Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5139

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

5139 Fluctuation of Serum Creatinine: Preoperative and Postoperative Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Authors: Chowdhury Md. Navim Kabir

Abstract:

Renal impairment is one of the most severe non-communicable diseases around the world. Especially patients with diagnosed/newly diagnosed renal impairment who need surgery are more focused on preoperative and postoperative preparation. Serum creatinine is the prime biochemical marker for assessing renal function, and the level of impairment is widely measured by this marker as well as Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). Objective: Factors responsible for fluctuating serum creatinine during preoperative and postoperative periods and minimizing the process of serum creatinine is the ultimate goal of this study. Method: 37 patients participated in this cross-sectional study who were previously diagnosed/newly diagnosed. They were admitted to different tertiary-level hospitals for emergency or elective surgery. Fifteen patients were admitted in the renal function impairment stage and 22 were admitted as normal patients’. Values of creatinine at the pre-admission stage and 2nd/3rd post-admission follow-up were compared. Results: 0.41 was the average of 22 patients' creatinine between pre-admission and 2nd/3rd follow-up. The responsible factor like prolonged staying, immobilization, co-morbidities, different preoperative antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) were also inducers for creatinine elevation. After postoperative hemodialysis rapid decrease of creatinine is seen in normal patients, but this decrease is very much minor in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) diagnosed patients.

Keywords: CKD, Meropenam, NSAID, comorbidities, immobilized

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5138 Improving Infant Vaccination Rates Through Expanded Access to Care

Authors: Aidan Jacobsen, Morgan Motia, David Sam, Jonathan Mudge

Abstract:

Background: The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) lists vaccine requirements for children under two years old to correlate with development markers. CDC lists the coverage by age 24 months to be at least 90% nationally and 84% for Rhode Island Blackstone Valley Community Health Center (BVCHC) in Central Falls, Rhode Island, currently has a completed vaccination rate of 51% for children by the age of 24 months. Current barriers to care for up to date well child vaccinations include lack of transportation, parental work, childcare, and other social stressors. Objective: Increase the vaccination rate of children under the age of 24 months at BVCHC. Conduct a literature review to identify the common barriers preventing children under 24 months from receiving vaccinations. Reduce the barriers to expand access to vaccination care for infants Methods: Setting: Blackstone Valley Community Health Center, Pawtucket, RI Participants: (n=41), Patients between the age of 20-24 months, not up to date with the CDC vaccination recommendations and without a future appointment. QI Intervention: Patients were contacted via phone and offered an appointment during extra Saturday clinic hours in order to receive up to date vaccine care. A Saturday vaccine clinic was established specifically for patients in need of vaccines and having identified barriers to care. Conclusions: Expanding clinic hours and targeting non vaccine up –to-date patients can increase the current standard of childhood immunizations at BVCHC. Overcoming barriers preventing childhood immunization can improve access to providing up to date vaccinations. Other barriers still deter from reaching the national standard of immunizations rates.

Keywords: vaccinations, well child care, barriers to care, social determinants of health

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
5137 DEKA-1 a Dose-Finding Phase 1 Trial: Observing Safety and Biomarkers using DK210 (EGFR) for Inoperable Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic EGFR+ Tumors with Progressive Disease Failing Systemic Therapy

Authors: Spira A., Marabelle A., Kientop D., Moser E., Mumm J.

Abstract:

Background: Both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) have been extensively studied for their stimulatory function on T cells and their potential to obtain sustainable tumor control in RCC, melanoma, lung, and pancreatic cancer as monotherapy, as well as combination with PD-1 blockers, radiation, and chemotherapy. While approved, IL-2 retains significant toxicity, preventing its widespread use. The significant efforts undertaken to uncouple IL-2 toxicity from its anti-tumor function have been unsuccessful, and early phase clinical safety observed with PEGylated IL-10 was not met in a blinded Phase 3 trial. Deka Biosciences has engineered a novel molecule coupling wild-type IL-2 to a high affinity variant of Epstein Barr Viral (EBV) IL-10 via a scaffold (scFv) that binds to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). This patented molecule, termed DK210 (EGFR), is retained at high levels within the tumor microenvironment for days after dosing. In addition to overlapping and non-redundant anti-tumor function, IL-10 reduces IL-2 mediated cytokine release syndrome risks and inhibits IL-2 mediated T regulatory cell proliferation. Methods: DK210 (EGFR) is being evaluated in an open-label, dose-escalation (Phase 1) study with 5 (0.025-0.3 mg/kg) monotherapy dose levels and (expansion cohorts) in combination with PD-1 blockers, or radiation or chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors overexpressing EGFR. Key eligibility criteria include 1) confirmed progressive disease on at least one line of systemic treatment, 2) EGFR overexpression or amplification documented in histology reports, 3) at least a 4 week or 5 half-lives window since last treatment, and 4) excluding subjects with long QT syndrome, multiple myeloma, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis or uncontrolled infectious, psychiatric, neurologic, or cancer disease. Plasma and tissue samples will be investigated for pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarkers and genetic signatures associated with IFN-gamma secretion, aiming to select subjects for treatment in Phase 2. Conclusion: Through successful coupling of wild-type IL-2 with a high affinity IL-10 and targeting directly to the tumor microenvironment, DK210 (EGFR) has the potential to harness IL-2 and IL-10’s known anti-cancer promise while reducing immunogenicity and toxicity risks enabling safe concomitant cytokine treatment with other anti-cancer modalities.

Keywords: cytokine, EGFR over expression, interleukine-2, interleukine-10, clinical trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5136 Leuprolide Induced Scleroderma Renal Crisis: A Case Report

Authors: Nirali Sanghavi, Julia Ash, Amy Wasserman

Abstract:

Introduction: To the best of our knowledge, there is only one case report that found an association between leuprolide and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). Leuprolide has been noted to cause acute renal failure in some patients. Given the close timing of the leuprolide injection and the worsening renal function in our patient, leuprolide likely caused exacerbation of lupus nephritis and SRC. Interestingly, our patient on long-term hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with normal baseline cardiac function was found to have HCQ cardiomyopathy highlighting the need for close monitoring of HCQ toxicity. We know that some of the risk factors that are involved in HCQ induced cardiomyopathy are older age, females, increased dose and >10 years of HCQ use, and pre-existing cardiac and renal insufficiency. Case presentation: A 34-year-old African American woman with a history of overlap of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma features and class III lupus nephritis presented with severe headaches, elevated blood pressure (180/120 mmHg) and worsening creatinine levels (2.07 mg/dL). The headaches started 1 month ago after she started leuprolide injections for fibroids. She was being treated with mycophenolate mofetil 1 gm twice a day, belimumab weekly, HCQ 200mg, and prednisone 5 mg daily. She has been on HCQ since her teenage years. The examination was unremarkable except for proximal interphalangeal joint contractures in the right hand and sclerodactyly of bilateral hands, unchanged from baseline. Laboratory findings include urinalysis, which showed 3+ protein, 1+ blood, 6 red blood cells, and 14 white blood cells ruling out thrombotic microangiopathy. C3 was 32 mg/dL, C4 <5 mg/dL, and +dsDNA increased >1000. She was started on captopril and discharged once creatinine and blood pressure was controlled. She was readmitted with hypertension, hyperkalemia, worsening creatinine, nephrotic range proteinuria, complaints of chest pressure, and shortness of breath with pleuritic chest pain. Physical examination and lab findings were unchanged. She was treated with pulse dose methyl prednisone followed by taper and multiple anti-hypertensive agents, including captopril, for presumed lupus nephritis flare versus SRC. Renal biopsy was consistent with SRC and class IV lupus nephritis and was started on cyclophosphamide. While cardiac biopsy showed borderline myocarditis without necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization consistent with HCQ cardiomyopathy, hence HCQ was discontinued. Summary: It highlights a rare association of leuprolide causing exacerbation of lupus nephritis or SRC. Although rare, the current case reinforces the importance of close monitoring for HCQ toxicity in patients with renal insufficiency.

Keywords: leuprolide, lupus nephritis, scleroderma, SLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5135 Rapid-Access Multispecialty Nurse-Led Tongue Tie Service: A Retrospective Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness

Authors: Jia Yin Tan, Daniel Rambei, Kate Mann, Samuel price, Ahmed Aboelela

Abstract:

Introduction: Breastfeeding is a complex process, influenced by various factors. Tongue-tie may lead to breastfeeding difficulties due to an inability to suck effectively, causing sore nipples and poor infant weight gain. In the UK, most frenotomies on infants are performed by doctors, nurses, health visitors or midwives. Objectives: Evaluation of safety and efficacy of a multispecialty nurse-led rapid access tongue-tie service at Sheffield Children’s Hospital, run jointly by the ENT and paediatric surgery departments. Methodology: A retrospective observational study, including all patients attending the ENT and paediatric surgery nurse-led tongue tie clinics between 1/10/2021 and 30/09/2022. Results: During the study period there were 1135 referrals for frenotomy, with a mean of 15 days between referral to clinic episode. 86.8% of referred patients underwent frenotomy, with a complication rate of 0.1% and revision rate of 5.4%. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that our rapid access nurse-led outpatient tongue tie service is safe and efficacious, with low complication and revision rates. This suggests a potential for developing a community-based service, allowing safe and effective care closer to home.

Keywords: tongue tie, frenotomy, cost, nurse-led

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5134 Novel Liposomal Nanocarriers For Long-term Tumor Imaging

Authors: Mohamad Ahrari 1, Kayvan Sadri 2, Mahmoud Reza Jafari 3*

Abstract:

PEGylated liposomes have a smaller volume of distribution and decreased clearance, consequently, due to their more prolonged presence in bloodstream and maintaining their stability during this period, these liposomes can be applied for imaging tumoral sites. The purpose of this study is to develop an appropriate radiopharmaceutical agent in long-term imaging for improved diagnosis and evaluation of tumors. In this study, liposomal formulations encapsulating albumin is synthesized by solvent evaporation method along with homogenization, and their characteristics were assessed. Then these liposomes labeled by Philips method and the rate of stability of labeled liposomes in serum, and ultimately the rate of biodistribution and gamma scintigraphy in C26-colon carcinoma tumor-bearing mice, were studied. The result of the study of liposomal characteristics displayed that capable of accumulating in tumor sites based of EPR phenomenon. these liposomes also have high stability for maintaining encapsulated albumin in a long time. In the study of biodistribution of these liposomes in mice, they accumulated more in the kidney, liver, spleen, and tumor sites, which, even after clearing formulations in the bloodstream, they existed in high levels in these organs up to 96 hours. In gamma scintigraphy also, organs with high activity accumulation from early hours up to 96 hours were visible in the form of hot spots. concluded that PEGylated liposomal formulation encapsulating albumin can be labeled with In-Oxine, and obtained stabilized formulation for long-term imaging, that have more favorable conditions for the evaluation of tumors and it will cause early diagnosis of tumors.

Keywords: nano liposome, 111In-oxine, imaging, biodistribution, tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5133 Effect of Colloid Versus Crystalloid Administration in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Prime Solution on Tissue and Organ Perfusionm

Authors: Mohammad Java Esmaeily

Abstract:

Background: We evaluate the effects of tissue and organ perfusion during and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery with either colloid (Voluven) or crystalloid (Lactated ringers) as a prime solution. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized-controlled trial study, 70 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned to receive either colloid (Voluven) or crystalloid (Lactated ringer's) as a prime solution for initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass machine procedure. Tissue and organ perfusion markers, including lactate, troponin I, liver and renal function tests and electrolytes, were measured sequentially before induction (T1) to the second days after surgery (T5). Results: With the exception of chloride and potassium levels, no significant differences were detected in other measurements, and laboratory results were identical entirely in the two groups. Conclusion: Voluven® (hydroxyethyl starch, HES 130/0.4) has a not significant difference in comparison with crystalloid (Lactated ringer's) as priming solution on the basis of organ and tissue perfusion tests assessment.

Keywords: prime, colloid, crystalloid, lactate, troponin, hydroxyethyl starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5132 Analysis of Long-term Results After External Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery in Patients Suffered from Diabetes Mellitus.

Authors: N. Musayeva, N. Rustamova, N. Bagirov, S. Ibadov.

Abstract:

Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), which remains the preferred primary procedure in the surgical treatment of lacrimal duct obstruction in chronic dacryocystitis. Methodology: Long-term results of external DCR (after 3 years) performed on 90 patients (90 eyes) with chronic dacryocystitis from 2018 to 2020 were evaluated at the Azerbaijan National Center of Ophthalmology, named after acad. Zarifa Aliyeva. 15 of the patients were men, and 75 were women. The average age was 45±3.2 years. Surgical operations were performed under local anesthesia. All patients suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 3 years. All patients underwent external DCR, and silicone drainage (tube) was implanted. In the postoperative period (after 3 years), lacrimation, purulent discharge, and the condition of the scar at the operation site were assessed. Results: All patients were under observation for more than 18 months. In general, the effectiveness of the surgical operation was 93.34%. Recurrence of disease was observed in 6 patients, and in 3 patients (3.33%), the scar at the site of the operation was rough (non-cosmetic). In 3 patients (3.33%) – the surgically formed anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal bone was obstructed by scar tissue. These patients were reoperated by trans canalicular laser DCR. Conclusion: Despite the long-term (more than a hundred years) use of external DCR, it remains one of the primary techniques in the surgery of chronic dacryocystitis. Due to the high success rate and good long-term results of DCR in the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, we recommend external DCR for this group of patients.

Keywords: chronic dacryocystitis, diabetes mellitus, external dacryocystorhinostomy, long-term results

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
5131 Surgical Treatment of Glaucoma – Literature and Video Review of Blebs, Tubes, and Micro-Invasive Glaucoma Surgeries (MIGS)

Authors: Ana Miguel

Abstract:

Purpose: Glaucoma is the second cause of worldwide blindness and the first cause of irreversible blindness. Trabeculectomy, the standard glaucoma surgery, has a success rate between 36.0% and 98.0% at three years and a high complication rate, leading to the development of different surgeries, micro-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS). MIGS devices are diverse and have various indications, risks, and effectiveness. We intended to review MIGS’ surgical techniques, indications, contra-indications, and IOP effect. Methods: We performed a literature review of MIGS to differentiate the devices and their reported effectiveness compared to traditional surgery (tubes and blebs). We also conducted a video review of the last 1000 glaucoma surgeries of the author (including MIGS, but also trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, and tubes of Ahmed and Baerveldt) performed at glaucoma and advanced anterior segment fellowship in Canada and France, to describe preferred surgical techniques for each. Results: We present the videos with surgical techniques and pearls for each surgery. Glaucoma surgeries included: 1- bleb surgery (namely trabeculectomy, with releasable sutures or with slip knots, deep sclerectomy, Ahmed valve, Baerveldt tube), 2- MIGS with bleb, also known as MIBS (including XEN 45, XEN 63, and Preserflo), 3- MIGS increasing supra-choroidal flow (iStar), 4-MIGS increasing trabecular flow (iStent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy - GATT, goniotomy, excimer laser trabeculostomy -ELT), and 5-MIGS decreasing aqueous humor production (endocyclophotocoagulation, ECP). There was also needling (ab interno and ab externo) performed at the operating room and irido-zonulo-hyaloïdectomy (IZHV). Each technique had different indications and contra-indications. Conclusion: MIGS are valuable in glaucoma surgery, such as traditional surgery with trabeculectomy and tubes. All glaucoma surgery can be combined with phacoemulsification (there may be a synergistic effect on MIGS + cataract surgery). In addition, some MIGS may be combined for further intraocular pressure lowering effect (for example, iStents with goniotomy and ECP). A good surgical technique and postoperative management are fundamental to increasing success and good practice in all glaucoma surgery.

Keywords: glaucoma, migs, surgery, video, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5130 Efficacy Testing of a Product in Reducing Facial Hyperpigmentation and Photoaging after a 12-Week Use

Authors: Nalini Kaul, Barrie Drewitt, Elsie Kohoot

Abstract:

Hyperpigmentation is the third most common pigmentary disorder where dermatologic treatment is sought. It affects all ages resulting in skin darkening because of melanin accumulation. An uneven skin tone because of either exposure to the sun (solar lentigos/age spots/sun spots or skin disruption following acne, or rashes (post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation -PIH) or hormonal changes (melasma) can lead to significant psychosocial impairment. Dyschromia is a result of various alterations in biochemical processes regulating melanogenesis. Treatments include the daily use of sunscreen with lightening, brightening, and exfoliating products. Depigmentation is achieved by various depigmenting agents: common examples are hydroquinone, arbutin, azelaic acid, aloesin, mulberry, licorice extracts, kojic acid, niacinamide, ellagic acid, arbutin, green tea, turmeric, soy, ascorbic acid, and tranexamic acid. These agents affect pigmentation by interfering with mechanisms before, during, and after melanin synthesis. While immediate correction is much sought after, patience and diligence are key. Our objective was to assess the effects of a facial product with pigmentation treatment and UV protection in 35 healthy F (35-65y), meeting the study criteria. Subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and fine lines with no use of skin-lightening products in the last six months or any dermatological procedures in the last twelve months before the study started were included. Efficacy parameters included expert clinical grading for hyperpigmentation, radiance, skin tone & smoothness, fine lines, and wrinkles bioinstrumentation (Corneometer®, Colorimeter®), digital photography and imaging (Visia-CR®), and self-assessment questionnaires. Safety included grading for erythema, edema, dryness & peeling and self-assessments for itching, stinging, tingling, and burning. Our results showed statistically significant improvement in clinical grading scores, bioinstrumentation, and digital photos for hyperpigmentation-brown spots, fine lines/wrinkles, skin tone, radiance, pores, skin smoothness, and overall appearance compared to baseline. The product was also well-tolerated and liked by subjects. Conclusion: Facial hyperpigmentation is of great concern, and treatment strategies are increasingly sought. Clinical trials with both subjective and objective assessments, imaging analyses, and self-perception are essential to distinguish evidence-based products. The multifunctional cosmetic product tested in this clinical study showed efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction in reducing hyperpigmentation and global photoaging.

Keywords: hyperpigmentation; photoaging, clinical testing, expert visual evaluations, bio-instruments

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
5129 Myomectomy and Blood Loss: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Ena Arora, Rong Fan, Aleksandr Fuks, Kolawole Felix Akinnawonu

Abstract:

Introduction: Leiomyomas are benign tumors that are derived from the overgrowth of uterine smooth muscle cells. Women with symptomatic leiomyomas who desire future fertility, myomectomy should be the standard surgical treatment. Perioperative hemorrhage is a common complication in myomectomy. We performed the study to investigate blood transfusion rate in abdominal myomectomies, risk factors influencing blood loss and modalities to improve perioperative blood loss. Methods: Retrospective chart review was done for patients who underwent myomectomy from 2016 to 2022 at Queens hospital center, New York. We looked at preoperative patient demographics, clinical characteristics, intraoperative variables, and postoperative outcomes. Mann-Whitney U test were used for parametric and non-parametric continuous variable comparisons, respectively. Results: A total of 159 myomectomies were performed between 2016 and 2022, including 1 laparoscopic, 65 vaginal and 93 abdominal. 44 patients received blood transfusion during or within 72 hours of abdominal myomectomy. The blood transfusion rate was 47.3%. Blood transfusion rate was found to be twice higher than the average documented rate in literature which is 20%. Risk factors identified were black race, preoperative hematocrit<30%, preoperative blood transfusion within 72 hours, large fibroid burden, prolonged surgical time, and abdominal approach. Conclusion: Preoperative optimization with iron supplements or GnRH agonists is important for patients undergoing myomectomy. Interventions to decrease intra operative blood loss should include cell saver, tourniquet, vasopressin, misoprostol, tranexamic acid and gelatin-thrombin matrix hemostatic sealant.

Keywords: myomectomy, perioperative blood loss, cell saver, tranexamic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5128 Development of A practical screening measure for the prediction of Low Birth Weight and neonatal mortality in Upper Egypt

Authors: Prof. Ammal Mokhtar Metwally, Samia M. Sami, Nihad A. Ibrahim, Fatma A. Shaaban, Iman I. Salama

Abstract:

Objectives: Reducing neonatal mortality by 2030 is still a challenging goal in developing countries. low birth weight (LBW) is a significant contributor to this, especially where weighing newborns is not possible routinely. The present study aimed to determine a simple, easy, reliable anthropometric measure(s) that can predict LBW) and neonatal mortality. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 570 babies born in districts of El Menia governorate, Egypt (where most deliveries occurred at home) was examined at birth. Newborn weight, length, head, chest, mid-arm, and thigh circumferences were measured. Follow up of the examined neonates took place during their first four weeks of life to report any mortalities. The most predictable anthropometric measures were determined using the statistical package of SPSS, and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed.: Results: Head and chest circumferences with cut-off points < 33 cm and ≤ 31.5 cm, respectively, were the significant predictors for LBW. They carried the best combination of having the highest sensitivity (89.8 % & 86.4 %) and least false negative predictive value (1.4 % & 1.7 %). Chest circumference with a cut-off point ≤ 31.5 cm was the significant predictor for neonatal mortality with 83.3 % sensitivity and 0.43 % false negative predictive value. Conclusion: Using chest circumference with a cut-off point ≤ 31.5 cm is recommended as a single simple anthropometric measurement for the prediction of both LBW and neonatal mortality. The predicted measure could act as a substitute for weighting newborns in communities where scales to weigh them are not routinely available.

Keywords: low birth weight, neonatal mortality, anthropometric measures, practical screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5127 Protection of Patients and Staff in External Beam Radiotherapy Using Linac in Kenya

Authors: Calvince Okome Odeny

Abstract:

There is a current action to increase radiotherapy services in Kenya. The National government of Kenya, in collaboration with the county governments, has embarked on building radiotherapy centers in all 47 regions of the country. As these new centers are established in Kenya, it has to be ensured that minimum radiation safety standards are in place prior to operation. For full implementation of this, it is imperative that more Research and training for regulators are done on radiation protection, and safety and national regulatory infrastructure is geared towards ensuring radiation protection and safety in all aspects of the use of external radiotherapy practices. The present work aims at reviewing the level of protection and safety for patients and staff during external beam radiotherapy using Linac in Kenya and provides relevant guidance to improve protection and safety. A retrospective evaluation was done to verify whether those occupationally exposed workers and patients are adequately protected from the harmful effect of radiation exposure during the treatment procedures using Linac. The project was experimental Research, also including an analysis of resource documents obtained from the literature and international organizations. The critical findings of the work revealed that the key elements of protection of occupationally exposed workers and patients include a comprehensive quality Management system governing all planned activities from siting, safety, and design of the Facility, construction, acceptance testing, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of the Facility; Government empowering the Regulatory Authority to license Medical Linear facilities and to enforce the applicable regulations to ensure adequate protection; A comprehensive Radiation Protection and Safety program must be established to ensure adequate safety and protection of workers and patients during treatment planning and treatment delivery of patients and categories of staff associated with the Facility must be well educated and trained to perform professionally with a commitment to sound safety culture. Relevant recommendations from the findings are shared with the Medical Linear Accelerator facilities and the regulatory authority to provide guidance and continuous improvement of protection and safety to improve regulatory oversight.

Keywords: oncology, radiotherapy, protection, staff

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5126 Collision Tumor of Plasmacytoma with Hematological and Non-Hematological Malignancies

Authors: Arati Inamdar, Siddharth Bhattacharyya, Kester Haye

Abstract:

Collision tumors are rare entities characterized by neoplasms of two different cell populations with distinct separating boundaries. Such tumors could be benign, malignant, or a combination of both. The exact mechanism of origin for collision tumors is predicted to be tumor heterogeneity or concurrent occurrence of neoplasm in the same organ. We present two cases of plasmacytoma presenting as a collision tumor, one with a tumor of hematological origin and another with a non-hematological origin, namely Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Adenocarcinoma of the colon, respectively. The immunohistochemical stains and flowcytometry analysis performed on the specimens aided incorrect diagnosis. Interestingly, neoplastic cells of plasmacytoma in the first case demonstrated strong cytokeratin along with weak Epithelial Specific Antigen/ Epithelial cell adhesion molecule Monoclonal Antibody (MOC31) positivity, indicating that the tumor may influence the microenvironment of the tumor in the vicinity. Furthermore, the next-generation sequencing studies performed on the specimen with plasmacytoma and chronic lymphocytic lymphoma demonstrated BReast CAncer gene (BRCA2) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induced Protein 3 (TNFAIP3) as a disease associated variants suggestive of risk for multiple tumors including collision tumors. Our reports highlight the unique collision tumors involving plasmacytoma, which have never been reported previously, as well as provide necessary insights about the underline genetic aberrations and tumor heterogeneity through sequencing studies and allow clonality assessment for subsequent tumors.

Keywords: BRCA2, collision tumor, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, plasmacytoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5125 Dietary Intake and Nutritional Inadequacy Leading to Malnutrition among Children Residing in Shelter Home, Rural Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: Niraimathi Kesavan, Sangeeta Sharma, Deepa Jagan, Sridhar Sukumar, Mohan Ramachandran, Vidhubala Elangovan

Abstract:

Background: Childhood is a dynamic period for growth and development. Optimum nutrition during this period forms a strong foundation for growth, development, resistance to infections, long-term good health, cognition, educational achievements, and work productivity in a later phase of life. Underprivileged children living in a resource constraint settings like shelter homes are at high risk of malnutrition due to poor quality diet and nutritional inadequacy. In low-income countries, underprivileged children are vulnerable to being deprived of nutritious food, which stands as a major challenge in the health sector. The present aims to assess the dietary intake, nutritional status, and nutritional inadequacy and their association with malnutrition among children residing in shelter homes in rural Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was a descriptive survey conducted among all the children aged between 8-18 years residing in two selected shelter homes (Anbu illam, a home for female children, and Amaidhi illam, a home for male children), rural Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 57 children were recruited, including 18 boys and 39 girls, for the study. Dietary intake was measured using seven days 24 hours recall. The average nutrient intake was considered for further analysis. Results: Of the 57 children, about 60% (n=35) were undernutrition. The mean daily energy intake was 1298 (SD 180) kcal for boys and 952 (SD155) kcal for girls. The total calorie intake was 55-60% below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for adolescent boys and girls in the age group 13-15 years and 16-18 years. Carbohydrates were the major source of energy (boys 53% and girls 51%), followed by fat (boys 31.5% and girls 34.5%) and protein (boys 14% and girls 12.9%). Dairy intake (<200ml/day) was less than the recommendation (500ml/day). Micro-nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and green leafy vegetables in the diet were <200g/day, which was far less than the recommended dietary guidelines of 400g- 600g/day for the age group of 7-18 years. Nearly 26% of girls reported experiencing menstrual problems. The majority (76.9%) of the children exhibited nutrient deficiency-related signs and symptoms. Conclusion: The total energy, minerals, and micro-nutrient intake were inadequate and below the Recommended Dietary Allowance for children and adolescents. The diet predominantly consists of refined cereals, rice, semolina, and vermicelli. Consumption of whole grains, milk, fruits, vegetables, and leafy vegetables was far below the recommended dietary guidelines. Dietary inadequacies among these children pose a serious concern for their overall health status and its consequences in the later phase of life.

Keywords: adolescents, children, dietary intake, malnutrition, nutritional inadequacy, shelter home

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5124 Successful Rehabilitation of Recalcitrant Knee Pain Due to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Masked by Extensive Skin Graft: A Case Report

Authors: Geum Yeon Sim, Tyler Pigott, Julio Vasquez

Abstract:

A 38-year-old obese female with no apparent past medical history presented with left knee pain. Six months ago, she sustained a left knee dislocation in a motor vehicle accident that was managed with a skin graft over the left lower extremity without any reconstructive surgery. She developed persistent pain and stiffness in her left knee that worsened with walking and stair climbing. Examination revealed healed extensive skin graft over the left lower extremity, including the left knee. Palpation showed moderate tenderness along the superior border of the patella, exquisite tenderness over MCL, and mild tenderness on the tibial tuberosity. There was normal sensation, reflexes, and strength in her lower extremities. There was limited active and passive range of motion of her left knee during flexion. There was instability noted upon the valgus stress test of the left knee. Left knee magnetic resonance imaging showed high-grade (grade 2-3) injury of the proximal superficial fibers of the MCL and diffuse thickening and signal abnormality of the cruciate ligaments, as well as edema-like subchondral marrow signal change in the anterolateral aspect of the lateral femoral condyle weight-bearing surface. There was also notable extensive scarring and edema of the skin, subcutaneous soft tissues, and musculature surrounding the knee. The patient was managed with left knee immobilization for five months, which was complicated by limited knee flexion. Physical therapy consisting of quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius stretching and strengthening, range of motion exercises, scar/soft tissue mobilization, and gait training was given with marked improvement in pain and range of motion. The patient experienced a further reduction in pain as well as an improvement in function with home exercises consisting of continued strengthening and stretching.

Keywords: ligamentous injury, trauma, rehabilitation, knee pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5123 Modeling Competition Between Subpopulations with Variable DNA Content in Resource-Limited Microenvironments

Authors: Parag Katira, Frederika Rentzeperis, Zuzanna Nowicka, Giada Fiandaca, Thomas Veith, Jack Farinhas, Noemi Andor

Abstract:

Resource limitations shape the outcome of competitions between genetically heterogeneous pre-malignant cells. One example of such heterogeneity is in the ploidy (DNA content) of pre-malignant cells. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) transforms a diploid cell into a tetraploid one and has been detected in 28-56% of human cancers. If a tetraploid subclone expands, it consistently does so early in tumor evolution, when cell density is still low, and competition for nutrients is comparatively weak – an observation confirmed for several tumor types. WGD+ cells need more resources to synthesize increasing amounts of DNA, RNA, and proteins. To quantify resource limitations and how they relate to ploidy, we performed a PAN cancer analysis of WGD, PET/CT, and MRI scans. Segmentation of >20 different organs from >900 PET/CT scans were performed with MOOSE. We observed a strong correlation between organ-wide population-average estimates of Oxygen and the average ploidy of cancers growing in the respective organ (Pearson R = 0.66; P= 0.001). In-vitro experiments using near-diploid and near-tetraploid lineages derived from a breast cancer cell line supported the hypothesis that DNA content influences Glucose- and Oxygen-dependent proliferation-, death- and migration rates. To model how subpopulations with variable DNA content compete in the resource-limited environment of the human brain, we developed a stochastic state-space model of the brain (S3MB). The model discretizes the brain into voxels, whereby the state of each voxel is defined by 8+ variables that are updated over time: stiffness, Oxygen, phosphate, glucose, vasculature, dead cells, migrating cells and proliferating cells of various DNA content, and treat conditions such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Well-established Fokker-Planck partial differential equations govern the distribution of resources and cells across voxels. We applied S3MB on sequencing and imaging data obtained from a primary GBM patient. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of four surgical specimens collected during the 1ˢᵗ and 2ⁿᵈ surgeries of the GBM and used HATCHET to quantify its clonal composition and how it changes between the two surgeries. HATCHET identified two aneuploid subpopulations of ploidy 1.98 and 2.29, respectively. The low-ploidy clone was dominant at the time of the first surgery and became even more dominant upon recurrence. MRI images were available before and after each surgery and registered to MNI space. The S3MB domain was initiated from 4mm³ voxels of the MNI space. T1 post and T2 flair scan acquired after the 1ˢᵗ surgery informed tumor cell densities per voxel. Magnetic Resonance Elastography scans and PET/CT scans informed stiffness and Glucose access per voxel. We performed a parameter search to recapitulate the GBM’s tumor cell density and ploidy composition before the 2ⁿᵈ surgery. Results suggest that the high-ploidy subpopulation had a higher Glucose-dependent proliferation rate (0.70 vs. 0.49), but a lower Glucose-dependent death rate (0.47 vs. 1.42). These differences resulted in spatial differences in the distribution of the two subpopulations. Our results contribute to a better understanding of how genomics and microenvironments interact to shape cell fate decisions and could help pave the way to therapeutic strategies that mimic prognostically favorable environments.

Keywords: tumor evolution, intra-tumor heterogeneity, whole-genome doubling, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5122 The Effect of Pregabalin on Postoperative Pain after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

Authors: Emad Kouhestani

Abstract:

Background: Despite the enormous success of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, acute neuropathic pain can develop postoperatively and is both distressing and difficult to treat once established. Pregabalin, as an anticonvulsant agent that selectively affects the nociceptive process, has been used as a pain relief agent. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the pain control effect of pregabalin versus placebo after ACL reconstruction. Method: A search of the literature was performed from inception to June 2022, using PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane, and EBSCO. Studies considered for inclusion were RCTs that reported relevant outcomes (postoperative pain scores, or cumulative opioid consumption, adverse events) following the administration of pregabalin in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Result: Five placebo-controlled RCTs involving 272 participants met the inclusion criteria. 75 mg and 150 mg of oral pregabalin were used in included trials. Two studies used a single dose of pregabalin one hour before anesthesia induction. Two studies used pregabalin 1 hour before anesthesia induction and 12 hours after. One study used daily pregabalin 7 days before and 7 days after surgery. Out of five papers, three papers found significantly lower pain intensity and cumulative opioid consumption in the pregabalin group compared with the placebo group. However, a decrease in pain scores was found in all trials. Pregabalin administration was associated with dizziness and nausea. Conclusion: The use of pregabalin may be a valuable asset in pain management after ACL reconstruction. However, future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required.

Keywords: pregabalin, anterior cruciate ligament, postoperative pain, clinical trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5121 Drinking reduction programs: Comparing the effectiveness of different versions of the programs.

Authors: Justyna Śniadach, Barbara Bętkowska Korpała, Napoleon Waszkiewicz

Abstract:

The drinking reduction program is a relatively new form of therapy. A lot has changed in thinking about alcohol problems and effective ways to solve them. Until recently, alcohol consumers were divided into two groups: addicted and "normal" drinkers. In recent years, the existence of a large group of people who drink alcohol harmfully has been noticed: not addicted, but still drinking in a way that brings losses and harms to others. It turned out that most of the problems resulting from drinking alcohol are generated by people who drink harmfully and that showed that it is necessary to build a support system for these people aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. The Drinking Reduction Program currently has 3 versions. There is a Drinking Reduction Program in a standard form, where the patient works stationary, in the therapist's office. Another possibility is the patient's work on Online - Drinking Reduction Program with application in a remote form. Another possibility is the patient's work in Online- Drinking Reduction Program on-line but together with the therapist. In all of this program's exercises are based on the assumptions of behavioral-cognitive therapy and methods of motivational dialogue. The purpose of this research will be to compare three versions of Drinking Reduction Programs in terms of their effectiveness, psychological and sociological variables, as well as the level of motivation to change the drinking pattern.

Keywords: alcohol addiction, addiction therapy, drinking reduction programs, cognitive-behavioral therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
5120 Examining the Behavioral, Hygienic and Expectational Changes in Adolescents and Young Women during COVID-19 Quarantine in Colombia

Authors: Rocio Murad, Marcela Sanchez, Mariana Calderon Jaramillo, Danny Rivera, Angela Cifuentes, Daniela Roldán, Juan Carlos Rivillas

Abstract:

Women and girls have specific health needs, but during health pandemics such as COVID19 they are less likely to have access to quality essential health information, commodities and services, or insurance coverage for routine and catastrophic health expenses, especially in rural and marginalized communities. This is compounded by multiple or intersecting inequalities, such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, age, geographic location, and sexual orientation, among others. Despite concerted collective action, there is a lack of information on the situation of women, adolescents and youth, including gender inequalities exacerbated by the pandemic. Much more needs to be done to amplify the lived realities of women and adolescents in global and national advocacy and policy responses. The COVID 19 pandemic reflects the need for systematic advocacy policies based on the lived experiences of women and adolescents, underpinned by human rights. This research is part of the initiative of Profamilia Association (Solidarity Study), and its objective is twofold: i) to analyze the behavioral changes and immediate expectations of Colombians during the stage of relaxation of the confinement measures decreed by the national government; and ii) to identify the needs, experiences and resilient practices of adolescents and young women during the COVID-19 crisis in Colombia. Descriptive analysis of data collected by Profamilia through the Solidaridad study, an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive study that used subnational level data from a nonprobabilistic sample survey conducted to 1735 adults, between September 01 and 11, 2020. Interviews were conducted with key stakeholders about their experiences during COVID19, under three key axes: i) main challenges for adolescents and young women; ii) examples of what has worked well in responding to the challenge; and iii) how/what services are/should be provided during COVID-19 (and beyond) to address the challenge. Interviewees were selected based on prior mapping of social groups of interest. In total, 23 adolescents and young women participated in the interviews. The results show that people adopted behavioral changes such as wearing masks, avoiding people with symptoms, and reducing mobility, but there was also a doubling of concerns for many reasons, from effects on mental health, sexual health, and unattended reproductive health to the burden of care and working at home. The favorable perception that people had at the beginning of the quarantine about the response and actions of the national and local government to control Covid-19 decreased over the course of the quarantine. The challenges and needs of adolescents and young women were highlighted during the most restrictive measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in disruptions to daily activities, education and work, as well as restrictions to mobility and social interaction. Concerns raised by participants included: impact on mental health and wellbeing due to disruption of daily life; limitations in access to formal and informal education; food insecurity; migration; loss of livelihoods; lack of access to health information and services; limitations to sexual and reproductive health and rights; insecurity problems; and problems in communication and treatment among household members.

Keywords: COVID-19, changes in behavior, adolescents, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5119 Opportunities in Self-care Abortion and Telemedicine: Findings from a Study in Colombia

Authors: Paola Montenegro, Maria de los Angeles Balaguera Villa

Abstract:

In February 2022 Colombia achieved a historic milestone in ensuring universal access to abortion rights with ruling C-055 of 2022 decriminalising abortion up to 24 weeks of gestation. In the context of this triumph and the expansion of telemedicine services in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, this research studied the acceptability of self-care abortion in young people (13 - 28 years) through a telemedicine service and also explored the primary needs that should be the focus of such care. The results shine light on a more comprehensive understanding of opportunities and challenges of teleabortion practices in a context that combines overall higher access to technology and low access to reliable information of safe abortion, stigma, and scarcity especially felt by transnational migrants, racialised people, trans men and non-binary people. Through a mixed methods approach, this study collected 5.736 responses to a virtual survey disseminated nationwide in Colombia and 47 in-person interviews (24 of them with people who were assigned female at birth and 21 with local key stakeholders in the abortion ecosystem). Quantitative data was analyzed using Stata SE Version 16.0 and qualitative analysis was completed through NVivo using thematic analysis. Key findings of the research suggest that self-care abortion is practice with growing acceptability among young people, but important adjustments must be made to meet quality of care expectations of users. Elements like quick responses from providers, lower costs, and accessible information were defined by users as decisive factors to choose over the abortion service provider. In general, the narratives in participants about quality care were centred on the promotion of autonomy and the provision of accompaniment and care practices, also perceived as transformative and currently absent of most health care services. The most staggering findings from the investigation are related to current barriers faced by young people in abortion contexts even when the legal barriers have: high rates of scepticism and distrust associated with pitfalls of telehealth and structural challenges associated with lacking communications infrastructure, among a few of them. Other important barriers to safe self-care abortion identified by participants surfaced like lack of privacy and confidentiality (especially in rural areas of the country), difficulties accessing reliable information, high costs of procedures and expenses related to travel costs or having to cease economic activities, waiting times, and stigma are among the primary barriers to abortion identified by participants. Especially in a scenario marked by unprecedented social, political and economic disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the commitment to design better care services that can be adapted to the identities, experiences, social contexts and possibilities of the user population is more necessary than ever. In this sense, the possibility of expanding access to services through telemedicine brings us closer to the opportunity to rethink the role of health care models in transforming the role of individuals and communities to make autonomous, safe and informed decisions about their own health and well-being.

Keywords: contraception, family planning, premarital fertility, unplanned pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
5118 Contraceptives: Experiences of Agency and Coercion of Young People Living in Colombia

Authors: Paola Montenegro, Maria de los Angeles Balaguera Villa

Abstract:

Contraceptive methods play a fundamental role in preventing unwanted pregnancies and protecting users from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite being known to almost the entire population of reproductive age living in Colombia, there are barriers, practices and complex notions about contraceptives that affect their desired mass use and effectiveness. This work aims to analyse some of the perceptions and practices discussed with young people (13-28 years old) living in Colombia regarding the use of contraceptives in their daily lives, preferences, needs and perceived side effects. This research also examines the perceived paradox in autonomy that young people experience regarding contraceptive use: in one hand, its use (or lack of it) is interpreted as an act of self-determination and primary example of reproductive agency, on the other hand, it was frequently associated with coercion and limited autonomy derived from the gaps in reliable information available for young people, the difficulty of accessing certain preferred methods, and sometimes the experienced coercion exercise by doctors, partners and/or family members. The data and analysis discussed in this work stems from a research project whose objective was to provide information about needs and preferences in sexual and reproductive health of young people living in Colombia in relation to a possible telehealth service that could close the gap in access to quality care and safe information. Through a mixed methods approach, this study collected 5.736 responses to a virtual survey disseminated nationwide in Colombia and 47 inperson interviews (24 of them with people who were assigned female at birth and 21 with local key stakeholders in the abortion ecosystem). Quantitative data was analyzed using Stata SE Version 16.0 and qualitative analysis was completed through NVivo using thematic analysis. Key findings on contraception use in young people living in Colombia reveal that 85,8% of participants had used a contraceptive method in the last two years, and that the most commonly used methods were condoms, contraceptive pills, the morning-after pill and the method of interruption. The remaining 14,2% of respondents who declared to not have used contraceptives in the last two years expressed that the main four barriers to access were: "Lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods and where to obtain information and/or access them (13.9%)", "Have had sex with people who have vaginas (10.2%)", "Cost of contraceptive method (8.4%)" and "Difficulties in obtaining medical authorisations (7.6%)". These barriers coincided with the ones used to explain the non-use of contraceptives in young people, which reveals that limitations in information, cost, and quality care represent structural issues that need to be address in programmes, services, and public policy. Finally, interviews showed that young people perceive contraceptive use and non-use as an example of reaffirming reproductive agency and limitations to this can be explained through the widespread incomplete knowledge about how methods work and the prevalence of other social representations of contraception associated with trust, fidelity, and partner preferences, that in the end create limitations to young people’s autonomy.

Keywords: contraception, family planning, premarital fertility, unplanned pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5117 Sexual and Reproductive Rights After the Signing of the Peace Process: A Territorial Commitment

Authors: Rocio Murad, Juan Carlos Rivillas, Nury Alejandra Rodriguez, Daniela Roldán

Abstract:

In Colombia, around 5 million women have suffered forced displacement and all forms of gender-based violence, mostly adolescents and young women, single mothers, or widows with children affected by the war. After the signing of the peace agreements, the department of Antioquia has been one of the most affected by the armed conflict, from a territorial and gender perspective in the period. The objective of the research was to analyze the situation of sexual and reproductive rights in the department of Antioquia from a territorial and gender perspective in the period after the signing of the Peace Agreement. A mixed methodology was developed. The quantitative component conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of barriers to access to contraceptive methods, safe abortion and gender-based violence based on microdata from the 2015 National Demographic and Health Survey. In the qualitative component, a case study was developed in Dabeiba, a municipality of Antioquia prioritized in order to deepen the experiences before, during and after the armed conflict in sexual and reproductive rights; using three research techniques: Focused observation, Semi-structured interviews, and Documentary review. The results showed that there is a gradient of greater vulnerability to greater effects of the conflict and that the subregion of Urabá Antioqueño, to which Dabeiba belongs, has the highest levels of vulnerability in relation to departmental data. In this subregion, the percentage of women with an unmet need for contraceptive methods (9%), women with unintended pregnancies (31%), of women between 15 and 19 years of age who are already mothers or are pregnant with their first child (32%) and the percentage of women victims of physical violence (42%) and sexual violence (13%) by their partners are significantly higher. Women, particularly rural and indigenous women, were doubly affected due to the existence of violence that is specifically directed at them or that has a greater impact on their life projects. There was evidence of insufficient, fragmented and disjointed social and institutional action in relation to women's rights and the existence of androcentric and patriarchal social imaginaries through which women and the feminine are undervalued. These results provide evidence of violations of sexual and reproductive rights in contexts of armed conflict and make it possible to identify mechanisms to guarantee the re-establishment of the rights of the victims, particularly women and girls. Among the mechanisms evidenced are: working for the elimination of gender stereotypes; supporting the formation and strengthening of women's social organizations; working for the concerted definition and articulated implementation of actions necessary to respond to sexual and reproductive health needs; and working for the recognition of reproductive violence as specific and different from sexual violence in the context of armed conflict. Also, it was evidenced that it is necessary to implement prevention, attention and reparation actions.

Keywords: sexual and reproductive rights, Colombia, armed conflict, violence against women

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
5116 A Review of the Literature on Expressive Writing Therapy and Patient Outcomes in Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Elizabeth Davies, Talhah Mohammed, James Carr

Abstract:

Background: Expressive writing (EW) is an approach encouraging individuals to write about their thoughts and feelings about stressful life experiences. Despite evidence showing its potential effectiveness across many health conditions, we lack a consensus on its value to women with breast cancer or an understanding of how it works. Aims: This review aims to systematically examine the literature on EW in women with breast cancer. Methods: Pubmed was searched using the terms: breast cancer and expressive writing. Each paper published in 2010 and accessible to King’s College London was read to extract information on design, sample size, approach, and findings. Papers were included if they described participants with breast cancer at any stage of treatment or progression, a specific writing intervention, and a follow-up assessment. Results: Most studies used quantitative methods, with the remainder containing qualitative components. Most adopted the Pennebaker and Beall model, where participants wrote in 3 or 4 sessions over x to x weeks for only 30 minutes. Sixteen studies showed the intervention had significant positive effects, and seven had a neutral or negative effect on the participants. Each study differed in the sample population and the outcome measure employed. Conclusion: This review indicates that EW often yields improvements in mental and physical health for women with breast cancer. However, the lack of standardisation in the sample populations and the differing parameters measured resulted in a lack of clarity on the efficacy of writing interventions. The domination of quantitative studies also denies us information on how EW actually works.

Keywords: expressive, writing, breast, cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
5115 The Correlation Between Epicardial Fat Pad and Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Behnam Shakerian, Negin Razavi

Abstract:

The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease is multifactorial. The epicardial fat pad is a localized fat depot lying between the myocardium and the visceral layer of the pericardium. The mechanisms through which epicardial fat pad can cause atherosclerosis are complex. The epicardial fat pad can surround the coronary arteries and contributes to the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Methods: we selected 50 patients who underwent coronary artery angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease that results were positive for coronary artery disease. All patients underwent an echocardiographic examination after coronary angiography to measure epicardial fat pad thickness. The epicardial fat pad was defined as an echo-free space between the myocardium's outer wall and the pericardium's visceral layer. Results: The epicardial fat pad was measured on the right ventricle apex in 46 patients. Sixty- five percent of the studied patients were male. The most common vessel with stenosis was the left anterior descending artery. A significant correlation was observed between epicardial fat pad thickness and the severity of coronary artery disease. Discussions: The epicardial fat pad provides a horizon on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. It directly contributes to the development and progression of coronary artery disease by causing inflammation and endothelial damage. Further investigations are needed to determine whether medical treatment can reduce the mass of epicardial fat pad and can help to improve atherosclerosis. Conclusion: The epicardial fat pad measurement could be used as an indicator of coronary arteries’ atherosclerosis. Therefore, thickness measurement of the epicardial fat pad in the clinical practice could be of assistance in identifying patients at risk and if required, undergoing supplementary diagnosis with coronary angiography.

Keywords: epicardial, fat pad, coronary artery disease, echocardiography

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5114 Alpha Lipoic Acid: An Antioxidant for Infertility

Authors: Chiara Di Tucci, Giulia Galati, Giulia Mattei, Valentina Bonanni, Oriana Capri, Renzo D'Amelio, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici

Abstract:

Objective: Infertility is an increasingly frequent health condition, which may depend on female or male factors. Oxidative stress (OS), resulting from a disrupted balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protective antioxidants, affects the reproductive lifespan of men and women. In this review, we examine if alpha lipoic acid (ALA), among the oral supplements currently in use, has an evidence-based beneficial role in the context of female and male infertility. Methods: We performed a search from English literature using the PubMed database with the following keywords: 'female infertility', 'male infertility', 'semen', 'sperm', 'sub-fertile man', 'alpha-lipoic acid', ' alpha lipoic acid', 'lipoid acid', 'endometriosis', 'chronic pelvic pain', 'follicular fluid' and 'oocytes'. We included clinical trials, multicentric studies, and reviews. The total number of references found after automatically and manually excluding duplicates was 180. After the primary and secondary screening, 28 articles were selected. Results: The available literature demonstrates the positive effects of ALA in multiple processes, from oocyte maturation (0.87 ± 0.9% of oocyte in MII vs 0.81 ± 3.9%; p < .05) to fertilization, embryo development (57.7% vs 75.7% grade 1 embryo; p < .05) and reproductive outcomes. Its regular administration both in sub-fertile women and men has been shown to reduce pelvic pain in endometriosis (p < .05), regularize menstrual flow and metabolic disorders (p < .01), and improve sperm quality (p < .001). Conclusions: ALA represents a promising new molecule in the field of couple infertility. More clinical studies are needed in order to enhance its use in clinical practice.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, endometriosis, infertility, male factor, polycystic ovary syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
5113 COVID in Pregnancy: Evaluating Maternal and Neonatal Complications

Authors: Alexa L. Walsh, Christine Hartl, Juliette Ferdschneider, Lezode Kipoliongo, Eleonora Feketeova

Abstract:

The investigation of COVID-19 and its effects has been at the forefront of clinical research since its emergence in the United States in 2020. Although the possibility of severe infection in immunocompromised individuals has been documented, within the general population of pregnant individuals, there remains to be vaccine hesitancy and uncertainty regarding how the virus may affect the individual and fetus. To combat this hesitancy, this study aims to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 infection on maternal and neonatal complication rates. This retrospective study was conducted by manual chart review of women who were diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy (n = 78) and women who were not diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy (n = 1,124) that gave birth at Garnet Health Medical Centers between 1/1/2019-1/1/2021. Both the COVID+ and COVID- groups exhibited similar median ages, BMI, and parity. The rates of complications were compared between the groups and statistical significance was determined using Chi-squared analysis. Results demonstrated a statistically higher rate of PROM, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, GDM, DVT/PE, preterm birth, and the overall incidence of any birth complication in the population that was infected with COVID-19 during their pregnancy. With this information, obstetrical providers can be better prepared for the management of COVID-19+ pregnancies and continue to educate their patients on the benefits of vaccination.

Keywords: complications, COVID-19, Gynecology, Obstetrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
5112 Health and Subjective Wellbeing: The Role of Inequalities

Authors: Francesco Colcerasa, Fabio Pisani

Abstract:

We contribute to the subjective well-being literature testing the relationship between life satisfaction and inequality of opportunity in health, measured through the Human Opportunity Index calculated at the national level using individual socio-economic data from the cross-country European Social Survey sample. We compute several indexes of opportunity inequality in health, each obtained according to a different combination of circumstances (gender, immigrant status, parents’ education). We find a robust and significant relationship where life satisfaction is higher in correspondence with low levels of health opportunity inequality. The result is twofold. On the one hand, the importance of the well-being of other types of inequality than income inequality emerges. On the other hand, the socioeconomic roots of inequality in health are investigated, suggesting that circumstances at birth have a role in future well-being. Several rationales for the nexus between life satisfaction and inequality of opportunity in health are possible, which we investigate by splitting the sample. Among others, we find a prominent role of pro-social preferences – formalized as interest towards own offspring (which can be interpreted as intergenerational justice) – as a mediating factor of the relationship.

Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, subjective wellbeing, health, health inequality, inequality of opportunity in health

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
5111 Development of a One-Window Services Model for Accessing Cancer Immunotherapies

Authors: Rizwan Arshad, Alessio Panza, Nimra Inayat, Syeda Mariam Batool Kazmi, Shawana Azmat

Abstract:

The rapidly expanding use of immunotherapy for a wide range of cancers from late to early stages has, predictably, been accompanied by evidence of inequities in access to these highly effective but costly treatments. In this survey-based case study, we aimed to develop a One-window services model (OWSM) based on Anderson’s behavioral model to enhance competence in accessing cancer medications, particularly immunotherapies, through the analysis of 20 patient surveys conducted in the Armed forces bone marrow transplant center of the district, Rawalpindi from November to December 2022. The purposive sampling technique was used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.71. It was analyzed using SPSS version 26 with descriptive analysis, and results showed that the majority of the cancer patients were non-competent to access their prescribed cancer immunotherapy because of individual-level, socioeconomic, and organizational barriers.

Keywords: cancer immunotherapy, one-window services model, accessibility, competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
5110 Th2 and Th17 Subsets in the Circulation of Psoriasis Patients

Authors: Chakrit Thapphan, Suteeraporn Chaowattanapanit, Sorutsiri Chareonsudjai, Wisitsak Phoksawat, Supranee Phantanawiboon, Kiatichai Faksri, Steve W. Edwards, Kanin Salao

Abstract:

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that is mediated by crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells, especially CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. To date, psoriasis is established as a T helper 17 (Th17) cell-mediated inflammatory process driven by the over-expression of Th17. However, the role of other CD4+T helper cells is rather controversial. Objective: Our study, thereby, aimed to characterize and analyze T cell subsets in the circulating blood of psoriasis patients and compare them to healthy controls. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from the participants and stained with fluorescent dye-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific for intracellular cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN- γ), interleukin (IL-4), IL-17 and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), that can be used to define T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T helper 2 (Th2), T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) respectively. Results: We found that the numbers of Th2 (59.6% ± 17.0) and Th17 (4.0% ± 2.0) cells in the circulating blood of psoriasis patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls (p= 0.0007 and 0.0013 respectively). In contrast, the numbers of Th1 and Treg cells were not significantly different between psoriasis patients and healthy controls (p= 0.0593 and 0.8518, respectively). Additionally, when adjusting these numbers of Th cells to Treg, we observed a similar trend that the ratio of Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg also elevated (p = 0.0007 and 0.0047, respectively). Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest an imbalanced T exhibit toward the Th2 and Th17 skewed-immune responses in psoriasis patients.

Keywords: psoriasis, Th cell subsets, Th2 cells, Th17 cells, Treg cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 9