis to explore correlations of explanatory variables with the outcome variables. The results were reported by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), taking a p-value less than 0.05 as significant. Results: Almost all (99.3%) of the unmarried women aged 15-24 years were aware of HIV/AIDS, but only 51.2% had adequate comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Only 69.4% knew both methods: using a condom every time had sex, and having only one faithful uninfected partner can prevent HIV/AIDS transmission. About 66.6% of the unmarried women reject at least two common local misconceptions about HIV/AIDS. Moreover, an alarmingly few (20.3%) of the respondents had a positive acceptance attitude to PLWHIV. On multivariate analysis, age (20-24 years), living in urban, being educated and wealthier, were predictors of having adequate comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. On the other hand, research participants with adequate comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS were highly likely (OR, 1.94 95% CI, 1.52-2.46) to have a positive acceptance attitude to PLWHIV than those with inadequate knowledge. Respondents with no education, Muslim, and Pentecostal religion were emerged less likely to have a positive acceptance attitude to PLWHIV. Conclusion: This study found out the highly accepted level of awareness, but the knowledge and positive acceptance attitude are not encouraging. Thus, expanding access to comprehensive sexuality and strengthening educational campaigns on HIV/AIDS in communities, health facilities, and schools is needed with a greater focus on disadvantaged women having low educational level, poor socioeconomic status, and those residing in rural areas. Sexual risk behaviors among the most affected people - young women have also a role in the spread of HIV/AIDS. Hence, further research assessing the significant contributing factors for sexual risk-taking might have a positive impact on the fight against HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: acceptance attitude, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, unmarried women

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3157 Assessment of Some Obesity Parameters in Terms of Metabolic Age above and below Chronological Age in Adults

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa Metin Donma

Abstract:

Chronologic age (CA) of individuals is closely related to obesity and generally affects the magnitude of obesity parameters. On the other hand, close association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and metabolic age (MA) is also a matter of concern. It is suggested that MA higher than CA is the indicator of the need to improve the metabolic rate. In this study, the aim was to assess some commonly used obesity parameters, such as obesity degree, visceral adiposity, BMR, BMR-to-weight ratio, in several groups with varying differences between MA and CA (MA-CA) values. The study comprises adults whose ages vary between 18 and 79 years. Four groups were constituted. Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were composed of fifty-five, thirty-three, seventy-six, and forty-seven adults, respectively. The individuals exhibiting -1, 0, and +1 for their MA-CA values were involved in Group 1, which was considered as the control group. Those, whose MA-CA values varying between -5 and -10 participated in Group 2. Those, whose MAs above their real ages were divided into two groups [Group 3 (MA-CA; from +5 to + 10) and Group 4 (MA-CA; from +11 to + 12)]. Body mass index (BMI) values were calculated. TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology was used to obtain values for obesity degree, visceral adiposity, BMR, and BMR-to-weight ratio. The compiled data were evaluated statistically using a statistical package program; SPSS. Mean ± SD (SE) values were determined. Correlation analyses were performed. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. The increase in BMR was positively correlated with obesity degree. Metabolic ages and CAs of the groups were 39.9 ± 16.8 vs. 39.9 ± 16.7 years for Group 1, 45.0 ± 15.3 vs. 51.4 ± 15.7 years for Group 2, 47.2 ± 12.7 vs. 40.0 ± 12.7 years for Group 3, and 53.6 ± 14.8 vs. 42 ± 14.8 years for Group 4. Body mass index values of the groups were 24.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2, 23.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 30.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2, and 40.1 ± 5.1 kg/m2 for Group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Values obtained for BMR were 1599 ± 328 kcal in Group 1, 1463 ± 198 kcal in Group 2, 1652 ± 350 kcal in Group 3, and 1890 ± 360 kcal in Group 4. A correlation was observed between BMR and MA-CA values in Group 1. None was detected in the other groups. On the other hand, statistically significant correlations between MA-CA values and obesity degree, BMI as well as BMR/weight were found in Group 3 and in Group 4. It was concluded that upon consideration of these findings in terms of MA-CA values, the BMR-to-weight ratio was found to be a much more useful indicator of the severe increase in obesity development than BMR. Also, the lack of associations between MA and BMR, as well as the BMR-to-weight ratio, emphasize the importance of consideration of MA-CA values rather than MA.

Keywords: basal metabolic rate, basal metabolic rate-to-weight-ratio, chronologic age, metabolic age, obesity degree

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3156 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak

Abstract:

Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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3155 The Routine Use of a Negative Pressure Incision Management System in Vascular Surgery: A Case Series

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Angela Tan, Rachel Xuan, Linheng Zhao, Kejia Wang, Animesh Singla, David Kim, Christopher Loupos

Abstract:

Introduction: Incisional wound complications in vascular surgery patients represent a significant clinical and econometric burden of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to trial the feasibility of applying the Prevena negative pressure incision management system as a routine dressing in patients who had undergone arterial surgery. Conventionally, Prevena has been applied to groin incisions, but this study features applications on multiple wound sites such as the thigh or major amputation stumps. Method: This was a cross-sectional observational, single-centre case series of 12 patients who had undergone major vascular surgery. Their wounds were managed with the Prevena system being applied either intra-operatively or on the first post-operative day. Demographic and operative details were collated as well as the length of stay and complication rates. Results: There were 9 males (75%) with mean age of 66 years and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (92%), diabetes (42%), hypertension (100%), stage 4 or greater kidney impairment (17%) and current or ex-smoking (83%). The main indications were acute ischaemia (33%), claudication (25%), and gangrene (17%). There were single instances of an occluded popliteal artery aneurysm, diabetic foot infection, and rest pain. The majority of patients (50%) had hybrid operations with iliofemoral endarterectomies, patch arterioplasties, and further peripheral endovascular treatment. There were 4 complex arterial bypass operations and 2 major amputations. The mean length of stay was 17 ± 10 days, with a range of 4 to 35 days. A single complication, in the form of a lymphocoele, was encountered in the context of an iliofemoral endarterectomy and patch arterioplasty. This was managed conservatively. There were no deaths. Discussion: The Prevena wound management system shows that in conjunction with safe vascular surgery, absolute wound complication rates remain low and that it remains a valuable adjunct in the treatment of vasculopaths.

Keywords: wound care, negative pressure, vascular surgery, closed incision

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3154 An Australian Tertiary Centre Experience of Complex Endovascular Aortic Repairs

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Rachel Xuan, Angela Tan, Kejia Wang, Animesh Singla, David Kim, Christopher Loupos, Jim Iliopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Complex endovascular aortic aneursymal repairs with fenestrated and branched endografts require customised devices to exclude the pathology while reducing morbidity and mortality, which was historically associated with open repair of complex aneurysms. Such endovascular procedures have predominantly been performed in a large volume dedicated tertiary centres. We present here our nine year multidisciplinary experience with this technology in an Australian tertiary centre. Method: This was a cross-sectional, single-centre observational study of 670 patients who had undergone complex endovascular aortic aneurysmal repairs with conventional endografts, fenestrated endografts, and iliac-branched devices from January 2010 to July 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise our sample with regards to demographic and perioperative variables. Homogeneity of the sample was tested using multivariant regression, which did not identify any statistically significant confounding variables. Results: 670 patients of mean age 74, were included (592 males) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischemic heart disease (55%), diabetes (18%), hypertension (90%), stage four or greater kidney impairment (8%) and current or ex-smoking (78%). The main indications for surgery were elective aneurysms (86%), symptomatic aneurysms (5%), and rupture aneurysms (5%). 106 patients (16%) underwent fenestrated or branched endograft repairs. The mean length of stay was 7.6 days. 2 patients experienced reactionary bleeds, 11 patients had access wound complications (6 lymph fistulae, 5 haematoms), 11 patients had cardiac complications (5 arrhythmias, 3 acute myocadial infarctions, 3 exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure), 10 patients had respiratory complications, 8 patients had renal impairment, 4 patients had gastrointestinal complications, 2 patients suffered from paraplegia, 1 major stroke, 1 minor stroke, and 1 acute brain syndrome. There were 4 vascular occlusions requiring further arterial surgery, 4 type I endoleaks, 4 type II endoleaks, 3 episodes of thromboembolism, and 2 patients who required further arterial operations in the setting of patient vessels. There were 9 unplanned returns to the theatre. Discussion: Our numbers of 10 years suggest that we are not a dedicated high volume centre focusing on aortic repairs. However, we have achieved significantly low complication rates. This can be attributed to our multidisciplinary approach with the intraoperative involvement of skilled interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons as well as postoperative protocols with particular attention to spinal cord protection. Additionally, we have a ratified perioperative pathway that involves multidisciplinary team discussions of patient-related factors and lesion-centered characteristics, which allows for holistic, patient-centered care.

Keywords: aneurysm, aortic, endovascular, fenestrated

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3153 Association of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor with Iron as well as Vitamin D, Folate and Cobalamin in Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

The impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on cognition and functions of the brain is being investigated. Iron deficiency and deficiencies of B9 (folate), as well as B12 (cobalamin) vitamins, are best-known nutritional anemias. They are associated with cognitive disorders and learning difficulties. Antidepressant effects of vitamin D are known, and the deficiency state affects mental functions negatively. The aim of this study is to investigate possible correlations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), iron, folate, cobalamin, and vitamin D in pediatric patients. Thirty children, whose age- and sex-dependent body mass index (BMI) percentiles vary between 85 and 15, sixty morbid obese children with above 99th percentiles constituted the study population. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Body mass index values were calculated. Age- and sex-dependent BMI percentile values were obtained using the appropriate tables prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity classification was performed according to WHO criteria. Those with MetS were evaluated according to MetS criteria. Serum bdnf was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum folate was analyzed by an immunoassay analyzer. Serum cobalamin concentrations were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Vitamin D status was determined by the measurement of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 25(OH)D] using high-performance liquid chromatography. Statistical evaluations were performed using SPSS for Windows, version 16. p values less than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Although statistically insignificant, lower folate and cobalamin values were found in MO children compared to those observed for children with normal BMI. For iron and bdnf values, no alterations were detected among the groups. Significantly decreased vitamin D concentrations were noted in MO children with MetS in comparison with those in children with normal BMI (p ≤ 0.05). The positive correlation observed between iron and bdnf in the normal-BMI group was not found in two MO groups. In the MetS group, the partial correlation among iron, bdnf, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D controlling for waist circumference, and BMI was r= -0.501; p ≤ 0.05. None was calculated in MO and normal BMI groups. In conclusion, vitamin D should also be considered during the assessment of pediatric MetS. Waist circumference and BMI should collectively be evaluated during the evaluation of MetS in children. Within this context, bdnf appears to be a key biochemical parameter during the examination of obesity degree in terms of mental functions, cognition, and learning capacity. The association observed between iron and bdnf in children with normal BMI was not detected in MO groups, possibly due to the development of inflammation and other obesity-related pathologies. It was suggested that this finding may contribute to mental function impairments commonly observed among obese children.

Keywords: brain-derived neurotrophic factor, iron, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, vitamin D

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3152 Agreement between Basal Metabolic Rate Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Estimated by Prediction Equations in Obese Groups

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa Metin Donma

Abstract:

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is widely used and an accepted measure of energy expenditure. Its principal determinant is body mass. However, this parameter is also correlated with a variety of other factors. The objective of this study is to measure BMR and compare it with the values obtained from predictive equations in adults classified according to their body mass index (BMI) values. Two hundred and seventy-six adults were included in the scope of this study. Their age, height, and weight values were recorded. Five groups were designed based on their BMI values. The first group (n=85) was composed of individuals with BMI values varying between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m². Those with BMI values varying from 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m² constituted Group 2 (n=90). Individuals with 30.0-34.9 kg/m², 35.0-39.9 kg/m², > 40.0 kg/m² were included in Group 3 (n=53), 4 (n=28) and 5 (n=20), respectively. The most commonly used equations to be compared with the measured BMR values were selected. For this purpose, the values were calculated by the use of four equations to predict BMR values, by name, introduced by FAO/WHO/UNU, Harris and Benedict, Owen, and Mifflin. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, postHoc Tukey, and Pearson’s correlation tests were performed by a statistical program designed for Windows (SPSS, version 16.0). p values smaller than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Mean ± SD of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for measured BMR in kcal were 1440.3, 1618.8, 1741.1, 1853.1, and 2028.0, respectively. Upon evaluation of the comparison of means among groups, differences were highly significant between Group 1 and each of the remaining four groups. The values were increasing from Group 2 to Group 5. However, differences between Group 2 and Group 3, Group 3, and Group 4, Group 4, and Group 5 were not statistically significant. These insignificances were lost in predictive equations proposed by Harris and Benedict, FAO/WHO/UNU, and Owen. For Mifflin, the insignificance was limited only to Group 4 and Group 5. Upon evaluation of the correlations of measured BMR and the estimated values computed from prediction equations, the lowest correlations between measured BMR and estimated BMR values were observed among the individuals within normal BMI range. The highest correlations were detected in individuals with BMI values varying between 30.0 and 34.9 kg/m². Correlations between measured BMR values and BMR values calculated by FAO/WHO/UNU as well as Owen were the same and the highest. In all groups, the highest correlations were observed between BMR values calculated from Mifflin and Harris and Benedict equations using age as an additional parameter. In conclusion, the unique resemblance of the FAO/WHO/UNU and Owen equations were pointed out. However, mean values obtained from FAO/WHO/UNU were much closer to the measured BMR values. Besides, the highest correlations were found between BMR calculated from FAO/WHO/UNU and measured BMR. These findings suggested that FAO/WHO/UNU was the most reliable equation, which may be used in conditions when the measured BMR values are not available.

Keywords: adult, basal metabolic rate, fao/who/unu, obesity, prediction equations

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3151 Pre-Operative Psychological Factors Significantly Add to the Predictability of Chronic Narcotic Use: A Two Year Prospective Study

Authors: Dana El-Mughayyar, Neil Manson, Erin Bigney, Eden Richardson, Dean Tripp, Edward Abraham

Abstract:

Use of narcotics to treat pain has increased over the past two decades and is a contributing factor to the current public health crisis. Understanding the pre-operative risks of chronic narcotic use may be aided through investigation of psychological measures. The objective of the reported study is to determine predictors of narcotic use two years post-surgery in a thoracolumbar spine surgery population, including an array of psychological factors. A prospective observational study of 191 consecutively enrolled adult patients having undergone thoracolumbar spine surgery is presented. Baseline measures of interest included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scales for back and leg pain (NRS-B/L), SF-12’s Mental Component Summary (MCS), narcotic use and demographic variables. The post-operative measure of interest is narcotic use at 2-year follow-up. Narcotic use is collapsed into binary categories of use and no use. Descriptive statistics are run. Chi Square analysis is used for categorical variables and an ANOVA for continuous variables. Significant variables are built into a hierarchical logistic regression to determine predictors of post-operative narcotic use. Significance is set at α < 0.05. Results: A total of 27.23% of the sample were using narcotics two years after surgery. The regression model included ODI, NRS-Leg, time with condition, chief complaint, pre-operative drug use, gender, MCS, PCS subscale helplessness, and CPAQ subscale pain willingness and was significant χ² (13, N=191)= 54.99; p = .000. The model accounted for 39.6% of the variance in narcotic use and correctly predicted in 79.7% of cases. Psychological variables accounted for 9.6% of the variance over and above the other predictors. Conclusions: Managing chronic narcotic usage is central to the patient’s overall health and quality of life. Psychological factors in the preoperative period are significant predictors of narcotic use 2 years post-operatively. The psychological variables are malleable, potentially allowing surgeons to direct their patients to preventative resources prior to surgery.

Keywords: narcotics, psychological factors, quality of life, spine surgery

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3150 A Retrospective Analysis of Postoperative Outcomes for Cementoplasty, Cryoablation and Microwave Ablation for Palliative Management of Bony Metastasis

Authors: Joseph Zhao, Eelin Tan, Sum Leong, Chow Wei Too

Abstract:

Objective: This study aims to analyze postoperative pain and functional outcomes of percutaneous interventions for bony metastasis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent cementoplasty and ablative procedures from October 2017 to June 2019. Technical success was defined as coverage of > 75% of tumor volume during intra-procedural CT. Pre- and post-procedure pain and functional scores were measured using the visual analogue scale and modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. When available, follow up imaging was examined for local tumor control. Results: 70 lesions (vertebral=49, non-vertebral=21) in 49 patients (mean age 65.2±11.0, male=25, female=24) were treated with only cementoplasty (CEMENT, n=40), cementoplasty with cryoablation (cCRYO, n=21) and cementoplasty with microwave ablation (cMWA, n=9). Technical success was achieved in 97%. The mean postoperative outcome enquiry was 3.57±2.3 months. Asymptomatic cement extrusion occurred in 19 procedures. Mean pain score improvement was 4.38±1.1 (p < 0. 001), there was a non-statistically significant mean functional improvement of 7.88±14.3. Pain score improvement was greatest in the cMWA subgroup (5.17± 1.4 p < 0.001), followed by cCRYO (4.75 ±2.6 p < 0.001) and CEMENT (3.91±1.8 p < 0.001) subgroups. There were no statistically significant improvements in functional scores. Conclusion: This study has shown that image-guided percutaneous interventions can provide significant pain relief for palliative patients with bony metastases. Our study also shows that the addition of ablative techniques to cementoplasty may further improve pain outcomes. More data is needed to better understand which ablative technique offers this advantage.

Keywords: cementoplasty, palliative, ablation, metastasis, cryoablation

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3149 Use of Social Support for Fathers with Developmental Disabilities in Japan

Authors: Shiori Ishida, Hiromi Okuno, Hisato Igarashi, Akemi Yamazaki, Hiroko Takahashi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences and similarities regarding the social support of fathers and mothers towards considering increased assistance for the paternity of children with developmental disabilities. Written questionnaires were completed by fathers (n=85) and mothers (n=101) of children using rehabilitation facilities between infancy and 5 years of age. The survey contained multiple-choice questions on four categories: information support (6 items), emotional support (7 items), evaluation support (3 items), and daily living support (3 items). Regarding information support, fathers answered ‘spouse’ as the provider in over 50% of cases for all 6 items, which was significantly different compared with mothers (all p < 0.001). For emotional support, fathers were significantly more likely to get support from the workplace (p < 0.001) and from spouse (p < 0.001). The ‘evaluation support’ did not have significant differences for fathers in all the items, but the most frequent support providers were ‘spouses’. ‘Daily living support’ was significantly different from fathers in the workplace (p < 0.000) in terms of make allowances for work and duties. Thus, it appeared that fathers had fewer social support sources as compared with mothers and limited non-spouse support. The understanding of developmental disabilities, acquisition of methods of rehabilitation, and sources of support might have been inadequately addressed among fathers, which could be a hindrance to the involvement of fathers in the rearing of children with developmental disabilities. On the other hand, we also observed that some fathers were involved in the care of developmentally troubled children while providing mental support for their spouse, cooperating with housework, and adjusting their work life. However, the results on the external and social backgrounds of fathers indicated a necessity for greater empowerment and peer support to improve the paternal care of children with developmental disabilities in the family survey.

Keywords: children with developmental disabilities, family support, father, social support

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3148 Prevalence of Disability among Children Two to Fourteen Years at Selected Districts in Greater Accra Region of Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Nanaama Brew, Bismark Jampim Abrokwah

Abstract:

Children with disabilities in Ghana are not routinely registered, and this can imply that they may be neglected in national policy planning since global estimates may not be near the exact numbers. Although there are some studies with reports on the prevalence of disability among children in Ghana, reliable information on the prevalence, types of disability in children, and children who die with disabilities in the Greater Accra region are lacking. The current study seeks to investigate the incidence of disability among children two to fourteen years at selected districts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. A cross-sectional design is adapted with a quantitative method for this study. Parents with disabled children who access child welfare clinics at the Greater Accra regional hospital, Maamobi hospital, Ga west, and Ga south district hospitals will be selected through purposive sampling for the study. An adapted UNICEF structured Ten Questions will be used to collect relevant data about participants. The responses to the questions will be either 'Yes' or 'No'. Parents with children who answer 'Yes' to a disability and purposively sampled parents with children who answer 'No' to disability will be invited to Child Health Clinic at the Greater Accra regional hospital for a free clinical assessment. Data will be entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2013 and imported into STATA version 15 for analysis. The study is expected to provide reliable disaggregated data on less than fourteen years of children with disabilities in the Greater Accra region. The findings and recommendations of the study will demonstrate the importance of early detection of disability and facilitate more quality and holistic planning of appropriate programmes that best safeguard the rights of children with disabilities in Ghana. It will help in policy and decision-making on children less than fourteen years with disabilities in Ghana. Also, findings will be useful for health facilities in Ghana to plan services for disabled children. Finally, the study is expected to add to the guides for the National Council of Persons with Disabilities to fulfill its legal mandate for disabled persons in Ghana.

Keywords: prevalence, disability, children, Ghana

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3147 Organ Dose Calculator for Fetus Undergoing Computed Tomography

Authors: Choonsik Lee, Les Folio

Abstract:

Pregnant patients may undergo CT in emergencies unrelated with pregnancy, and potential risk to the developing fetus is of concern. It is critical to accurately estimate fetal organ doses in CT scans. We developed a fetal organ dose calculation tool using pregnancy-specific computational phantoms combined with Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. We adopted a series of pregnancy computational phantoms developed at the University of Florida at the gestational ages of 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38 weeks (Maynard et al. 2011). More than 30 organs and tissues and 20 skeletal sites are defined in each fetus model. We calculated fetal organ dose-normalized by CTDIvol to derive organ dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) for the eight fetuses for consequential slice locations ranging from the top to the bottom of the pregnancy phantoms with 1 cm slice thickness. Organ dose from helical scans was approximated by the summation of doses from multiple axial slices included in the given scan range of interest. We then compared dose conversion coefficients for major fetal organs in the abdominal-pelvis CT scan of pregnancy phantoms with the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female computational phantom. A comprehensive library of organ conversion coefficients was established for the eight developing fetuses undergoing CT. They were implemented into an in-house graphical user interface-based computer program for convenient estimation of fetal organ doses by inputting CT technical parameters as well as the age of the fetus. We found that the esophagus received the least dose, whereas the kidneys received the greatest dose in all fetuses in AP scans of the pregnancy phantoms. We also found that when the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female phantom is used as a surrogate for fetal organ doses, root-mean-square-error ranged from 0.08 mGy (8 weeks) to 0.38 mGy (38 weeks). The uterine dose was up to 1.7-fold greater than the esophagus dose of the 38-week fetus model. The calculation tool should be useful in cases requiring fetal organ dose in emergency CT scans as well as patient dose monitoring.

Keywords: computed tomography, fetal dose, pregnant women, radiation dose

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3146 A Community-Engaged Approach to Examining Health Outcomes Potentially Related to Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Yuma, Arizona

Authors: Julie A. Baldwin, Robert T. Trotter, Mark Remiker, C. Loren Buck, Amanda Aguirre, Trudie Milner, Emma Torres, Frank A. von Hippel

Abstract:

Introduction: In the past, there have been concerns about contaminants in the water sources in Yuma, Arizona, including the Colorado River. Prolonged exposure to contaminants, such as perchlorate and heavy metals, can lead to deleterious health effects in humans. This project examined the association between the concentration of environmental contaminants and patient health outcomes in Yuma residents, using a community-engaged approach to data collection. Methods: A community-engaged design allowed community partners and researchers to establish joint research goals, recruit participants, collect data, and formulate strategies for dissemination of findings. Key informant interviews were conducted to evaluate adherence to models of community-based research. Results: The training needs, roles, and expectations of community partners varied based on available resources, prior research experience, and perceived research challenges and ways to address them. Conclusions: Leveraging community-engaged approaches for studies of environmental contamination in marginalized communities can expedite recruitment efforts and stimulate action that can lead to improved community health.

Keywords: community engaged research, environmental contaminants, underserved populations, health equity

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3145 Evaluation of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Five Essential Oils

Authors: G. Ozturk, B. Demirci

Abstract:

It is well known that essential oils used for therapeutic purposes for many years. In this study, five different Pharmacopoeia grade essential oils (Achillea millefolium L., Pimpinella anisum L., Matricaria recutita L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Salvia officinalis L.) which obtained from commercial sources were evaluated for chemical compositions, synergistic antimicrobial activities, and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitions. Volatile components were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer, simultaneously. The potential antimicrobial activity of essential oils was tested against oral pathogenic standard strains such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium striatum, Candida albicans and Candida krusei by broth microdilution methods. Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole were used positive controls. It has been observed that the essential oils tested have average inhibitory antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of 20-0.625 mg/mL. The active essential oils have been combined with antibiotics and synergistic effects have been evaluated by Checkerboard method. ƩFIC values were determined. In combination with antibiotics M. recutita essential oil has been shown to have a synergistic effect against S. aureus in combination with tetracycline (ƩFIC 0.46). In addition, 5-LOX inhibitory activity was measured by modifying the spectrophotometric method developed by Baylac and Racine. As a result, 5-LOX % inhibition of S. officinalis, E. globulus and M. recutita were calculated as 34.0 ± 6.66, 72.7 ± 2.78 and 27.7 ± 0.60, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oils, synergistic activity, 5-lipoxygenase inhibition

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3144 Fatty Acid Translocase (Cd36), Energy Substrate Utilization, and Insulin Signaling in Brown Adipose Tissue in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Michal Pravenec, Miroslava Simakova, Jan Silhavy

Abstract:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism in rodents and possibly also in humans. Recently, using systems genetics approach in the BAT from BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, derived from the SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rat) and BN (Brown Norway) progenitors, we identified Cd36 (fatty acid translocase) as the hub gene of co-expression module associated with BAT relative weight and function. An important aspect of BAT biology is to better understand the mechanisms regulating the uptake and utilization of fatty acids and glucose. Accordingly, BAT function in the SHR that harbors mutant nonfunctional Cd36 variant (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻) was compared with SHR transgenic line expressing wild type Cd36 under control of a universal promoter (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺). BAT was incubated in media containing insulin and 14C-U-glucose alone or 14C-U-glucose together with palmitate. Incorporation of glucose into BAT lipids was significantly higher in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ versus SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats when incubation media contained glucose alone (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 591 ± 75 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1036 ± 135 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.005). Adding palmitate into incubation media had no effect in SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats but significantly reduced glucose incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 543 ± 55 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 766 ± 75 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x palmitate interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). This Cd36-dependent reduced glucose uptake in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ BAT was likely secondary to increased palmitate incorporation and utilization due to the presence of wild type Cd36 fatty acid translocase in transgenic rats. This possibility is supported by increased incorporation of 14C-U-palmitate into BAT lipids in the presence of both palmitate and glucose in incubation media (palmitate alone: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 870 ± 21 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 899 ± 42; glucose+palmitate: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 899 ± 47 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1460 ± 111 nmol/palm./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x glucose interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). It is possible that addition of glucose into the incubation media increased palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats because of glucose availability for glycerol phosphate production and increased triglyceride synthesis. These changes in glucose and palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids were associated with significant differential expression of Irs1, Irs2, Slc2a4 and Foxo1 genes involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism only in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats which suggests Cd36-dependent effects on insulin action. In conclusion, these results provide compelling evidence that Cd36 plays an important role in BAT insulin signaling and energy substrate utilization.

Keywords: brown adipose tissue, Cd36, energy substrate utilization, insulin signaling, spontaneously hypertensive rat

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3143 Cross-Sectional Study Assessing the Association between Discharge Destination and Functional Independence Measure after Cervical Spine Surgery

Authors: T. Enishi, M. Takeuchi, H. Yoshinari, K. Kondo, R. Sato, S. Yoshioka, M. Nakamura, S. Nakano

Abstract:

Introduction: Functional independence measure (FIM) is used to assess a patient's level of disability as well as a change in patient status in response to rehabilitation. However, little is known about the association with the discharge destination after cervical spine surgery. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between discharge destination and functional independence measure after cervical spine surgery. Methods: Twenty-nine patients who underwent cervical spine surgery in 2018 were included in this study. Patients were hospitalized for approximately 6 weeks. Intensive rehabilitation was applied after surgery. Patients were measured with FIM after 2 weeks and 6 weeks after surgery by physiotherapists. Results: Mean age, height (cm), weight (kg), and BMI (kg/m²) were 60.9 ± 15.0, 161.0 ± 9.7, 66.1 ± 16.6, 25.2 ± 4.5, respectively. The home return ratio was 38.0%. Spearman's rank collation showed statistically significant collation between discharge destination and FIM after 2 weeks of surgery (r = -0.536, P = 0.003) and after 6 weeks of surgery (r = -0.481, P = 0.008). Conclusion: Our findings showed that FIM was correlated with the discharge destination after cervical spine surgery. Patients who have a low score with FIM at 2 weeks after surgery tend to be transferring the hospital to extend the hospital stay. Aggressive rehabilitation was needed for those patients to the successful return to the activities of daily life.

Keywords: cervical spine surgery, discharge destination, functional independence measure, rehabilitation

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3142 Exploring The Type of Maladaptive Behaviors With The Most Impact On Quality Of Life In Preschool Children With Autism

Authors: F. Kok, S. P. Yeleswarapu

Abstract:

The impact of Maladaptive behaviors on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively unexplored. This study intends to explore the extent of influence that different types of Maladaptive behaviors (Internalized, Asocial, and Externalized) have on HRQOL in this group when background characteristics (age, gross monthly income, housing type, and daily sleep duration) and adaptive functioning are controlled. Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and background characteristic questionnaires from 99 caregivers of children with ASD seeking treatment at KK Women and Children’s Hospital were collected. These were used to assess the severity of Maladaptive behaviors, the level of Adaptive functioning and a few background characteristics of these children. The relationship of these with Psychosocial and Physical HRQOL in these children is assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Multiple Regression revealed that Maladaptive behaviors have a greater impact on HRQOL than Adaptive skills and background characteristics. Asocial maladaptive behaviors have the most unique influence on HRQOL out of the three Maladaptive behaviors, suggesting difficulties in social interaction and communication manifested by children with ASD play the largest role in their HRQOL at this age. Adaptive skills have a smaller but still unique impact on HRQOL, while background characteristics are not significant. The specific types of Asocial Maladaptive behavior and their impact of HRQOL in this age group can be further studied with ASD-specific scales like Social Responsive Scale (SRS) and Repetitive Behaviors Scale-Revised (RBS-R). A more targeted behavioral intervention can be then developed to improve the quality of life amongst preschool children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, children, maladaptive behavior, quality of life

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3141 Associations Between Mindfulness, Temporal Discounting, Locus of Control, and Reward-Based Eating in a Sample of Overweight and Obese Adults

Authors: Andrea S. Badillo-Perez, Alexis D. Mitchell, Sara M. Levens

Abstract:

Overeating, and obesity have been associated with addictive behavior, primarily due to behaviors like reward-based eating, the tendency to overeat due to factors such as lack of control, preoccupation over food, and lack of satiation. Temporal discounting (TD), the ability to select future rewards over short term gains, and mindfulness, the process of maintaining present moment awareness, have been suggested to have significant, differential impacts on health-related behaviors. An individual’s health locus of control, the degree to which they feel that they have control over their health is also known to have an impact on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and reward-based eating, as well as the relation between TD and mindfulness in a sample (N = 126) of overweight or obese participants from larger health-focused study. Through the use of questionnaires (including the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Reward-Based Eating Drive (RED), and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLOC)), anthropometric measurements, and a computerized TD task, a series of regressions tested the association between subscales of these measures. Results revealed differences in how the mindfulness subscales are associated with TD measures. Specifically the ‘Observing’ (beta =-.203) and ‘Describing’ (beta =.26) subscales were associated with lower TD rates and a longer subjective devaluation time-frame respectively. In contrast, the ‘Acting with Awareness’ subscale was associated with a shorter subjective devaluation timeframe (beta =-.23). These findings suggest that the reflective perspective initiated through the observing and describing components of mindfulness may facilitate delay of gratification, whereas the acting with awareness component of mindfulness, which focuses on the present moment, may make delay of gratification more challenging. Results also indicated that a higher degree of reward-based eating was associated with a higher degree of an external health locus of control based on the power of chance (beta =.10). However, an external locus of control based on the power of others had no significant association with reward-based eating. This finding implies that the belief that health is due to chance is associated with greater reward-based eating behavior, suggesting that interventions that focus on locus of control may be helpful. Overall, findings demonstrate that weight loss interventions may benefit from health locus of control and mindfulness exercises, but caution should be taken as the components of mindfulness appear to have different effects on increasing or decreasing delay of gratification.

Keywords: health locus of control, mindfulness, obesity, reward-based eating, temporal discounting

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3140 Blood Pressure Level, Targeted Blood Pressure Control Rate, and Factors Related to Blood Pressure Control in Post-Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Nannapus Saramad, Rewwadee Petsirasan, Jom Suwanno

Abstract:

Background: This retrospective study design was to describe average blood pressure, blood pressure level, target blood pressure control rate post-stroke BP control in the year following discharge from Sichon hospital, Sichon District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The secondary data analysis was employed from the patient’s health records with patient or caregiver interview. A total of 232 eligible post-acute ischemic strokes in the year following discharge (2017-2018) were recruited. Methods: Data analyses were applied to identify the relationship values of single variables were determined through univariate analyses: The Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, the variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 were analyzed by the binary logistic regression Results: Most of the patients in this study were men 61.6%, an average age of 65.4 ± 14.8 years. Systolic blood pressure levels were in the grade 1-2 hypertension and diastolic pressure at optimal and normal at all times during the initial treatment through the present. The results revealed 25% among the groups under the age of 60 achieved BP control; 36.3% for older than 60 years group; and 27.9% for diabetic group. The multivariate analysis revealed the final relationship of four significant variables: 1) receiving calcium-channel blocker (p =.027); 2) medication adherence of antihypertensive (p = .024) 3) medication adherence of antiplatelet ( p = .020); and 4) medication behavior ( p = . 010) . Conclusion: The medical nurse and health care provider should promote their adherence to behavior to improve their blood pressure control.

Keywords: acute ischemic stroke, target blood pressure control, medication adherence, recurrence stroke

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3139 Hearing Conservation Program for Vector Control Workers: Short-Term Outcomes from a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Rama Krishna Supramanian, Marzuki Isahak, Noran Naqiah Hairi

Abstract:

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the highest recorded occupational diseases, despite being preventable. Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is designed to protect workers hearing and prevent them from developing hearing impairment due to occupational noise exposures. However, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of this program. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) in preventing or reducing audiometric threshold changes among vector control workers. This study adopts a cluster randomized controlled trial study design, with district health offices as the unit of randomization. Nine district health offices were randomly selected and 183 vector control workers were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention included a safety and health policy, noise exposure assessment, noise control, distribution of appropriate hearing protection devices, training and education program and audiometric testing. The control group only underwent audiometric testing. Audiometric threshold changes observed in the intervention group showed improvement in the hearing threshold level for all frequencies except 500 Hz and 8000 Hz for the left ear. The hearing threshold changes range from 1.4 dB to 5.2 dB with largest improvement at higher frequencies mainly 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz. Meanwhile for the right ear, the mean hearing threshold level remained similar at 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz after 3 months of intervention. The Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is effective in preserving the hearing of vector control workers involved in fogging activity as well as increasing their knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

Keywords: adult, hearing conservation program, noise-induced hearing loss, vector control worker

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3138 [Keynote Talk]: From Clinical Practice to Academic Setup, 'Quality Circles' for Quality Outputs in Both

Authors: Vandita Mishra

Abstract:

From the management of patients, reception, record, and assistants in a clinical practice; to the management of ongoing research, clinical cases and department profile in an academic setup, the healthcare provider has to deal with all of it. The victory lies in smooth running of the show in both the above situations with an apt solution of problems encountered and smooth management of crisis faced. Thus this paper amalgamates dental science with health administration by means of introduction of a concept for practice management and problem-solving called 'Quality Circles'. This concept uses various tools for problem solving given by experts from different fields. QC tools can be applied in both clinical and academic settings in dentistry for better productivity and for scientifically approaching the process of continuous improvement in both the categories. When approached through QC, our organization showed better patient outcomes and more patient satisfaction. Introduced in 1962 by Kaoru Ishikawa, this tool has been extensively applied in certain fields outside dentistry and healthcare. By exemplification of some clinical cases and virtual scenarios, the tools of Quality circles will be elaborated and discussed upon.

Keywords: academics, dentistry, healthcare, quality

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3137 Distribution of Malaria-Infected Anopheles Mosquitoes in Kudat, Ranau and Tenom of Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Fakhriy Hassan, Rohani Ahmad, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad Ali

Abstract:

In Malaysia, it was realized that while the incidence of human malaria is decreasing, the incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria appears to be on the rise, especially in rural areas of Sabah, East Malaysia. The primary vector for P. knowlesi malaria in Sabah is An. balabacensis a species found abundant in rural areas, shown to rest and feed outdoor throughout the night, which makes its control very challenging. This study aims to examine the distribution of malaria-infected Anopheles mosquitoes in three areas in Sabah, namely Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom, known as areas in Sabah that presented high number of malaria cases. Briefly, mosquitoes were caught every 6 weeks for the period of 18 months using Human Landing Catching (HLC) technique from May 2016 to November 2017. Identification of species was done using microscopy and molecular methods. Molecular method is also used to detect malaria parasite in all mosquito collected. An. balabacensis was present in all the study areas. In Kudat, six other Anopheles species were also detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. letifer, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus. In Ranau five other Anopheles species were detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. donaldi., An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus while in Tenom seven more species An. donaldi, An. umbrosus, An. barumbrosus, An.latens, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus were detected. This study showed 24% out of 259, 39% out of 127, and 26% out of 265 Anopheles mosquito collected in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom were detected positive for malaria parasite respectively. In Kudat An. balabacensis, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus were the six out of eight Anopheles species that were found infected with malaria parasite. All Anopheles species collected in Ranau were positive for malaria while In Tenom, only five out of eight species; An. balabacensus, An. donaldi, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. latens were detected positive for malaria parasite. Interestingly, for all study areas An. balabacensis was shown to be the only species infected with four malaria species; P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. vivax, and Plasmodium sp. This finding clearly indicates that An. balabacensis is the dominant malaria vector in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom.

Keywords: Anopheles balabacensis, human landing catching technique, nested PCR, Plasmodium knowlesi, Simian malaria

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