Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4042

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4042 Strategy and Maze Surgery (Atrial fibrillation Surgery)

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Atrial fibrillation is the foremost common arrhythmia around the world, with expanding recurrence famous with age. Thromboembolic occasions and strokes are the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. For patients who don't react to restorative treatment for rate and beat control, the maze method offers an elective treatment mediation. pharmaco-medical treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at the control of rate or cadence, intrusive treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at cadence control. An obtrusive approach may comprise of percutaneous catheter treatment, surgery, or a crossover approach. Since the maze method is recognized as the foremost successful way to dispense with AF, combining the maze strategy amid major cardiac surgeries has been received in clinical hone. the maze strategy, moreover known as Cox¬maze iii or the ‘cut¬and¬sew’ method, involves making different incisions within the atria to make an arrangement of scars that dispose of each potential zone of re¬entry. The electrical drive is constrained through a maze of scars that coordinates the electrical drive from the sinus node to the av node. By settling the headstrong period between ranges of scar, re¬entry is disposed of. in this article, we evaluate the Maze surgery method that's the surgical method of choice for the treatment of restorative atrial fibrillation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, congenital heart disease, procedure, maze surgery, treatment

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4041 Sustainable Development in Orthodontics: Orthodontic Archwire Waste

Authors: Saarah Juman, Ilona Johnson, Stephen Richmond, Brett Duane, Sheelagh Rogers

Abstract:

Introduction: Researchers suggest that within 50 years or less, the available supply of a range of metals will be exhausted, potentially leading to increases in resource conflict and largescale production shortages. The healthcare, dental and orthodontic sectors will undoubtedly be affected as stainless steel instruments are generally heavily relied on. Although changing orthodontic archwires are unavoidable and necessary to allow orthodontic tooth movement through the progression of an archwire sequence with fixed appliances, they are thought to be manufactured in excess of what is needed. Furthermore, orthodontic archwires require trimming extraorally to allow safe intraoral insertion, thus contributing to unnecessary waste of natural resources. Currently, there is no evidence to support the optimisation of archwire length according to orthodontic fixed appliance stage. As such, this study aims to quantify archwire excess (extraoral archwire trimmings) for different stages of orthodontic fixed appliance treatment. Methodology: This prospective, observational, quantitative study observed trimmings made extraorally against pre-treatment study models by clinicians over a 3-month period. Archwires were categorised into one of three categories (initial aligning, sequence, working/finishing arcwhires) within the orthodontic fixed appliance archwire sequence. Data collection included archwire material composition and the corresponding length and weight of excess archwire. Data was entered using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and imported into statistical software to obtain simple descriptive statistics. Results: Measurements were obtained for a total of 144 archwires. Archwire materials included nickel titanium and stainless steel. All archwires observed required extraorally trimming to allow safe intraoral insertion. The manufactured lengths of orthodontic initial aligning, sequence, and working/finishing arcwhires were at least 31%, 26%, and 39% in excess, respectively. Conclusions: Orthodontic archwires are manufactured to be excessively long at all orthodontic archwire sequence stages. To conserve natural resources, this study’s findings support the optimisation of orthodontic archwire lengths by manufacturers according to the typical stages of an orthodontic archwire sequence.

Keywords: archwire, orthodontics, sustainability, waste

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4040 Three Cases of Suspected Otosyphilis in a Large Glasgow City Hospital, United Kingdom

Authors: Rachel McDougall

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare in a number of ways. In Glasgow, Scotland, one of these changes has been a reduction in routine sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing for asymptomatic individuals. Inpatient care for patients in Glasgow who have contracted an STD is provided by the Infectious Diseases Department in the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital (QEUH). It is a large tertiary centre hospital, and the Infectious Diseases department consists of two wards of twenty-eight single bedrooms each. During the Spring of 2021, three suspected otosyphilis cases were treated by this department. This study aimed to look at the impact of COVID-19 on routine GUM screening by identifying late-presenting syphilis cases in the Spring of 2021, specifically otosyphilis. The study examined these patients as a case series to identify important features of presentation, investigations, and management. The cases were compared with the current UK National Guidelines to establish if their management complied with the guidelines. These advanced syphilis cases are especially important to note, given the healthcare provision changes introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic. All three patients were relatively young men who were assessed and managed for suspected otosyphilis over a two-month period. All three patients were treated in accordance with the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) criteria for neurosyphilis in the UK national guidelines. For example, the CSF RPR can often result in false negatives. The first patient case was a 29-year-old man who presented with tinnitus and nausea on a background of confirmed syphilis. His CSF RPR was negative, and syphilis TPPA was 1:2. He was treated with Procaine Penicillin and Probenacid and was also found to have an acoustic neuroma. The second was a 32-year-old man who had reduced hearing and penicillin intolerance. His RPR was negative, and his TPPA-TP was 1:32. He was managed with Doxycyline. The third was a 46-year-old man with well-controlled HIV but new reduced hearing. His MRI showed possible acute syphilitic meningitis and otosyphilis. He was treated with Procaine penicillin, Probenecid and Doxycyline. These cases show the importance of routine testing, to avoid the presentation of neurosyphilis cases, such as otosyphilis. This is particularly important given the health structure changes created by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: otosyphilis, neurosyphilis, United Kingdom, COVID-19

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4039 Combinational Convolutional Neural Network Approach for Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

Authors: Venkata S. S. G. Mullangi, Sheila Brown

Abstract:

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is widely regarded as one of the most prevalent and perilous consequences of diabetes. Currently, 145 million people suffer with DR, and 45 million with sight-threatening DR. These numbers are expected to exceed 224 million and 70 million respectively by 2040. DR occurs when the diabetic condition damages blood vessels in the retina, where the undiagnosed sufferer remains unaware of the condition; often until irreparable. DR has been confirmed as the most common form of diabetic eye disease and the leading cause of blindness in adults aged 20–74. Fortunately, the risk of diabetic blindness can be reduced by 95% with early detection and timely treatment. Unfortunately, early diagnosis poses one of the greatest challenges as determining the precise stage of DR is notoriously difficult, requiring specialised human interpretation of fundus images. Timely and accurate streamlining of this diagnostic process is crucial to future reduction of the growing cases of DR blindness. This research investigates the use of Artificially Intelligent (AI) Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to achieve precise DR diagnosis. A CNN is a powerful image processing technique that uses Deep Learning (DL) to perform both generative and descriptive tasks, often using Machine Vision (MV) that includes image and video recognition. The use of CNNs is not new to the field of DR, however, progress using such techniques is frequently hampered by the expense to the patient, patient wait times, and limited availability of medical professionals to perform the analysis. A unique combinational CNN model for efficient and accurate fundus image identification was developed by combining image normalisation with a bespoke CNN comprising optimal minimal layers. The presented model was built on top of the Densenet-121 Architecture of CNNs, with additional layers for Global Average Pooling, Dropout, and Sigmoid Activation. Two datasets were used to train the CNN for peak performance achieving a Quadratic Weighted Kappa score of 0.8772 and validation accuracy of 93.96%. Post training experiments using the custom-built CNN model were conducted using 7 retinal scan images depicting the current retinal health of the diabetic participant. The participant’s independent physician provided a medical report testifying the participant presently had zero DR. This report provided an irrefutable measure of success for model prediction. Results showed that the model achieved 100% accuracy returning a zero DR diagnosis for the participant, thus surpassing the validation accuracy of 93.69% achieved in the training phase of development. Following further experiments with a larger set of participants to corroborate these findings, the focus of future work is the deployment of this model as a ‘personal retinal image scanner’ to an individual’s mobile device, thus enabling both DR candidates and sufferers to routinely perform their own retinal scans and forward such scans to a physician for expert analysis. It is envisaged that such future work will significantly reduce the cost of expensive retinal scans, the wait time for crucial retinal scans appointments, and relieve the burden of ‘local availability’ for physicians, especially in the context of remote areas and underprivileged countries.

Keywords: artificial intelligence (AI), convolutional neural network (CNN), deep learning, diabetic retinopathy

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4038 Clinical Response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 MG+Orphenadrine 50 MG) For Pain Management with Musculoskeletal Conditions in Routine Pakistani Practice (NFORTE-EFFECT)

Authors: Shahid Noor, Kazim Najjad, Muhammad Nasir, Irshad Bhutto, Abdul Samad Memon, Khurram Anwar, Tehseen Riaz, Mian Muhammad Hanif, Nauman A. Mallik, Saeed Ahmed, Israr Ahmed, Ali Yasir

Abstract:

Background: Musculoskeletal pain is the most common complaint presented to the health practitioner. It is well known that untreated or under-treated pain can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study was conducted across 10 sites in six (6) major cities of Pakistan to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and the clinical response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 mg + Orphenadrine 50 mg) to musculoskeletal pain in routine Pakistani practice and its impact on improving the patient’s QoL. Design & Methods: This NFORT-EFFECT observational, prospective multicenter study was conducted in compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and local regulatory requirements. The study sponsor was "The Searle Company Limited, Pakistan. To maintain the GCP compliances, the sponsor assigned the CRO for the site and data management. Ethical approval was obtained from an independent ethics committee. The IEC reviewed the progress of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants, and their confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. A total of 399 patients with known prescreened musculoskeletal conditions and pain who attended the study sites were recruited, as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria (clinicaltrials.gov ID# NCT04765787). The recruited patients were then prescribed Paracetamol (650 mg) and Orphenadrine (50 mg) combination (Nuberol Forte®) for 7 to 14 days as per the investigator's discretion based on the pain intensity. After the initial screening (visit 1), a follow-up visit was conducted after 1-2 weeks of the treatment (visit 2). Study Endpoints: The primary objective was to assess the pain management response of Nuberol Forte treatment and the overall safety of the drug. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was used to measure pain severity. Secondary to pain, the patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also assessed using the Muscle, Joint Measure (MJM) scale. The safety was monitored on the first dose by the patients. These assessments were done on each study visit. Results: Out of 399 enrolled patients, 49.4% were males, and 50.6% were females with a mean age of 47.24 ± 14.20 years. Most patients were presented with Knee Osteoarthritis (OA), i.e., 148(38%), followed by backache 70(18.2%). A significant reduction in the mean pain score was observed after the treatment with the combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (p<0.05). Furthermore, an overall improvement in the patient’s QoL was also observed. During the study, only ten patients reported mild adverse events (AEs). Conclusion: The combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (Nuberol Forte®) exhibited effective pain management among patients with musculoskeletal conditions and also improved their QoL.

Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, orphenadrine/paracetamol combination, pain management, quality of life, Pakistani population

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4037 The Assessment of the Diabetes Mellitus Complications on Oral Health: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Gresa Baboci, Edit Xhajanka, Vito Antonio Malagnino

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a very problematic chronic disease that has an effect on a considerable number of people around the world and it is straightforwardly associated with the oral health condition of the patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus on oral health. Materials and methods: In the present research were taken into consideration 300 patients with an age range of 11 to 80 years old. The study sample was composed of 191 males, respectively 63.7% of them and 109 females 36.3% of the participants. We divided them into seven age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 years.This descriptive and analytical research was designed as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 23.0 statistics. Results: The majority of patients participating in the study belonged to the age range from 41 to 50 years old, precisely 20.7% of them, while 27% of the patients were from 51 to 60 years old. Based on the present research, it resulted that 24.4% of the participant had high blood sugar values 250-300 mg/dl, whereas 19 % of the patients had very high blood sugar values 300-350 mg/dl. Based on the results of the current study, it was observed that 83.7% of patients were affected by gingivitis. In the current study, the significant finding is that 22% of patients had more than 7 teeth with dental caries and 21% of them had 5-7 teeth with dental caries, whereas 29% of the patients had 4-5 dental caries and the remaining 28% of them had 1-3 dental caries. The present study showed that most of the patients, 27% of them had lost more than 7 teeth and 22% of the participants had lost 5-7 teeth, whereas 31% of the patients had lost 4-5 teeth and only 20 % of them had lost 1-3 teeth. This study proved that high blood sugar values had a direct impact on the manifestation of gingivitis and there it was a strong correlation between them with P-value = .001. A strong correlation was found out between dental caries and high blood sugar values with P-value ˂.001. Males with diabetes mellitus were more affected by dental caries and this was proved by the P-value= .02, in comparison to females P-value=.03. The impact of high blood sugar values affects missing teeth and the correlation between them was statistically significant with P-value ˂ .001. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus is a possible risk factor in oral health for the reason that Albanian patients over 51 years old, respectively 43% of them have over 5 teeth with dental caries as compared with 49% of the patients who had over 5 missing teeth, whereas the majority 83.7% of them suffered from gingivitis. This study asserts that patients who do not have periodical check-ups of diabetes mellitus are at significant risk of oral diseases.

Keywords: dental caries, diabetes mellitus, gingivitis, missing teeth

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4036 Pattern and Risk Factors of Menstrual Regulation Service Use among Ever-married Women in Bangladesh: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study

Authors: Md. Rashed Aalm, Md. Nuruzzaman Khan, Yothin Sawangdee

Abstract:

Background: Around 47% of the total pregnancies are unintended in Bangladesh, which lead to several adverse consequences, including maternal and child mortality. Use of menstrual regulation (MR) can help women to reduce unintended pregnancy related adverse consequences. We explored the prevalence and determinants of MR services among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Methods: Total of 14,346 ever-married women data were analysed from the 2017 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Our study variable was use or non-use of MR services. Individual, household, and community level factors were the explanatory factors. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model was used to determine the factors associated with MR services in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly 7% of the total women in Bangladesh use MR services. Use of MR services was found higher among women who were aged 20-30 ages (IRR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.17–2.17), who were overweight (IRR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.13–1.81), had at least 1 child (IRR 2.97, 95% CI: 2.34– 3.77) or > 2 children (IRR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.45–4.20), and the birth preceding birth interval was(2 – 4) years (IRR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13–2.15). Around 1.39 times (95% CI: 1.11–1.73) higher likelihood of MR was found among women whose husbands were engage with business. At the community level, MR service was found lower among the women who resided in the community with higherilliteracy (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42–0.96) and the Mymensingh division (IRR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91). Conclusion: Use of MR service is comparatively low, which indicate a significant proportion of unintended pregnancy continued toward life-birth. This could be responsible for higher adverse maternal and child health outcomes in Bangladesh. Initiatives should be taken to ensure MR services is available when women need this service.

Keywords: menstrual regulation, pattern, risk, maternal health, Bangladesh

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4035 Impact of Increased Radiology Staffing on after Hours Radiology Reporting Efficiency and Quality

Authors: Peregrine J. Dalziel, Phillip V. Tran

Abstract:

Objective / Introduction: Demand for radiology services from Emergency Departments (ED) continues to increase with greater demands placed on radiology staff providing reports for the management of complex cases. Queuing theory indicates that wide variability of process time with the random nature of request arrival increases the probability of significant queues. This can lead to delays in the time-to-availability of radiology reports (TTA-RR) and potentially impaired ED patient flow. In addition, greater “cognitive workload” of greater volume may lead to reduced productivity and increased errors. We sought to quantify the improvement in TTA-RR and potential ED flow improvements that were obtained from increased staffing of radiology providers serving 3 hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, from a time and a cost/revenue perspective as well as potentially improved quality of radiology reports. Methods & Materials: The Western Health Medical Imaging Department moved from single resident coverage on weekend days 8:30 am-10:30 pm to a limited period of 2 resident coverage 1 pm-6 pm on both weekend days. The TTA-RR for weekend CT scans was calculated from the PACs database for the 8 month period symmetrically around the date of staffing change. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to isolate the improvement in TTA-RR between the two 4-months periods. Daily and hourly scan volume at the time of each CT scan was calculated to assess the impact of varying department workload. To assess any improvement in report quality/errors, a random sample of 200 studies was assessed to compare the average number of clinically significant over-read addendums to reports between the 2 periods. The marginal cost of the additional staff member was compared to a conservative estimate economic benefit of potentially improved ED patient throughput using the Australian national insurance rebate for private ED attendance. Results: The primary resident on call and the type of scan accounted for most of the explained variability in time to report availability (R2=0.29). Increasing daily volume and hourly volume were associated with increased TTA-RR (1.5m (p<0.01) and 4.8m (p<0.01), respectively, per additional scan ordered within each time frame. Reports were available 25.9 minutes sooner on average in the 4 months post-implementation of double coverage (p<0.01) with additional 23.6 minutes improvement when 2 residents were on-site concomitantly (p<0.01). The aggregate average improvement in TTA-RR was 24.8 hours per weekend day. This represents the increased decision-making time available to ED physicians and potential improvement in ED bed utilisation. 5% of reports from the intervention period contained clinically significant addendums vs. 7% in the single resident period, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.7). The marginal cost was less than the anticipated economic benefit based assuming 50% capture of improved TTA-RR inpatient disposition and using the lowest available national insurance rebate as a proxy for economic benefit. Conclusion: TTA-RR improved significantly during the period of increased staff availability, both during the specific period of increased staffing and throughout the day. Increased labor utilisation is cost-effective compared with the potential improved productivity for ED cases requiring CT imaging.

Keywords: operations, administration, efficiency, workflow, quality, wokforce

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4034 Probiotics in Anxiety and Depression

Authors: Pilar Giffenig, Avanna Kotlarz, Taylor Dehring

Abstract:

Anxiety and depression are common mental illnesses in the U.S today. While there are various treatments for these mental health disorders, many of the medications come with a large variety of side effects that decrease medication compliance. Recent studies have looked at the impact of probiotics on anxiety and depression. Our goal was to determine whether probiotics could help relieve symptoms of anxiety and or depression. We conducted a literature search of three databases focusing on systematic reviews and RTC and found 25 articles, 8 of which were used for our analysis. Seven out of the eight articles showed that probiotics have the potential to significantly reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, larger study sample sizes, type of probiotic, and correct dosage are required in future research to determine the role of probiotics in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

Keywords: probiotics, anxiety, depression, treatment, psychology, nutrition

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4033 Radiologic Assessment of Orbital Dimensions Among Omani Subjects: Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Study

Authors: Marwa Al-Subhi, Eiman Al-Ajmi, Mallak Al-Maamari, Humood Al-Dhuhli, Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

The orbit and its contents are affected by various pathologies and craniofacial anomalies. Sound knowledge of the normal orbital dimensions is clinically essential for successful surgical outcomes and also in the field of forensic anthropology. Racial, ethnic, and regional variations in the orbital dimensions have been reported. This study sought to determine the orbital dimensions of Omani subjects who had been referred for computed tomography (CT) images at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 273 patients’ CT images were evaluated retrospectively by using an electronic medical records database. The orbital dimensions were recorded using both axial and sagittal planes of CT images. The mean orbital index (OI) was found to be 83.25±4.83 and the prevalent orbital type was categorized as mesoseme. The mean orbital index was 83.34±5.05 and 83.16±4.57 in males and females, respectively, with their difference being statistically not significant (p=0.76). A statistically significant association was observed between the right and left orbits with regard to horizontal distance (p<0.05) and vertical distance (p<0.01) of orbit and OI (p<0.05). No significant difference between the OI and age groups was observed in both males and females. The mean interorbital distance and interzygomatic distance were found to be 19.45±1.52 mm and 95.59±4.08 mm, respectively. Both of these parameters were significantly higher in males (p<0.05). Results of the present study provide reference values of orbital dimensions in Omani subjects. The prevalent orbital type of Omani subjects is mesoseme, which is a hallmark of the white race.

Keywords: orbit, orbital index, mesoseme, ethnicity, variation

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4032 Effects of Different Types of Perioperative Analgesia on Minimal Residual Disease Development After Colon Cancer Surgery

Authors: Lubomir Vecera, Tomas Gabrhelik, Benjamin Tolmaci, Josef Srovnal, Emil Berta, Petr Prasil, Petr Stourac

Abstract:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer. Currently, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of postoperative analgesia on the prognosis of patients undergoing radical colon cancer surgery. Postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery is usually managed in two ways, either with strong opioids (morphine, piritramide) or epidural analgesia. In our prospective study, we evaluated the effect of postoperative analgesia on the presence of circulating tumor cells or minimal residual disease after colon cancer surgery. A total of 60 patients who underwent radical colon cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, two-center study. Patients were randomized into three groups, namely piritramide, morphine and postoperative epidural analgesia. We evaluated the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) mRNA positive circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood before surgery, immediately after surgery, on postoperative day two and one month after surgery. The presence of circulating tumor cells was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the priritramide postoperative analgesia group, the presence of CEA mRNA positive cells was significantly lower on a postoperative day two compared to the other groups (p=0.04). The value of CK-20 mRNA positive cells was the same in all groups on all days. In all groups, both types of circulating tumor cells returned to normal levels one month after surgery. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in all groups. Compared with morphine and epidural analgesia, piritramide significantly reduces the amount of CEA mRNA positive circulating tumor cells after radical colon cancer surgery.

Keywords: cancer progression, colon cancer, minimal residual disease, perioperative analgesia.

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4031 Efficacy and Safety of Tapentadol Nasal Spray Versus Oral Tramadol for the Treatment of Acute Postoperative Pain Management

Authors: Kamal Tolani, Sandeep Kumar, Rohit Luthra, Ankit Dadhania, Krishnaprasad K., Ram Gupta, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Background: Post-operative analgesia remains a clinical challenge, with central and peripheral sensitization playing a pivotal role in treatment related complications and impaired QoL. Centrally acting opioids offer poor risk benefit profile with increased intensity of gastrointestinal or central side effects and slow onset of clinical analgesia. The clinical efficacy and safety of Tapentadol nasal spray (NS) formulation was assessed as compared to Switch therapy with Tramadol for severe or acute post-operative pain in hospitalized cases undergoing major surgeries. Methods: Phase III, randomized, active- controlled, clinical trial was planned at 21 centres in India involving 294 cases who had undergone surgical procedures. These patients were randomized to receive either Tapentadol NS 45 mg (one spray/each nostril) or Tramadol 100mg i.v/oral every 4-6 hours for five days for pain management. The statistical analysis plan was envisaged as a non-inferiority trial involving comparison with Tramadol for Sum of Pain intensity difference (SPID60min) and PGA24 hrs. Results: The per-protocol analyses involved 255 hospitalized cases (Median age: 38 years) undergoing surgical procedures, of which most common were fracture reduction surgeries. The most common concomitant medications were anti-bacterials (98.3%). PID60min and PGA24hrs on NRS showed that Tapentadol NS was non–inferior to Tramadol. However, on further assessment on day 2, 3, and 5, there was clinically greater pain relief with the NS formulation (p <0.05). Secondary efficacy measures, including onset of Clinical analgesia and TOTPAR showed non-inferiority to IV Tramadol formulation. The safety profile and need for rescue medication was also similar in both the groups at the end of 5 days therapy. Conclusion: Tapentadol NS is an effective strategy for the management of moderate to severe post –operative pain with ease of administration and better clinical benefit and may prevent complications related to central sensitization in post-surgical settings.

Keywords: tapentadol nasal spray, acute pain, tramadol, post-operative pain

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4030 A New Obesity Index Derived from Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference Well-Matched with Other Indices in Children with Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Anthropometric obesity indices such as waist circumference (WC), indices derived from anthropometric measurements such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and indices created from body fat mass composition such as trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) are commonly used for the evaluation of mild or severe forms of obesity. Their clinical utilities are being compared using body mass index (BMI) percentiles to classify obesity groups. The best of them is still being investigated to make a clear-cut discrimination between healthy normal individuals (N-BMI) and overweight or obese (OB) or morbid obese patients. The aim of this study is to derive a new index, which best suits the purpose for the discrimination of children with N-BMI from OB children. A total of eighty-three children participated in the study. Two groups were constituted. The first group comprised 42 children with N-BMI, and the second group was composed of 41 OB children, whose age- and sex- adjusted BMI percentile values vary between 95 and 99. The corresponding values for the first group were between 15 and 85. This classification was based upon the tables created by World Health Organization. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. Informed consent forms were filled by the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements were taken and recorded following a detailed physical examination. Within this context, weight, height (Ht), WC, hip C (HC), neck C (NC) values were taken. Body mass index, WHR, (WC+HC)/2, WC/Ht, (WC/HC)/Ht, WC*NC were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed to obtain body’s fat compartments in terms of total fat, trunk fat, leg fat, arm fat masses. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), (trunk fat+leg fat)/2 ((TF+LF)/2) were calculated. Fat mass index (FMI) and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment-II (D2I) index values were calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Significantly increased values of (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI were observed in OB group in comparison with those of N-BMI group. Significant correlations were calculated between BMI and WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, TLFR, TAFR, D2I as well as FMI both in N-BMI and OB groups. The same correlations were obtained for WC. (WC+HC)/2 was correlated with TLFR, TAFR, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI in N-BMI group. In OB group, the correlations were the same except those with TLFR and TAFR. These correlations were not present with WHR. Correlations were observed between TLFR and BMI, WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I as well as FMI in N-BMI group. Same correlations were observed also with TAFR. In OB group, correlations between TLFR or TAFR and BMI, WC as well as (WC+HC)/2 were missing. None was noted with WHR. From these findings, it was concluded that (WC+HC)/2, but not WHR, was much more suitable as an anthropometric obesity index. The only correlation valid in both groups was that exists between (WC+HC)/2 and (TF+LF)/2. This index was suggested as a link between anthropometric and fat-based indices.

Keywords: children, hip circumference, obesity, waist circumference

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4029 Mutation Profiling of Paediatric Solid Tumours in a Cohort of South African Patients

Authors: L. Lamola, E. Manolas, A. Krause

Abstract:

Background: The incidence of childhood cancer incidence is increasing gradually in low-middle income countries, such as South Africa. Globally, there is an extensive range of familial- and hereditary-cancer syndromes, where underlying germline variants increase the likelihood of developing cancer in childhood. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have been key in determining the occurrence and genetic contribution of germline variants to paediatric cancer development. We aimed to design and evaluate a candidate gene panel specific to inherited cancer-predisposing genes to provide a comprehensive insight into the contribution of germline variants to childhood cancer. Methods: 32 paediatric patients (aged 0-18 years) diagnosed with a malignant tumour were recruited, and biological samples were obtained. After quality control, DNA was sequenced using an ion Ampliseq 50 candidate gene panel design and Ion Torrent S5 technologies. Sequencing variants were called using Ion Torrent Suite software and were subsequently annotated using Ion Reporter and Ensembl's VEP. High priority variants were manually analysed using tools such as MutationTaster, SIFT-INDEL and VarSome. Putative identified candidates were validated via Sanger Sequencing. Results: The patients studied had a variety of cancers, the most common being nephroblastoma (13), followed by osteosarcoma (4) and astrocytoma (3). We identified 10 pathogenic / likely pathogenic variants in 10 patients, most of which were novel. Conclusions: According to the literature, we expected ~10% of our patient population to harbour pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants, however, we reported about 3 times (~30%) more than we expected. Majority of the identified variants are novel; this may be because this is the first study of its kind in an understudied South African population.

Keywords: Africa, genetics, germline-variants, paediatric-cancer

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4028 Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Implications of Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis among Women in Re

Authors: Anwaar Anwar Tayel

Abstract:

Background: Rheumatic arthritis (RA) affect all aspects of patients' life, lead to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient's life. Aim of the study: Identify physical, psychological, and sexual implications of rheumatoid arthritis among women in reproductive age. In addition to investigating the correlations between physical functional disability, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction.Settings: The study was conducted at Rheumatology Clinic at the Main University Hospital of Alexandria. Subjects: Purposive sample was chosen from women patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be subjects of this study (n=250). Tools: Four tools were used to collect data. Tool I: Socio-demographic questionnaire. Tool II: Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ- DI). Tool III: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Tool IV: The Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (SDQ) Results: The majority of the studied women suffer from severe physical disability, extreme level of depression, anxiety, and about half of them had an extreme level of stress. Also, the majority of the studied women had a severe level of sexual dysfunction. Also, statistically significant correlations between women's physical disability index, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction were detected. Conclusion: The findings from this study confirm that women patients with RA suffer from multiple negative implications on the physical, psychological and sexual functions. Recommendations: Provide ongoing support to the patients from the time of diagnosis throughout their care and management. To help them to manage their pain and disabilities, improve their sexual function, promote their mental health, and optimize psychosocial functioning

Keywords: pysical, spycholgical, sexual, implication, rheumatic arthritis

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4027 Prominent Lipid Parameters Correlated with Trunk-to-Leg and Appendicular Fat Ratios in Severe Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

The examination of both serum lipid fractions and body’s lipid composition are quite informative during the evaluation of obesity stages. Within this context, alterations in lipid parameters are commonly observed. The variations in the fat distribution of the body are also noteworthy. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are considered as the basic lipid fractions. Fat deposited in trunk and extremities may give considerable amount of information and different messages during discrete health states. Ratios are also derived from distinct fat distribution in these areas. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) and trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR) are the most recently introduced ratios. In this study, lipid fractions and TLFR, as well as TAFR, were evaluated, and the distinctions among healthy, obese (OB), and morbid obese (MO) groups were investigated. Three groups [normal body mass index (N-BMI), OB, MO] were constituted from a population aged 6 to 18 years. Ages and sexes of the groups were matched. The study protocol was approved by the Non-interventional Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, neck circumference) were obtained and recorded during the physical examination. Body mass index values were calculated. Total, trunk, leg, and arm fat mass values were obtained by TANITA Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. These values were used to calculate TLFR and TAFR. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured. Routine biochemical tests including TC, TRG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and insulin were performed. Data were evaluated using SPSS software. p value smaller than 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. There was no difference among the age values and gender ratios of the groups. Any statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of DBP, TLFR as well as serum lipid fractions. Higher SBP values were measured both in OB and MO children than those with N-BMI. TAFR showed a significant difference between N-BMI and OB groups. Statistically significant increases were detected between insulin values of N-BMI group and OB as well as MO groups. There were bivariate correlations between LDL and TLFR (r=0.396; p=0.037) as well as TAFR values (r=0.413; p=0.029) in MO group. When adjusted for SBP and DBP, partial correlations were calculated as (r=0.421; p=0.032) and (r=0.438; p=0.025) for LDL-TLFR as well as LDL-TAFR, respectively. Much stronger partial correlations were obtained for the same couples (r=0.475; p=0.019 and r=0.473; p=0.020, respectively) upon controlling for TRG and HDL-C. Much stronger partial correlations observed in MO children emphasize the potential transition from morbid obesity to metabolic syndrome. These findings have concluded that LDL-C may be suggested as a discriminating parameter between OB and MO children.

Keywords: children, lipid parameters, obesity, trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio

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4026 Description and Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Meningitis in the Province of Taza Between 2016 and 2020

Authors: Bennasser Samira

Abstract:

Meningitis, especially the meningococcal one, is a serious problem of public health. A system of vigilanceand surveillance is in place to allow effective actions to be taken on actual or potential health problems caused by all forms of meningitis. Objectives: 1. Describe the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 2. Evaluate the quality and responsiveness of the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 3. Propose measures to improve this system at the provincial level. Methods: This was a descriptive study with a purely quantitative approach by evaluating the quality and responsiveness of the system during 5 years between January 2016 and December 2020. We usedfor that the investigation files of meningitis cases and the provincial database of meningitis. We calculated some quality indicators of surveillance system already defined by the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Meningitis. Results: The notification is passive, the completeness of the data is quite good (94%), and the timeliness don’t exceed 71%. The quality of the data is acceptable (91% agreement). The systematic and rapid performance of lumbar punctures increases the diagnostic capabilities of the system. The local response actions are effected in 100%. Conclusion: The improvement of this surveillance system depends on strengthening the staff skills in diagnostic, reviewing surveillance tools, and encouraging judicious use of the data.

Keywords: evaluation, meningitis, system, taza, morocco

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4025 Strategy and Coarctation of the Aorta Repair

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) may be a common (CHD), which is the seventh most common sort of CHD. Still, this is often likely a think little off since the determination may be deferred, indeed within the pediatric populace. The choice for surgical repair incorporates resection of the contracted section with end-to-end or end-to-side anastomosis, subclavian fold aortoplasty, resection, and join the intervention, or prosthetic fix aortoplasty. Drastically expanded end-to-end repair or switched subclavian fold aortoplasty can be utilized when the coarctation expands to the distal arch. Swell angioplasty can be a palliative choice sometime recently the conclusive redress. Its objective is to stabilize high-risk patients that cannot be submitted to quick surgical intercession, such as untimely newborns. For disconnected and discrete coarctations, it can, as a rule, be drawn nearer and repaired by means of cleared out thoracotomy, extraction of the infected aorta (coarctectomy), and remaking, ordinarily by amplified end-to-end anastomosis. In this article, we need to supply a diagram of current proposals and strategies utilized to picture coarctations of the aorta.

Keywords: coarctation of the aorta, congenital heart disease, strategies, surgical repair

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4024 Adherence to Guidelines of Pre-operative Antibiotics Prophylaxis in Bahrain

Authors: Sundus Al Mukhodhder, Ahmed Alanzi

Abstract:

Background/Introduction: Appendicitis is most an acute sickness that manifests within 24 hours, although it can also manifest as a chronic disorder, The occurrence of this condition is usually observed at ages ranging from ten to twenty years and with 8.6% lifetime risk in males and 6.7% in females. Aims/Objectives: The current study was aimed to evaluate the adherence to the antibiotics prophylaxis guidelines in appendectomy in patients admitted to the surgical department of Salmanya medical Complex-Bahrain in 2020. Method: The study included the patients admitted to the surgical department of Salmanya medical Complex-Bahrain in 2020. Only adult patients, who underwent appendectomy, were included in the study, while pediatric patients were excluded. The records of the patients, who underwent surgical procedures, were evaluated. From the records of these patients, information regarding, Demographic data, Type of antibiotics given for prophylaxis, Timing of the administration of the antibiotics, Any alternative antibiotic is given based on hospital guidelines was extracted and evaluated. Results: Among 273 patients who were administered with the antibiotics, no one was administered with correct antibiotics as per guidelines of the hospital. 72 (26.37%) patients were administered with antibiotics within or equal to 60 minutes prior to surgical procedure remaining. Discussion/Conclusion: The current study revealed that the majority of the patients (72%, N=273) admitted to the Salmaniya Medical Complex-Bahrain were not administered the antibiotics within the prescribed time as per guidelines from the hospital. Also, the antibiotics administered for prophylaxis prior to the appendectomy procedure were not according to the guidelines i.e., Cefazolin 1g with Metronidazole 500mg. Out of a total of 278 patients included in the study, no one was administered with the right choice as provided by the local guidelines. Secondly, 1.8% of patients (N=278) were not administered with any of the antibiotics for prophylaxis prior to surgical procedure for appendicitis.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial prophylaxis, appendicitis, appendectomy, preoperative antibiotics

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4023 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Capripoxviruses from Outbreak in Iran 2021

Authors: Maryam Torabi, Habibi, Abdolahi, Mohammadi, Hassanzadeh, Darban Maghami, Baghi

Abstract:

Sheeppox Virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) are considerable diseases of sheep, and goats, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus. They are responsible for economic losses. Animal mortality, morbidity, cost of vaccinations, and restrictions in animal products’ trade are the reasons of economic losses. Control and eradication of CaPV depend on early detection of outbreaks so that molecular detection and genetic analysis could be effective to this aim. This study was undertaken to molecularly characterize SPPV and GTPV strains that have been circulating in Iran. 120 skin papules and nodule biopsies were collected from different regions of Iran and were examined for SPPV, GTPV viruses using TaqMan Real -Time PCR. Some of these amplified genes were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Out of the 120 samples analysed, 98 were positive for CaPV by Real- Time PCR (81.6%), and most of them wereSPPV. then 10 positive samples were sequenced and characterized by amplifying the ORF 103CaPV gene. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for these positive samples revealed a high percentage of identity with SPPV isolated from different countries in Middle East. In conclusions, molecular characterization revealed nearly complete identity with all recent SPPVs strains in local countries that requires further studies to monitor the virus evolution and transmission pathways to better understand the virus pathobiology that will help for SPPV control.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology, Real-Time PCR, phylogenetic analysis, capripoxviruses

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4022 Association of Zinc with New Generation Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Childhood Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Zinc is a vital element required for growth and development. This fact makes zinc important, particularly for children. It maintains normal cellular structure and functions. This essential element appears to have protective effects against coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy. Higher serum zinc levels are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There is a significant association between low serum zinc levels and heart failure. Zinc may be a potential biomarker of cardiovascular health. High sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) are new generation markers used for prediagnosis, diagnosis, and prognosis of CVDs. The aim of this study is to determine zinc as well as new generation cardiac markers profiles in children with normal body mass index (N-BMI), obese (OB), morbid obese (MO) children, and children with metabolic syndrome (MetS) findings. The association among them will also be investigated. Four study groups were constituted. The study protocol was approved by the institutional Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Parents of the participants filled informed consent forms to participate in the study. Group 1 is composed of 44 children with N-BMI. Group 2 and Group 3 comprised 43 OB and 45 MO children, respectively. Forty-five MO children with MetS findings were included in Group 4. World Health Organization age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentile tables were used to constitute groups. These values were 15-85, 95-99, and above 99 for N-BMI, OB, and MO, respectively. Criteria for MetS findings were determined. Routine biochemical analyses, including zinc, were performed. High sensitive-cTnT and cMyBP-C concentrations were measured by kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay principle. Appropriate statistical tests within the scope of SPSS were used for the evaluation of the study data. p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Four groups were matched for age and gender. Decreased zinc concentrations were measured in Groups 2, 3, and 4 compared to Group 1. Groups did not differ from one another in terms of hs-cTnT. There were statistically significant differences between cMyBP-C levels of MetS group and N-BMI as well as OB groups. There was an increasing trend going from N-BMI group to MetS group. There were statistically significant negative correlations between zinc and hs-cTnT as well as cMyBP-C concentrations in MetS group. In conclusion, inverse correlations detected between zinc and new generation cardiac markers (hs-TnT and cMyBP-C) have pointed out that decreased levels of this physiologically essential trace element accompany increased levels of hs-cTnT as well as cMyBP-C in children with MetS. This finding emphasizes that both zinc and these new generation cardiac markers may be evaluated as biomarkers of cardiovascular health during severe childhood obesity precipitated with MetS findings and also suggested as the messengers of the future risk in the adulthood periods of children with MetS.

Keywords: cardiac myosin binding protein-C, cardiovascular diseases, children, high sensitive cardiac troponin T, obesity

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4021 A Systematic Review on The Usage of CRISPR-Cas System in The Treatment of Osteoarthritis(OA)

Authors: Atiqah Binti Ab Aziz

Abstract:

Background: It has been estimated that about 250 million people all over the world suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, OA is a major health problem in urgent need of better treatment. Problem statement: Current therapies for OA can temporarily relieve clinical symptoms and for pain management, rather than preventing or curing OA. Total knee replacement performed at the end stage of the disease is considered the only cure available. Objectives: This article aimed to explore the potential of treating osteoarthritis via the CRISPR Cas system. Methods: Articles that relate to the application of the CRISPR Cas system in osteoarthritis were extracted, categorized, and reviewed through the PRISMA method using PubMed, an engine published from November 2016 to November 2021. Results: There were 30 articles screened. Articles that fall under the categories of non-English articles, full articles that were not available, articles that were not an original articles were excluded. Ultimately, 13 articles were reviewed. Discussion: This review provides an information on the introduction of CRISPR and discussed on their mechanism of actions in extracted studies for OA treatment. Conclusions: It can be seen that not many medical research utilize the CRISPR Cas system as part of the method in the treatment of OA. Hence exploring the extent of the usage of the CRISPR Cas system in OA treatment is important to determine the research gap and point out at which of the research is needed further investigation to avoid redundancy of existing research and ensure the novelty of the research.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, treatment, CRISPR, review, therapy

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4020 Epidemiological profile of Tuberculosis Disease in Meknes, Morocco. Descriptive analysis, 2016-2020

Authors: Authors: A. Lakhal, M. Bahalou, A. Khattabi

Abstract:

Introduction: Tuberculosis is one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases. In Morocco, a total of 30,636 cases of Tuberculosis, all forms combined, were reported in 2015, representing an incidence of 89 cases per 100,000 population. The number of deaths from tuberculosis (TB) was 656 cases. In the prefecture of Meknes, its incidence remains high compared to the national level. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in the prefecture of Meknes. Methods: It is a descriptive analysis of TB cases reported between 2016 and 2020 at the regional diagnostic center of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. We performed analysis by using Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo 7. Results: Epidemiological data from 2016 to 2020 report a total of 4100 new cases of all forms of tuberculosis, with an average of 820 new cases per year. The median age is 32 years. There is a clear male predominance, on average 58% of cases are male and 42% female. The incidence rate of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis per 100,000 inhabitants has increased from 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016 to 39.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2020. The confirmation rate for pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 84% in 2016 to 75% in 2020. Pulmonary involvement predominates by an average of 46%, followed by lymph node involvement 29%and pleural involvement by an average of 10%. Digestive, osteoarticular, genitourinary, and meningeal involvement occurs in 8% of cases. Primary tuberculosis infection occurs in an average of 0.5% of cases. The proportion of HIV-TB co-infections was 2.8 in 2020. Conclusion: The incidence of tuberculosis in Meknes remains high compared to the national level. Thus, it is imperative to reinforce the earlier detection; improve the contact tracing, detection methods of cases for their confirmation and treatment, and to reduce the proportion of the lost to follow up as well.

Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiological profile, meknes, morocco

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4019 Thrombophilic Risk Factors and Pregnancy Complications

Authors: Hanan Azzam1, Nashwa Abousamra1, Amany Mansour1, Yaser Abd El-dayem2, , Solafa Elsharawy1

Abstract:

Background: Inherited thrombophilias are a heterogenous group of conditions which have been implicated in a variety of pregnancy complications. More recently, deficiency of protein Z (PZ) has been liked to pregnancy complications, including preterm delivery. Aim: We designed this study to evaluate the association of inherited thrombophilias including [Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), Anti thrombin III (ATIII) deficiency and activated protein C (APC) resistance] and protein Z deficiency with a variety of pregnancy complications. Patients and Methods: 60 women with different pregnancy complications, including 20 patients with preeclampsia, 20 patients with intrauterine growth resistance (IUGR), and 20 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), in addition to 30 healthy pregnant women were recruited for the present study. PC and free PS antigen, ATIII activity, modified functional APC-resistance, and PZ levels were determined. Results: There was no significant association between inherited thrombophilias and complicated pregnancies as regards PC deficiency (p=1.0), AT III and PS deficiency (p=0.312), and APC-resistance (P=0.083). PZ was significantly associated with complicated pregnancies (p=0.012). Patients with protein Z levels below 1.5 µg/ml were considered deficient. Accordingly, we demonstrated protein Z deficiency in 30% of complicated pregnancies (RR 6.0, 95% CI 1.29-27.90;p=0.022), 20% of preeclampsia (RR 3.5, 95% CI 0.57 – 21.28; P = 0.174), 40% of IUGR (RR 9.3 95% CI 1.72-50.61; P = 0.010) and 30% of IUFD (RR 6, 95% CI 1.07 – 33.64; P = 0.042). Conclusions: These findings indicate the absence of association of inherited thrombophilias, including PC, PS, AT III deficiency, and APC resistance with pregnancy complications. However, PZ deficiency is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death.

Keywords: protein C, protein S, thrombophelia, pregnancy, protein Z

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4018 Pres Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Cases

Authors: Vaibhavi Birle

Abstract:

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinic-radiological syndrome associated with acute changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. It is characterized symptomatically by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual blurring with radiological changes of white matter (vasogenic oedema) affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. It is being increasingly recognized due to increased institutional deliveries and advances in imaging particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In spite of the increasing diagnosis the prediction of PRES and patient factors affecting susceptibility is still not clear. Hence, we conducted the retrospective study to analyse the factors associated with PRES at our tertiary centre.

Keywords: pres syndrome, eclampsia, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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4017 Relationship Between Brain Entropy Patterns Estimated by Resting State fMRI and Child Behaviour

Authors: Sonia Boscenco, Zihan Wang, Euclides José de Mendoça Filho, João Paulo Hoppe, Irina Pokhvisneva, Geoffrey B.C. Hall, Michael J. Meaney, Patricia Pelufo Silveira

Abstract:

Entropy can be described as a measure of the number of states of a system, and when used in the context of physiological time-based signals, it serves as a measure of complexity. In functional connectivity data, entropy can account for the moment-to-moment variability that is neglected in traditional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. While brain fMRI resting state entropy has been associated with some pathological conditions like schizophrenia, no investigations have explored the association between brain entropy measures and individual differences in child behavior in healthy children. We describe a novel exploratory approach to evaluate brain fMRI resting state data in two child cohorts, and MAVAN (N=54, 4.5 years, 48% males) and GUSTO (N = 206, 4.5 years, 48% males) and its associations to child behavior, that can be used in future research in the context of child exposures and long-term health. Following rs-fMRI data pre-processing and Shannon entropy calculation across 32 network regions of interest to acquire 496 unique functional connections, partial correlation coefficient analysis adjusted for sex was performed to identify associations between entropy data and Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire in MAVAN and Child Behavior Checklist domains in GUSTO. Significance was set at p < 0.01, and we found eight significant associations in GUSTO. Negative associations were found between two frontoparietal regions and cerebellar posterior and oppositional defiant problems, (r = -0.212, p = 0.006) and (r = -0.200, p = 0.009). Positive associations were identified between somatic complaints and four default mode connections: salience insula (r = 0.202, p < 0.01), dorsal attention intraparietal sulcus (r = 0.231, p = 0.003), language inferior frontal gyrus (r = 0.207, p = 0.008) and language posterior superior temporal gyrus (r = 0.210, p = 0.008). Positive associations were also found between insula and frontoparietal connection and attention deficit / hyperactivity problems (r = 0.200, p < 0.01), and insula – default mode connection and pervasive developmental problems (r = 0.210, p = 0.007). In MAVAN, ten significant associations were identified. Two positive associations were found = with prosocial scores: the salience prefrontal cortex and dorsal attention connection (r = 0.474, p = 0.005) and the salience supramarginal gyrus and dorsal attention intraparietal sulcus (r = 0.447, p = 0.008). The insula and prefrontal connection were negatively associated with peer problems (r = -0.437, p < 0.01). Conduct problems were negatively associated with six separate connections, the left salience insula and right salience insula (r = -0.449, p = 0.008), left salience insula and right salience supramarginal gyrus (r = -0.512, p = 0.002), the default mode and visual network (r = -0.444, p = 0.009), dorsal attention and language network (r = -0.490, p = 0.003), and default mode and posterior parietal cortex (r = -0.546, p = 0.001). Entropy measures of resting state functional connectivity can be used to identify individual differences in brain function that are correlated with variation in behavioral problems in healthy children. Further studies applying this marker into the context of environmental exposures are warranted.

Keywords: child behaviour, functional connectivity, imaging, Shannon entropy

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4016 COVID-19 Pandemic Influence on Toddlers and Preschoolers’ Screen Time

Authors: Juliana da Silva Cardoso, Cláudia Correia, Rita Gomes, Carolina Fraga, Inês Cascais, Sara Monteiro, Beatriz Teixeira, Sandra Ribeiro, Carolina Andrade, Cláudia Oliveira, Diana Gonzaga, Catarina Prior, Inês Vaz Matos

Abstract:

The average daily screen time (ST) has been increasing in children, even at young ages. This seems to be associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, and as the time of exposure increases, the greater is the functional impact. This study aims to compare the daily ST of toddlers and preschoolers previously and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was applied by telephone to parents/caregivers of children between 1 and 5 years old, followed up at 4 primary care units belonging to the Group of Primary Health Care Centers of Western Porto, Portugal. 520 children were included: 52.9% male, mean age 39.4 ± 13.9 months. The mean age of first exposure to screens was 13.9 ± 8.0 months, and most of the children were exposed to more than one screen daily. Considering the WHO recommendations, before the COVID-19 pandemic, 385 (74.0%) and 408 (78.5%) children had excessive ST during the week and the weekend, respectively; during the lockdown, these values increased to 495 (95.2%) and 482 (92.7%). Maternal education and both the child's median age and the median age of first exposure to screens had a statistically significant association with excessive ST, with OR 0.2 (p = 0.03, CI 95% 0.07-0.86), OR 1.1 (p = 0.01, 95% CI 1.05-1.14) and OR 0.9 (p = 0.05, 95% CI 0. 87-0.98), respectively. Most children in this sample had a higher than recommended ST, which increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are worrisome and point to the need for urgent intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, preschoolers, screen time, toddlers

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4015 Clinical Effectiveness of Bulk-fill Resin Composite: A Review

Authors: Taraneh Estedlal

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to review in-vivo and in-vitro studies to compare the effectiveness of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with regard to marginal adaptation, polymerization shrinkage, and other mechanical properties.PubMed and Scopus databases was investigated for in-vitro studies and randomized clinical trials comparing incidence of fractures, color stability, marginal adaptation, pain and discomfort, recurrent caries, occlusion, pulpal reaction, and proper proximal contacts of restorations made with conventional and bulk resins. The failure rate of conventional and flowable bulk-fill resin composites was not significantly different to sculptable bulk-fill resin composites. The objective of this study was to review in-vivo and in-vitro studies to compare the effectiveness of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with regard to marginal adaptation, polymerization shrinkage, and other mechanical properties. PubMed and Scopus databases was investigated for in-vitro studies and randomized clinical trials comparing one of the pearlier mentioned properties between bulk-fill and control composites. Despite differences in physical and in-vitro properties, failure rate of conventional and flowable bulk-fill resin composites was not significantly different to sculptable bulk-fill resin composites.

Keywords: polymerization shrinkage, color stability, marginal adaptation, recurrent caries, occlusion, pulpal reaction

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4014 Cytology Is a Promising Tool for the Diagnosis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma from Ascites

Authors: Miceska Simona, Škof Erik, Frković Grazio Snježana, Jeričević Anja, Smrkolj Špela, Cvjetićanin Branko, Novaković Srdjan, Grčar Kuzmanov Biljana, Kloboves-Prevodnik Veronika

Abstract:

Objectives: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by the dissemination of the tumor cells (TC) in the peritoneal cavity forming malignant ascites at the time of diagnosis or recurrence. Still, cytology itself has been underutilized as a modality for the diagnosis of HGSOC from ascites, and histological examination from the tumor tissue is yet the only validated method used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cytology in the diagnosis of HGSOC in relation to the histopathological examination. Methods: The study included 42 patients with histologically confirmed HGSOC, accompanied by malignant ascites. To confirm the malignancy of the TC in the ascites and to define their immunophenotype, immunohistochemical reaction (IHC) of the following antigens: Calretinin, MOC, WT1, PAX8, p53, p16 & Ki-67 was evaluated on ascites cytospins and tissue blocks. For complete cytological determination of HGSOC, BRCA 1/2 gene mutation was determined from ascites, tissue block, and blood. BRCA1/2 mutation from blood was performed to define the type of mutation, somatic vs germline. Results: Among 42 patients, the immunophenotype of HGSOC from ascites was confirmed in 36 cases (86%). For more profound analysis, the patients were divided in 3 groups regarding the number of TC present in the ascites: patients with less than 10% TC, 10% TC, and more than 10% TC. From all included patients, in the group with less than 10% TC, there were 10 cases, and only 5 of them(50%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 12 cases had equally 10% of TC, and 11 cases (92%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 20 cases had more than 10% TC and all of them (100%) confirmed the HGSOC immunophenotype from ascites. Only 33 patients were eligible for further BRCA1/2 analysis. Eleven BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from thetissue block: 6 germline and 5 somatic. In 2 cases with less than 10% TC, BRCA1/2 mutation was not detected; 4 cases had 10% TC, and 2 of them (50%) confirmed the mutation; 4 cases had more than 10% TC, and all showed 100% reliability with the tumor tissue. Conclusions: Cytology is a highly reliable method for determining the immunophenotype of HGSOC and BRCA1/2 mutation if more than 10% of tumor cells are present in the ascites. This may present an additional non-invasive clinical approach for fast and effective diagnose in the future, especially in inoperable conditions or relapses.

Keywords: cytology, ascites, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, immunophenotype, BRCA1/2

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4013 Incidence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Their Risk of Cancer in Leeds, UK: An 11-year Epidemiological Study

Authors: Benoit Jauniaux, Azzam Ismail

Abstract:

Objectives: The aims were to identify all incident adult cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) in the City of Leeds, UK, and to estimate the risk of cancer in IIMs as compared with the general population. Methods: Cases of IIMs were ascertained by review of all muscle biopsy reports from the Neuropathology Laboratory. A review of medical records was undertaken for each case to review the clinical diagnosis and collect epidemiological data such as age, ethnicity, sex, and comorbidities, including cancer. Leeds denominator population numbers were publicly obtainable. Results: Two hundred and six biopsy reports were identified, and after review, 50 incident cases were included in the study between June 2010 and January 2021. Out of the 50 cases, 27 were male, and 23 were female. The mean incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds throughout the study period was 7.42/1 000 000 person years. The proportion of IIMs cases with a confirmed malignancy was 22%. Compared to the general population, the relative risk of cancer was significantly greater in the IIMs population(31.56, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds was consistent with data from previous literature, however, disagreement exists between different methods of IIMs case inclusion due to varying clinical criteria and definitions. IIMs are associated with increased risk of cancer however, the pathogenesis of this relationship still requires investigating. This study supports the practice of malignancy screening and long-term surveillance in patients with IIMs.

Keywords: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, myositis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, malignancy, epidemiology, incidence rate, relative risk

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