Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2651

Search results for: cognitive therapy

2651 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie


This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

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2650 Cognitive Behavior Therapy with a Migrant Pakistani in Malaysia: A Single Case Study of Conversion Disorder

Authors: Fahad R. Choudhry., Khadeeja Munawar


This clinical case presents a 24 years old, Muslim Pakistani girl with a history of conversion disorder. Her symptoms comprised fits, restlessness, numbness in legs, poor coordination and balance, burning during urination and retention. A cognitive-behavioral model was used for conceptualizing her problem and devising a management plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted coping statements. She took 13 therapy sessions and was presented with idiosyncratic case conceptualization. Psychoeducation, coping statements, extinction, verbal challenging, and behavioral activation techniques were practiced in a collaborative way for cognitive restructuring of the client. Focus of terminal sessions was on anger management. The client needed a couple of more sessions in order to help her manage her anger. However, the therapy was terminated on the part of the client after attainment of short term goals. The client reported to have a 75 % improvement in her overall condition and remained compliant throughout the therapy.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, conversion disorder, female, Muslim, Pakistani

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2649 The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients

Authors: Sahra Setorg


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p<0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences.

Keywords: meta-cognitive therapy, meta-cognitive defects, emotional regulation, substance dependence disorder

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2648 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani


Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, depression, stroke, rehabilitation

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2647 The Effects of Music Therapy on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function, and Quality of Life in Female Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa M. Amin, Nauli Aulia Lubis, P. J. Sirait


Music therapy may have an effect on mental illnesses. This is a comparative, quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of music therapy added to standard care on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in female schizophrenic patients. 50 schizophrenic participants who were diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X, were assigned into two groups received pharmacotherapy. Participants were assigned into each group of therapy by using matched allocation method. Music therapy added on to the first group. They received music therapy, using Mozart Sonata four times a week, over a period of six week. Positive and negative symptoms were measured by using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive function were measured by using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). All rating scale were administrated by certified skill residents every week after music therapy session. The participants who were received pharmaco-and-music therapy significantly showed greater response than who received pharmacotherapy only. The mean difference of response were -6,6164 (p=0,001) for PANNS, 2,911 (p=0,004) for MMSE, 3,618 (p=0,001) for MOCA, 4,599 (p=0,001) for SF-36. Music therapy have beneficial effects on PANSS, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in schizophrenic patients.

Keywords: music therapy, rating scale, schizophrenia, symptoms

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2646 Effectiveness of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Binge Eating Disorder in Females

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Ismail Asadallahi, Fatemeh Rahmatian, Elahe Rahimian


Purpose: Due to an increasing prevalence of over eating disorders, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy on reducing binge eating behavior and depression symptoms among females suffered from binge eating disorder (BED) in Qazvin, Iran. Methodology: This is aquasi-experimental study (pre-post testing plan with control group). Using a convenience sampling technique, binge eating scale (BES) and clinical interviews, 30 persons were selected among all clients who had referred to weight loss centers in Qazvin, these persons were randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a seven-session plan on short-term cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Results: The results showed that the short term group cognitive-behavioral therapy results in a significant reduction in binge eating signs and depressive symptoms within the experimental group, compared to the control. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is known that short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing overeating symptoms. Hence, it can be used as an economical and effective treatment method for individuals suffering from BED.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral group therapy, binge eating disorder, depression

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2645 The Effectiveness of Group Counseling of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation in High School Students

Authors: Hossein Ilanloo, Sedigheh Ahmadi, Kianoosh Zahrakar


The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of group counseling of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in high school students. The research design was quasi-experimental and pre-test-post-test type and a two-month follow-up with a control group. The statistical population of the study consisted of all-male high school students in Takestan city in the Academic Year 2020-2021. The sample comprised 30 high school male students selected through the convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. The experimental group then received ten sessions of 90-minute group counseling of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and the control group did not receive any intervention. In order to collect data, the author used the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). The researcher also used multivariate analysis of covariance, repeated measures, LSD post hoc test, and SPSS-26 software for data analysis.

Keywords: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, students, high schools

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2644 The Effect of Incorporating Animal Assisted Interventions with Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Authors: Kayla Renteria


This study explored the role animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) can play in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when incorporated into Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). A review of the literature was performed to show how incorporating AAP could benefit TF-CBT since this treatment model often presents difficulties, such as client motivation and avoidance of the exposure element of the intervention. In addition, the fluidity of treatment goals during complex trauma cases was explored, as this issue arose in the case study. This study follows the course of treatment of a 12-year-old female presenting with symptoms of PTSD. Treatment consisted of traditional components of the TF-CBT model, with the added elements of AAP to address typical treatment obstacles in TF-CBT. A registered therapy dog worked with the subject in all sessions throughout her treatment. The therapy dog was incorporated into components such as relaxation and coping techniques, narrative therapy techniques, and psychoeducation on the cognitive triangle. Throughout the study, the client’s situation and clinical needs required the therapist to switch goals to focus on current safety and stability. The therapy dog provided support and neurophysiological benefits to the client through AAP during this shift in treatment. The client was assessed quantitatively using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report for DSM-5 (CPSS-SR-5) before and after therapy and qualitatively through a feedback form given after treatment. The participant showed improvement in CPSS-SR-V scores, and she reported that the incorporation of the therapy animal improved her therapy. The results of this study show how the use of AAP provided the client a solid, consistent relationship with the therapy dog that supported her through processing various types of traumas. Implications of the results of treatment and for future research are discussed.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, PTSD in children, trauma treatment

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2643 I Can’t Escape the Scars, Even If I Do Get Better”: A Discourse Analysis of Adolescent Talk About Their Self-Harm During Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Sessions for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Anna Kristen


There has been a pronounced increase in societal discourses around adolescent self-harm, yet there is a paucity of literature examining adolescent talk about self-harm that accounts for the sociocultural context. The objective of this study was to explore how adolescents with Depression talk about their self-harm engagement in consideration of both socio-cultural discourses and the therapy context during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) sessions. Utilizing a sample from the Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies study, discourse analysis was carried out on audio-recorded CBT sessions. The study established three groupings of results: (a) adolescent positioning as stuck in self-harm engagement; (b) adolescent positioning as ambivalent in the talk about ceasing self-harm; and (c) adolescent use of stigma discourses in self-harm talk & constructions of self-harm scars. These findings indicate that clinician awareness of adolescent use of language and discourse may inform interventions beyond Manualized CBT strategies. These findings are highly relevant in light of research that demonstrates CBT treatment for adolescent depression does not effectively address concurring self-harm and given that self-harm is the most significant risk factor predictive of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

Keywords: adolescence, cognitive-behavioral therapy, discourse, self-harm, stigma

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2642 Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cognitive Function among Breast Cancer Patients in Eastern Country

Authors: Arunima Datta, Prathama Guha Chaudhuri, Ashis Mukhopadhyay


Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the newer forms (third wave) therapy. This therapy helps a cancer patient to increase acceptance level about their disease as well as their present situation. Breast cancer patients are known to suffer from depression and mild cognitive impairment; both affect their quality of life. Objectives:The present study had assessed effect of structured ACT intervention on cognitive function and acceptance level among breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Data was collected from 123 breast cancer patients those who were undergoing chemotherapy were willing to undergo psychological treatment, with no history of past psychiatric illness. Their baseline of cognitive function and acceptance levels were assessed using validated tools. The effect of sociodemographic factors and clinical factors on cognitive function was determined at baseline.The participants were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ACT, 4 sessions over 2 months) and control group. Cognitive function and acceptance level were measured during post intervention on 2months follow-up. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect on cognitive function and acceptance level in two groups. Result: At baseline, the factors that significantly influenced slower speed of task performance were ER PR HER2 status; number of chemo cycle, treatment type (Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant) was related with that. Sociodemographic characteristics did not show any significant difference between slow and fast performance. Per and post intervention analysis showed that ACT intervention resulted in significant difference both in terms of speed of cognitive performance and acceptance level. Conclusion: ACT is an effective therapeutic option for treating mild cognitive impairment and improve acceptance level among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, breast cancer, quality of life, cognitive function

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2641 Pilot Trial of Evidence-Based Integrative Group Therapy to Improve Executive Functioning among Adults: Implications for Community Mental Health and Training Clinics

Authors: B. Parchem, M. Watanabe, D. Modrakovic, L. Mathew, A. Franklin, M. Cao, R. E. Broudy


Objective: Executive functioning (EF) deficits underlie several mental health diagnoses including ADHD, anxiety, and depression. Community mental health clinics face extensive waitlists for services with many referrals involving EF deficits. A pilot trial of a four-week group therapy was developed using key components from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and mindfulness with an aim to improve EF skills and offer low-fee services. Method: Eight adults (M = 34.5) waiting for services at a community clinic were enrolled in a four-week group therapy at an in-house training clinic for doctoral trainees. Baseline EF, pre-/post-intervention ADHD and distress symptoms, group satisfaction, and curriculum helpfulness were assessed. Results: Downward trends in ADHD and distress symptoms pre/post-intervention were not significant. Favorable responses on group satisfaction and helpfulness suggest clinical utility. Conclusion: Preliminary pilot data from a brief group therapy to improve EF may be an efficacious, acceptable, and feasible intervention for adults waiting for services at community mental health and training clinics where there are high demands and limits to services and staffs.

Keywords: executive functioning, cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, adult group therapy

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2640 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan


Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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2639 Effectiveness of Cognitive and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapies on Self-Efficiency and Life Style in MS Patients

Authors: Kamran Yazdanbakhsh, Somayeh Mahmoudi


Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disease of the central nervous system associated with demyelination of neurons and several demyelinated parts of the disease encompasses throughout the white matter and affects the sensory and motor function. This study compared the effectiveness of two methods of cognitive therapy and supportive-expressive therapy on the efficacy and quality of life in MS patients. This is an experimental project which has used developed group pretest - posttest and follow-up with 3 groups. The study included all patients with multiple sclerosis in 2013 that were members of the MS Society of Iran in Tehran. The sample included 45 patients with MS that were selected volunteerily of members of the MS society of Iran and randomly divided into three groups and pretest, posttest, and follow-up (three months) for the three groups had been done.The dimensions of quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis scale, and general self-efficiency scale of Schwarzer and Jerusalem was used for collecting data. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of quality of life scores at pretest, posttest, and follow-up of the experimental groups. There was no significant difference between the mean of quality of life of the experimental groups which means that both groups were effective and had the same effect. There was no significant difference between the mean of self-efficiency scores in control and experimental group in pretest, posttest and follow-up. Thus, by using cognitive and supportive-expressive group therapy we can improve quality of life in MS patients and make great strides in their mental health.

Keywords: cognitive group therapy, life style, MS, self-efficiency, supportive-expressive group therapy

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2638 A Review of Challenges of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressed People

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri


Shock therapy has been used in persons living with depression and deeply depressed persons. It has been used in children also. Shock therapy has been also among its pros believed to improve the quality of life and an effective treatment of depression. The review of the literature on ECT papers have highlighted that benefits to users of ECT are elusive, and iatrogenic harm often occurs showing that the approach will always fall far in comporting to psychological ethics. On the contrary, ECT is known as shock therapy which is the administration of electric shock within the brain; it has been challenged on ethical grounds if it’s proper ethically. From this ethical aperture, it has emerged that relapse rates are approximately higher than 50%, it results in diencephalon disturbances and has also side effects related to cognitive function among other negative effects. It is from these reviewed studies that that ECT should not be viewed as an effective treatment of depression as it does not comport to the mores of psychological ethics.

Keywords: anterograde amnesia, depression, electroconvulsive therapy, ethics, retrograde amnesia

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2637 Buddhist Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Address Depression Among Elderly Population: Multi-cultural Model of Buddhist Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Address Depression Among Elderly Population

Authors: Ashoke Priyadarshana Premananda


As per the suggestions of previously conducted research in Counseling Psychology, the necessity of forming culture- friendly approaches has been strongly emphasized by a number of scholars in the field. In response to that, Multicultural-model of Buddhist Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MMBCBT) has been formed as a culture-friendly therapeutic approach to address psychological disturbances (depression) in late adulthood. Elderly population in the world is on the rise by leaps and bounds, and forming a culture-based therapeutic model which is blended with Buddhist teachings has been the major objective of the study. Buddhist teachings and cultural applications, which were mapped onto Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in the West, ultimately resulted in MMBCBT. Therefore, MMBCBT is a blend of cultural therapeutic techniques and the essence of certain Buddhist teachings extracted from five crucial suttas, which include CBT principles. In the process of mapping, MeghiyaSutta, GirimānandaSutta, SallekhaSutta, DvedhāvitakkaSutta, and Vitakka- SaṇṭhānaSutta have been taken into consideration mainly because of their cognitive behavioral content. The practical components of Vitakka- Saṇṭhānasutta (Aññanimittapabbaṃ) and Sallekhasutta (SallekhaPariyāya and CittuppādaPariyāya) have been used in the model while mindfulness of breathing was also carried out with the participants. Basically, multi-cultural therapeutic approaches of MMBCBT aim at modifying behavior (behavioral modification), whereas the rest is centered to the cognitive restructuring process. Therefore, MMBCBT is endowed with Behavioral Therapy (BT) and Cognitive Therapy(CT). In order to find out the validation of MMBCBT as a newly formed approach, it was then followed by mixed research (quantitative and qualitative research) with a sample selected from the elderly population following the purposive sampling technique. 40 individuals were selected from three elderly homes as per the purposive sampling technique. Elderly people identified to be depressed via Geriatric Depression Scale underwent MMBCBT for two weeks continuously while action research was being conducted simultaneously. Additionally, a Focus Group interview was carried out to support the action research. As per the research findings, people who identified depressed prior to the exposure to MMBCBT were found to be showing positive changes after they were exposed to the model. “Paired Sample t test” showed that the Multicultural Model of Buddhist based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy reduced depression of elderly people (The mean value (x̄) of the sample (level of depression) before the model was 10.7 whereas the mean value after the model was 7.5.). Most importantly, MMBCBT has been found to be effectively used with people from all walks of life despite religious diversities.

Keywords: buddhist psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy in buddhism, counseling in cultural context, gerontology, and buddhism

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2636 Childhood Trauma and Borderline Personality: An Analysis of the Root Causes and Treatment Plans

Authors: Sidika McNeil


Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder that has been found to have strong origins in childhood trauma. One of the key symptoms of BPD is an association with irregular moods swings, as well as suicidal ideation (SI). Owing to the typically severe trauma patients experience during childhood, it is hard for them to control their emotions and thus makes it hard to emotionally regulate. It is then very common for those suffering from BPD to turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms, such as substance use, unhealthy relationships, and more, often unsuccessfully creating experiences that facilitate safety which leads to further negative experiences. With the high suicide rating among children, adolescents, and teens, and an ever-increasing number of children being diagnosed with BPD, it is very important that more research is done to find further treatments for patients who are currently suffering. Methods: Utilizing data found in prior studies, this paper will analyze the literature to focus on a comprehensive treatment plan for those with DBT. It is currently suggested that with the use of dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), a therapy that focuses on changing negative thinking patterns and pushes for more positive ones is helpful for treatment for those with BPD. Though this therapy is not a cure to BPD, it does help mitigate the risk; this essay will explore other options that can further the treatment process, such as cognitive analytical therapy (CAT), which focuses on delving into the past to find the root causes of an issue to create coping strategies and harm reduction, a type of therapy used to aid patients in lowering the use of substances without complete cessation. Results: The research provides enough evidence to link between the treatment of BPD with the utilization of CAT.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive analytical therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, harm reduction, suicidal ideation

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2635 Tablet Computer Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program, Injini, for Children with Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng


Cognitive impairment is commonly encountered problem in children with various clinical diseases, including Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, brain injury, and others. Cognitive impairment limits participation in education and society, and this further hinders development in cognition. However, young children with cognitive impairment tend not to respond well to traditional cognitive treatments, therefore alternative treatment choices are need. As a cognitive training program, touch screen technology can easily be applied to very young children by involving visual and auditory support. Injini was developed as tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program for young children or individuals with severe cognitive impairment, which targeted on cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for children with cognitive impairment. 38 children between cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months confirmed by cognitive evaluations were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=20) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group received tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for 30 minutes per session, twice a week, over a period of 12 weeks, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation program. The control group received traditional rehabilitation program only. Mental score of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of therapeutic intervention. When comparing the baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the measurements of cognitive function. After 12 weeks of treatment, both group showed improvements in all measurements. However, in comparison of improvements after treatment, the intervention group showed more improvements in the mental score of BSID II, social function domain of PEDI, observation domain of Lab-TAB, and GAS, as compared to the control group. Application of the tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) would be beneficial for improvement of cognitive function in young children with cognitive impairment.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, computer-assisted therapy, early intervention, tablets

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2634 Effectiveness of Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy on the Communication Patterns of Couples Applying for Divorce

Authors: Sakineh Abbasi Bourondaragh


The aim of this research is effectiveness of integrative behavioral couples therapy on the communication patterns of couples applying for divorce. We selected (N=20) reports from Tabriz Family Judicial Complex (FJC) of couples which have conflict in their marital relationships. All of reports were released during 2012. First, they were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups and all the couples were given pre-test. They participated in twelve therapy sessions. Then the experimental group was exposed to an experimental intervention, but the control group was not received experimental intervention. The subjects were treated. At the end of treatment, a post-test was performed about subjects (each of two groups).The results showed that integrative behavioral couple therapy could increase and improve communication patterns. The findings also showed that integrative behavioral couples therapy had increased mutual constructive pattern and decreased demand/withdraw pattern and mutual avoidance pattern of CPQ sub-scale. Steady change indicator showed that the difference is clinically meaningful.

Keywords: integrative behavioral couple therapy, communication patterns, cognitive sciences, Family Judicial Complex

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2633 Augmentation of Conventional Medicine for Post-concussion Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Accelerates Symptomatic Relief in Affected Individuals

Authors: Waqas Mehdi, Muhammad Umar Hassan, Khadeeja Mustafa


Objective: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a medical term used to point out the complicated combination of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury(mTBI). This study was conducted to assess the improvement or debilitating effect of behavioral therapy in addition to the conventional treatment and to document these results for increasing the efficiency of treatment provided to such cases. Method: This was primarily an interventional prospective cohort study which was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The sample size was 200 patients who were randomly distributed into two groups. The interventional group with Cognitive behavioral therapy was added in addition to the conventional treatment regimen and the Control group receiving only conventional treatment. Results were noted initially as well as after two weeks of the follow-up period. Data were subsequently analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and associations worked out. Result and conclusion: Among the patients that were given therapy sessions along with conventional medicine, there was a significant improvement in the symptoms and their overall quality of life. It is also important to notice that the time period taken for these effects to wane is cut down by psychiatric solutions too. So we can conclude that CBT sessions not only speed up recovery in patients with post-concussion syndrome they also aid in the efficiency improvement in functional capability and quality of life.

Keywords: neurosurgery, CBT, PCS, mTBI

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2632 Conceptual Synthesis as a Platform for Psychotherapy Integration: The Case of Transference and Overgeneralization

Authors: Merav Rabinovich


Background: Psychoanalytic and cognitive therapy attend problems from a different point of view. At the recent decade the integrating movement gaining momentum. However only little has been studied regarding the theoretical interrelationship among these therapy approaches. Method: 33 transference case-studies that were published in peer-reviewed academic journals were coded by Luborsky's Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method (components of wish, response from other – real or imaginal - and the response of self). CCRT analysis was conducted through tailor-made method, a valid tool to identify transference patterns. Rabinovich and Kacen's (2010, 2013) Relationship Between Categories (RBC) method was used to analyze the relationship among these transference patterns with cognitive and behavior components appearing at those psychoanalytic case-studies. Result: 30 of 33 cases (90%) were found to connect the transference themes with cognitive overgeneralization. In these cases, overgeneralizations were organized around Luborsky's transference themes of response from other and response of self. Additionally, overgeneralization was found to be an antithesis of the wish component, and the tension between them found to be linked with powerful behavioral and emotional reactions. Conclusion: The findings indicate that thinking distortions of overgeneralization (cognitive therapy) are the actual expressions of transference patterns. These findings point to a theoretical junction, a platform for clinical integration. Awareness to this junction can help therapists to promote well psychotherapy outcomes relying on the accumulative wisdom of the different therapies.

Keywords: transference, overgeneralization, theoretical integration, case-study metasynthesis, CCRT method, RBC method

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2631 Efficacy of Music for Improving Language in Children with Special Needs

Authors: Louisa Han Lin Tan, Poh Sim Kang, Wei Ming Loi, Susan Jane Rickard Liow


The efficacy of music for improving speech and language has been shown across ages and diagnoses. Across the world, the wide range of therapy settings and increasing number of children diagnosed with special needs demand more cost and time effective service delivery. However, research exploring co-treatment models on children other than those with Autism Spectrum Disorder remains sparse. The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of music for improving language in children with special needs, and generalizability of therapy effects. 25 children (7 to 12 years) were split into three groups – A, B and control. A cross-over design with direct therapy (storytelling) with or without music, and indirect therapy was applied with two therapy phases lasting 6 sessions each. Therapy targeted three prepositions in each phase. Baseline language abilities were assessed, with re-assessment after each phase. The introduction of music in therapy led to significantly greater improvement (p=.046, r=.53) in associated language abilities, with case studies showing greater effectiveness in developmentally appropriate target prepositions. However, improvements were not maintained once direct therapy ceased. As such, the incorporation of music could lead to greater efficiency and effectiveness of language therapy in children with special needs, but sustainability and generalizability of therapy effects both require further exploration.

Keywords: music, language therapy, children, special needs

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2630 Cognitive Behaviour Drama: Playful Method to Address Fears in Children on the Higher-End of the Autism Spectrum

Authors: H.Karnezi, K. Tierney


Childhood fears that persist over time and interfere with the children’s normal functioning may have detrimental effects on their social and emotional development. Cognitive behavior therapy is considered highly effective in treating fears and anxieties. However, given that many childhood fears are based on fantasy, the applicability of CBT may be hindered by cognitive immaturity. Furthermore, a lack of motivation to engage in therapy is another commonly encountered obstacle. The purpose of this study was to introduce and evaluate a more developmentally appropriate intervention model, specifically designed to provide phobic children with the motivation to overcome their fears. To this end, principles and techniques from cognitive and behavior therapies are incorporated into the ‘Drama in Education’ model. The Cognitive Behaviour Drama (CBD) method involves using the phobic children’s creativity to involve them in the therapeutic process. The children are invited to engage in exciting fictional scenarios tailored around their strengths and special interests. Once their commitment to the drama is established, a problem that they will feel motivated to solve is introduced. To resolve it, the children will have to overcome a number of obstacles culminating in an in vivo confrontation with the fear stimulus. The study examined the application of the CBD model in three single cases. Results in all three cases shown complete elimination of all fear-related symptoms. Preliminary results justify further evaluation of the Cognitive Behaviour Drama model. It is time and cost-effective, ensuring the clients' immediate engagement in the therapeutic process.

Keywords: phobias, autism, intervention, drama

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2629 Examining the Effects of Increasing Lexical Retrieval Attempts in Tablet-Based Naming Therapy for Aphasia

Authors: Jeanne Gallee, Sofia Vallila-Rohter


Technology-based applications are increasingly being utilized in aphasia rehabilitation as a means of increasing intensity of treatment and improving accessibility to treatment. These interactive therapies, often available on tablets, lead individuals to complete language and cognitive rehabilitation tasks that draw upon skills such as the ability to name items, recognize semantic features, count syllables, rhyme, and categorize objects. Tasks involve visual and auditory stimulus cues and provide feedback about the accuracy of a person’s response. Research has begun to examine the efficacy of tablet-based therapies for aphasia, yet much remains unknown about how individuals interact with these therapy applications. Thus, the current study aims to examine the efficacy of a tablet-based therapy program for anomia, further examining how strategy training might influence the way that individuals with aphasia engage with and benefit from therapy. Individuals with aphasia are enrolled in one of two treatment paradigms: traditional therapy or strategy therapy. For ten weeks, all participants receive 2 hours of weekly in-house therapy using Constant Therapy, a tablet-based therapy application. Participants are provided with iPads and are additionally encouraged to work on therapy tasks for one hour a day at home (home logins). For those enrolled in traditional therapy, in-house sessions involve completing therapy tasks while a clinician researcher is present. For those enrolled in the strategy training group, in-house sessions focus on limiting cue use in order to maximize lexical retrieval attempts and naming opportunities. The strategy paradigm is based on the principle that retrieval attempts may foster long-term naming gains. Data have been collected from 7 participants with aphasia (3 in the traditional therapy group, 4 in the strategy training group). We examine cue use, latency of responses and accuracy through the course of therapy, comparing results across group and setting (in-house sessions vs. home logins).

Keywords: aphasia, speech-language pathology, traumatic brain injury, language

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2628 An Open Trial of Mobile-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Pupillometry Predictors of Outcome

Authors: Eric Granholm, Christophe Delay, Jason Holden, Peter Link


Negative symptoms are an important unmet treatment needed for schizophrenia. We conducted an open trial of a novel blended intervention called mobile-assisted cognitive behavior therapy for negative symptoms (mCBTn). mCBTn is a weekly group therapy intervention combining in-person and smartphone-based CBT (CBT2go app) to improve experiential negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Both the therapy group and CBT2go app included recovery goal setting, thought challenging, scheduling of pleasurable activities and social interactions, and pleasure savoring interventions to modify defeatist attitudes, a target mechanism associated with negative symptoms, and improve experiential negative symptoms. We tested whether participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=31) who met prospective criteria for persistent negative symptoms showed improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Retention was excellent (87% at 18 weeks) and severity of defeatist attitudes and motivation and pleasure negative symptoms declined significantly in mCBTn with large effect sizes. We also tested whether pupillary responses, a measure of cognitive effort, predicted improvement in negative symptoms mCBTn. Pupillary responses were recorded at baseline using a Tobii pupillometer during the digit span task with 3-, 6- and 9-digit spans. Mixed models showed that greater dilation during the task at baseline significantly predicted a greater reduction in experiential negative symptoms. Pupillary responses may provide a much-needed prognostic biomarker of which patients are most likely to benefit from CBT. Greater pupil dilation during a cognitive task predicted greater improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Pupil dilation has been linked to motivation and engagement of executive control, so these factors may contribute to benefits in interventions that train cognitive skills to manage negative thoughts and emotions. The findings suggest mCBTn is a feasible and effective treatment for experiential negative symptoms and justify a larger randomized controlled clinical trial. The findings also provide support for the defeatist attitude model of experiential negative symptoms and suggest that mobile-assisted interventions like mCBTn can strengthen and shorten intensive psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral therapy, mobile interventions, negative symptoms, pupillometry schizophrenia

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2627 Eclectic Therapy in Approach to Clients’ Problems and Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory

Authors: Mohamed Sharof Mostafa, Atefeh Ahmadi


Most of traditional single modality psychotherapy and counselling approaches to clients’ problems are based on the application of one therapy in all sessions. Modern developments in these sciences focus on eclectic and integrative interventions to consider all dimensions of an issue and all characteristics of the clients. This paper presents and overview eclectic therapy and its pros and cons. In addition, multiple intelligence theory and its application in eclectic therapy approaches are mentioned.

Keywords: eclectic therapy, client, multiple intelligence theory, dimensions

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2626 Analyzing Initial Efficacy of Animal Assisted Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

Authors: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a growing phenomenon in India with over 10 million cases being recorded. Children with various levels and forms of ASD can be a major challenge both within the context of regular or special schooling. According to statistics by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 88 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back. The growing number of children with autism spectrum disorders places greater demands on health services and necessitates the roping in of non-traditional modes of treatment to complement or even substitute traditional health care methods when possible. Research evidence, particularly from Western countries, as also some parts of Asia, suggests that animal-assisted therapy, or zootherapy, may be used as an effective individual or complementary therapeutic tool for increasing overall wellbeing and quality of life among children with Autism spectrum disorders. The paper through a case-study format seeks to evaluate the efficacy (initial stage) of animal assisted therapy (canine-therapy with visiting dog: breed-Golden retriever), as a non-conventional treatment modality for improving cognitive functioning and managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a pilot study forming the basis for subsequent larger application of AAT, it analyses areas of efficacy as also the challenges faced, both with regard to the mode of therapy, as also particular to the Indian setting.

Keywords: animal assisted therapy, autism, canine therapy, analyzing initial efficacy

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2625 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim


This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

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2624 Online Self-Help Metacognitive Therapy for OCD: A Case Series

Authors: C. Pearcy, C. Rees


Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) are currently the most efficacious treatments for Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Many clients, however, remain symptomatic following treatment. As a result, refusal of treatment, withdrawal from treatment, and partial adherence to treatment are common amongst ERP. Such limitations have caused few professionals to actually engage in ERP therapy, which has warranted the exploration of alternative treatments. This study evaluated an online self-help treatment program for OCD (the OCD Doctor Online); a 4-week Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) program which has implemented strategies from Wells’ Metacognitive model of OCD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an online self-help treatment using MCT would reduce symptoms of OCD, reduce unhelpful metacognitions and improve quality of life. Treatment effectiveness was assessed using a case series methodology in 3 consecutively referred individuals. At post-treatment, all participants showed reductions in unhelpful metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30) and improvements in quality of life (Q-LES-Q), which were maintained through to 4 week follow-up. Two of the three participants showed reductions in OCD symptomology (OCI-R), which were further reduced at 4-week follow-up. The present study suggests that internet-based self-help treatment may be an effective means of delivering MCT to adults with OCD.

Keywords: internet-based, metacognitive therapy, obsessive-compulsive disorder, self-help

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2623 Predicting Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis Using Machine Learning and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Eva Tolmeijer, Emmanuelle Peters, Veena Kumari, Liam Mason


Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is effective in many but not all patients, making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we used machine learning methods that make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Prior to receiving CBTp, 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social-affective processing task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response could be predicted by brain activation responses to facial affect that was either socially threatening or prosocial. The resulting models did significantly predict symptom improvement, with distinct multivariate signatures predicting psychotic (r=0.54, p=0.01) and affective (r=0.32, p=0.05) symptoms. Psychotic symptom improvement was accurately predicted from relatively focal threat-related activation across hippocampal, occipital, and temporal regions; affective symptom improvement was predicted by a more dispersed profile of responses to prosocial affect. These findings enrich our understanding of the neurobiological underpinning of treatment response. This study provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, machine learning, psychosis, schizophrenia

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2622 E-Survey: Cancer Treatment with Proton Beam Therapy in USA

Authors: Auj-E Taqaddas


The use of proton beam therapy is increasing globally. It seems to offer dosimetric advantages, especially in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumours. A short E-survey was conducted to assess the clinical, technical, and educational resources and strategies employed in the state of the art proton beam therapy (PBT) centres in the USA to determine the current status of proton beam therapy. The study also aimed at finding out which PBT skills are in demand as well as what improvements are needed to ensure efficient treatment planning, delivery, and dosimetry. The study resulted in identifying areas for future research and development and in identifying cancers for which PBT is most suitable compared to other modalities to facilitate the implementation and use of PBT in clinical settings for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, intensity modulated proton therapy, proton beam therapy, single field uniform scanning

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