Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 871

Search results for: stroke rehabilitation

871 Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Amirmohammad Dahouri

Abstract:

Each year, more than 795,000 individuals in the United States grieve a stroke, and by 2030, it is predictable that 4% of the U.S. people will have had a stroke. Ischemic stroke, accounting for about 80% of all strokes, is one of the main causes of disability. The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to help patients return to physical and mental functions and relearn the required aids to living everyday life. This flagging has an adverse effect on patients’ quality of life and affects their daily living activities. In recent years, the rehabilitation of ischemic stroke attractions more attention in the world. A review of the rudimentary perceptions of stroke rehabilitation that are price stressing to all specialists who delicacy patients with stroke. Ideas are made for patients on how to functionally manage daily activities after they have qualified for a stroke. It is vital for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute events to medical equilibrium and rehabilitation to adaptation. Different sources such as Pub Med Google Scholar and science direct have been used and various contemporary articles in this era have been analyzed. The care plan must also foundation actual actions to protect against recurrent stroke, as stroke patients are generally at significant risk for further ischemic or hemorrhagic attacks. Here, we review evidence of rehabilitation in treating post-stroke impairment.

Keywords: rehabilitation, stroke, ischemic, hemorrhagic, brain

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870 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

Abstract:

It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
869 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani

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Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, depression, stroke, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
868 Effects of Bedside Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients in Activities and Daily Living Function

Authors: Chiung-Hua Chan, Fang-Yuan Chang, Li-Chi Huang

Abstract:

Stroke patients received regular rehabilitation therapy have measurable advancement in muscle strength, balance, control upper and lower physical activity, walking speed and endurance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between increases in bedside rehabilitation time and the function of activities and daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. The study was quasi-experimental research design and randomized sampling. The researcher collected 12 stroke patients of stroke patients transferred to rehabilitation ward unit of a medical center during 1 January to 31 March 2017. All participants then were assigned to case group and control group. Data collection was through direct observation of assessment ADL of stroke patients by researchers on Day 1. Case group received regular rehabilitation, exercises in increase of bedside rehabilitation schedules exercise programs by ward nurses. Bedside rehabilitation exercise content with physical, functional and linguistic frequency and time, Control group only give routine rehabilitation schedule care. This was a randomized study performed in 12 patients who were stroke patients and transferred to rehabilitation ward unit of a medical center during 1 January to 31 March 2017. First, the researcher explained the purpose and method of the study to the patients or the family members. All participants completed a consent informed before participation. Patients were randomly assigned to a ‘bedside rehabilitation program’ (BRP) group and a control (C) group. The BRP group received bedside rehabilitation schedules exercise programs by ward nurses. while the C group did not. Both groups received routine rehabilitation schedule. The Functional Independence Measure was used to measure outcome at the first, 14th and the 28th day of rehabilitation ward admitted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. After implementation of standardized ‘‘bedside rehabilitation program’, the results were: (1) the increasing of bedside rehabilitation had significant difference (p<.05) in promotion ADL function of stroke patients (2) the extend time of the bedside rehabilitation has significant difference (p<.05) in promotion ADL function of stroke patients compared with the control group. This study demonstrated that the ‘bedside rehabilitation program’ enhanced the ADL function in stroke patients. The nurses and rehabilitation ward managers need to understand that the extend time and frequency of rehabilitation provide a chance to enhanced the ADL function of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, bedside rehabilitation, functional activity, ADL

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867 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan Abo-Salem, Huang Xiaolin

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Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantarflexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed

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866 Brain-Computer Interface System for Lower Extremity Rehabilitation of Chronic Stroke Patients

Authors: Marc Sebastián-Romagosa, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Christy Li, Christoph Guger

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Neurorehabilitation based on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) shows important rehabilitation effects for patients after stroke. Previous studies have shown improvements for patients that are in a chronic stage and/or have severe hemiparesis and are particularly challenging for conventional rehabilitation techniques. For this publication, seven stroke patients in the chronic phase with hemiparesis in the lower extremity were recruited. All of them participated in 25 BCI sessions about 3 times a week. The BCI system was based on the Motor Imagery (MI) of the paretic ankle dorsiflexion and healthy wrist dorsiflexion with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) and avatar feedback. Assessments were conducted to assess the changes in motor improvement before, after and during the rehabilitation training. Our primary measures used for the assessment were the 10-meters walking test (10MWT), Range of Motion (ROM) of the ankle dorsiflexion and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Results show a significant increase in the gait speed in the primary measure 10MWT fast velocity of 0.18 m/s IQR = [0.12 to 0.2], P = 0.016. The speed in the TUG was also significantly increased by 0.1 m/s IQR = [0.09 to 0.11], P = 0.031. The active ROM assessment increased 4.65º, and IQR = [ 1.67 - 7.4], after rehabilitation training, P = 0.029. These functional improvements persisted at least one month after the end of the therapy. These outcomes show the feasibility of this BCI approach for chronic stroke patients and further support the growing consensus that these types of tools might develop into a new paradigm for rehabilitation tools for stroke patients. However, the results are from only seven chronic stroke patients, so the authors believe that this approach should be further validated in broader randomized controlled studies involving more patients. MI and FES-based non-invasive BCIs are showing improvement in the gait rehabilitation of patients in the chronic stage after stroke. This could have an impact on the rehabilitation techniques used for these patients, especially when they are severely impaired and their mobility is limited.

Keywords: neuroscience, brain computer interfaces, rehabilitat, stroke

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865 The Effect of Post-Acute Stroke Inpatient Rehabilitation under per Diem Payment: A Pilot Study

Authors: Chung-Yuan Wang, Kai-Chun Lee, Min-Hung Wang, Yu-Ren Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Sen-Shan Fan

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Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) was launched in 1995. It is an important social welfare policy in Taiwan. Regardless of the diversified social and economic status, universal coverage of NHI was assured. In order to regain better self-care performance, stroke people received in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation. Though NHI limited the rehabilitation frequency to one per day, the cost of rehabilitation still increased rapidly. Through the intensive rehabilitation during the post-stroke rehabilitation golden period, stroke patients might decrease their disability and shorten the rehabilitation period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. This study was started from 2014/03/01. The stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital or medical center were indicated to the study. The neurologists would check his modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Only patients with their mRS score between 2 and 4 were included to the study. Patients with unclear consciousness, unstable medical condition, unclear stroke onset date and no willing for 3 weeks in-patient intensive rehabilitation were excluded. After the physiatrist’s systemic evaluation, the subjects received intensive rehabilitation programs. The frequency of rehabilitation was thrice per day. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech/swallowing therapy were included in the programs for the needs of the stroke patients. Activity daily life performance (Barthel Index) and functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale) were used to measure the training effect. During 3/1 to 5/31, thirteen subjects (five male and eight female) were included. Seven subjects were aged below 60. Three subjects were aged over 70. Most of the subjects (seven subjects) received intensive post-stroke rehabilitation for three weeks. Three subjects drop out from the programs and went back home respectively after receiving only 7, 10, and 13 days rehabilitation. Among these 13 subjects, nine of them got improvement in activity daily life performance (Barthel Index score). Ten of them got improvement in functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale). The intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation did help stroke patients promote their health in our study. Not only their functional performance improved, but also their self-confidence improved. Furthermore, their family also got better health status. Stroke rehabilitation under per diem payment was noted in long-term care institution in developed countries. Over 95% populations in Taiwan were supported under the Taiwan's National Health Insurance system, but there was no national long-term care insurance system. Most of the stroke patients in Taiwan live with his family and continue their rehabilitation programs from out-patient department. This pilot study revealed the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. The number of the subjects and the study period were limited. Thus, further study will be needed.

Keywords: rehabilitation, post-acute stroke, per diem payment, NHI

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864 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay

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New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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863 The Influence of Caregivers’ Preparedness and Role Burden on Quality of Life among Stroke Patients

Authors: Yeaji Seok, Myung Kyung Lee

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Background: Even if patients survive after a stroke, stroke patients may experience disability in mobility, sensation, cognition, and speech and language. Stroke patients require rehabilitation for functional recovery and daily life for a considerable time. During rehabilitation, the role of caregivers is important. However, the stroke patients’ quality of life may deteriorate due to family caregivers’ non-preparedness and increased role burden. Purpose: To investigate the prediction of caregivers' preparedness and role burden on stroke patients’ quality of life. Methods: The target population was stroke patients who were hospitalized for rehabilitation and their family care providers. A total of 153 patient-family caregiver dyads were recruited from June to August 2021. Data were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple regression with SPSS statistics 28 programs. Results: Family caregivers’ preparedness affected stroke patients’ mobility (β = .20, p < 0.05) and character (β = -.084, p < 0.05) and production activities (β = -.197, p < 0.05) in quality of life. The role burden of family caregivers affected language skills (β = .310, p<0.05), visual functions (β=-.357, p < 0.05), thinking skills (β = 0.443, p = 0.05), mood conditions (β = 0.565, p < 0.001), family roles (β = -0.361, p < 0.001), and social roles (β = -0.304, p < 0.001), while the caregivers’ burden of performing self-protection negatively affected patients’ social roles (β = .180, p=.048). In addition, caregivers’ role burden of personal life sacrifice affected patients’ mobility (β = .311, p < 0.05), self-care (β =.232, p < 0.05) and energy (β = .239, p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that family caregivers' preparedness and role burden affected stroke patients’ quality of life. The results of this study suggested that intervention to improve family caregivers’ preparedness and to reduce role burden should be required for quality of life in stroke patients.

Keywords: quality of life, preparedness, role burden, caregivers, stroke

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862 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar

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We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

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861 X-Glove: Case Study of Soft Robotic Hand Exoskeleton

Authors: Pim Terachinda, Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Wasuwat Kitisomprayoonkul, Anan Srikiatkhachorn

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Restoration of hand function and dexterity remain challenges in rehabilitation after stroke. We have developed soft exoskeleton hand robot in which using tendon-driven mechanism. Finger flexion and extension can be triggered by a foot switch and force can be adjusted manually depending on patient’s grip strength. The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility and safety of this device. The study was done in 2 stroke patients with the strength of the finger flexors/extensors grade 1/0 and 3/1 on Medical Research Council scale, respectively. Grasp and release training was performed for 30 minutes. No complication was observed. Results demonstrated that the device is safe, and therapy can be tailored to individual patient’s need. However, further study is required to determine recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after training in patients after nervous system injury.

Keywords: hand, rehabilitation, robot, stroke

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860 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

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859 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont

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Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

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858 A Forearm-Wrist Rehabilitation Module for Stroke and Spinal Cord Injuries

Authors: Vahid Mehrabi, Iman Sharifi, H. A. Talebi

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The automation of rehabilitation procedure by the implementation of robotic devices can overcome the limitation in conventional physiotherapy methods by increasing training sessions and duration of process. In this paper, the design of a simple rehabilitation robot for forearm-wrist therapy in stroke and spinal cord injuries is presented. Wrist’s biological joint motion is modeled by a gimbal-like mechanism which resembles the human arm anatomy. Presented device is an exoskeleton robot with rotation axes corresponding to human skeleton anatomy. The mechanical structure, actuator and sensor selection, system kinematics and comparison between our device range of motion and required active daily life values is illustrated.

Keywords: rehabilitation, robotic devices, physiotherapy, forearm-wrist

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857 Wearable Jacket for Game-Based Post-Stroke Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Raj Kumar, A. Okunseinde, P. Raghavan, V. Kapila

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Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. With recent advances in immediate post-stroke care, there is an increasing number of young stroke survivors, under the age of 65 years. While most stroke survivors will regain the ability to walk, they often experience long-term arm and hand motor impairments. Long term upper limb rehabilitation is needed to restore movement and function, and prevent deterioration from complications such as learned non-use and learned bad-use. We have developed a novel virtual coach, a wearable instrumented rehabilitation jacket, to motivate individuals to participate in long-term skill re-learning, that can be personalized to their impairment profile. The jacket can estimate the movements of an individual’s arms using embedded off-the-shelf sensors (e.g., 9-DOF IMU for inertial measurements, flex-sensors for measuring angular orientation of fingers) and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) powered microcontroller (e.g., RFduino) to non-intrusively extract data. The 9-DOF IMU sensors contain 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope, and 3-axis magnetometer to compute the quaternions, which are transmitted to a computer to compute the Euler angles and estimate the angular orientation of the arms. The data are used in a gaming environment to provide visual, and/or haptic feedback for goal-based, augmented-reality training to facilitate re-learning in a cost-effective, evidence-based manner. The full paper will elaborate the technical aspects of communication, interactive gaming environment, and physical aspects of electronics necessary to achieve our stated goal. Moreover, the paper will suggest methods to utilize the proposed system as a cheaper, portable, and versatile system vis-à-vis existing instrumentation to facilitate post-stroke personalized arm rehabilitation.

Keywords: feedback, gaming, Euler angles, rehabilitation, augmented reality

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856 Myoelectric Analysis for the Assessment of Muscle Functions and Fatigue Monitoring of Upper Extremity for Stroke Patients Performing Robot-Assisted Bilateral Training

Authors: Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ching-Yi Wu, Yan-Zou Lin, Yo Chiao, Ya-Ju Chang

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Robot-assisted bilateral arm training has demonstrated useful to improve motor control in stroke patients and save human resources. In clinics, the efficiency of this treatment is mostly performed by comparing functional scales before and after rehabilitation. However, most of these assessments are based on behavior evaluation. The underlying improvement of muscle activation and coordination is unknown. Moreover, stroke patients are easier to have muscle fatigue under robot-assisted rehabilitation due to the weakness of muscles. This safety issue is still less studied. In this study, EMG analysis was applied during training. Our preliminary results showed the co-contraction index and co-contraction area index can delineate the improved muscle coordination of biceps brachii vs. flexor carpiradialis. Moreover, the smoothed, normalized cycle-by-cycle median frequency of left and right extensor carpiradialis decreased as the training progress, implying the occurrence of muscle fatigue.

Keywords: robot-assisted rehabilitation, strokes, muscle coordination, muscle fatigue

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855 Cost-Effective Mechatronic Gaming Device for Post-Stroke Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Raj Kumar, S. Bilaloglu

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Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability worldwide. We depend on our hands for our activities of daily living(ADL). Although many patients regain the ability to walk, they continue to experience long-term hand motor impairments. As the number of individuals with young stroke is increasing, there is a critical need for effective approaches for rehabilitation of hand function post-stroke. Motor relearning for dexterity requires task-specific kinesthetic, tactile and visual feedback. However, when a stroke results in both sensory and motor impairment, it becomes difficult to ascertain when and what type of sensory substitutions can facilitate motor relearning. In an ideal situation, real-time task-specific data on the ability to learn and data-driven feedback to assist such learning will greatly assist rehabilitation for dexterity. We have found that kinesthetic and tactile information from the unaffected hand can assist patients re-learn the use of optimal fingertip forces during a grasp and lift task. Measurement of fingertip grip force (GF), load forces (LF), their corresponding rates (GFR and LFR), and other metrics can be used to gauge the impairment level and progress during learning. Currently ATI mini force-torque sensors are used in research settings to measure and compute the LF, GF, and their rates while grasping objects of different weights and textures. Use of the ATI sensor is cost prohibitive for deployment in clinical or at-home rehabilitation. A cost effective mechatronic device is developed to quantify GF, LF, and their rates for stroke rehabilitation purposes using off-the-shelf components such as load cells, flexi-force sensors, and an Arduino UNO microcontroller. A salient feature of the device is its integration with an interactive gaming environment to render a highly engaging user experience. This paper elaborates the integration of kinesthetic and tactile sensing through computation of LF, GF and their corresponding rates in real time, information processing, and interactive interfacing through augmented reality for visual feedback.

Keywords: feedback, gaming, kinesthetic, rehabilitation, tactile

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854 Virtual Reality for Post COVID-19 Stroke: A Case Report

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar

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COVID-19 has been associated with stroke and neurological complications. The patient was a 59-year- old male who presented with sudden left hemiparesis and diplopia due to cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) on 28/03/2020. The COVID-19 test was positive. Multislice CT (MSCT) showed ischemic infarction. He underwent surgical sinectomy 9 days after admission. Physiotherapy began for him in August 2020. Our game-based virtual reality (VR) technology developed for stroke patients was based on upper extremity exercises and function for stroke. After 6 weeks of VR therapy plus conventional physiotherapy exercises (18 sessions, three times per week, 60 minutes each session), there were significant improvements in Brunnstrom Motor Recovery Stage (from “4” to “5”), Fugl-Meyer Scale score of upper extremity section (from 49 to 54), and Modified Barthel Index (from15 to 18). There were no adverse effects. This case with stroke post-COVID-19 due to the CST showed the usefulness of VR therapy used as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy in improving affected upper extremity.

Keywords: COVID-19, stroke, virtual reality, rehabilitation

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853 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

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This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

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852 The Risk of Post-stroke Pneumonia and Its One-Year Disability in Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang, Ching-Wei Lin

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Background: Evidence exists that pneumonia is a frequently encountered complication after stroke which is associated with a higher rate of mortality and increased long-term disability Purpose: To determine the predictors associated with the risk of one-year disability in acute stroke. Methods: Data for this longitudinal follow-up study were extracted from a tertiary referral medical center’s stroke registry database in Northern Taipei. Eligible patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital and completed a one-year follow up were recruited for analysis. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2. SAS version 9.2 was used for the multivariable regression analyses to examine the factors correlated with the one-year disability in stroke patients. Results: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1373 (mean age: 70.49±15.4 years, 913(66.5%) males) consecutively administered acute stroke patients were recruited. Overall, the rate of one-year disability was 37.20%(404/1086) in those without post-stroke pneumonia. It increased to 82.93 %(238/287) in patients developed post-stroke pneumonia. Factors associated with increased risk of disability were age ≧ 75(OR= 4.845, p<.0001), female /gender (OR=1.568, p =.0062), previous stroke (OR= 1.868, p = <. 0001) ,dementia (OR= 2.872, p =.0047), ventilator use (OR= 4.653, p <. 0001),age ≧ 75 /pneumonia (OR=1.236, p <. 0001) , ICU admission (OR=3.314, p <.0001) , nasogastric tube insertion (OR= 4.28, p <.0001), speech therapy (OR= 1.79, p =.0142), urinary tract infection (OR= 1.865, p =.0018), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR > 60 )(OR= 0.525, p= .0029), Admission NIHSS >11 (OR= 2.101, p = .0099), Length of hospitalization > 30(d) (OR= 5.182, p <.0001). Conclusion: Older age, severe neurological deficit, complications, rehabilitation intervention, length of hospitalization >30(d), and cognitive impairment were significantly associated with Post-stroke functional impairment, especially those with post-stroke pneumonia. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
851 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang

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The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

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850 An Exploration Survival Risk Factors of Stroke Patients at a General Hospital in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Ching-Wei Lin, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang

Abstract:

Background: The most common serious complication following acute stroke is pneumonia. It has been associated with the increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost after acute stroke in elderly patients. Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between stroke patients, risk factors of pneumonia, and one-year survival rates in a group of patients, in a tertiary referal center in Northern Taiwan. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1730 consecutively administered stroke patients were recruited. The Survival analysis and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the predictors for the one-year survival in stroke patients of a stroke registry database from northern Taiwan. Results: The risk of stroke mortality increased with age≧ 75 (OR=2.305, p < .0001), cancer (OR=3.221, p=<.0001), stayed in intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=2.28, p <.0006), dysphagia (OR=5.026, p<.0001), without speech therapy(OR=0.192, p < .0001),serum albumin < 2.5(OR=0.322, p=.0053) , eGFR > 60(OR=0.438, p <. 0001), admission NIHSS >11(OR=1.631, p=.0196), length of hospitalization (d) > 30(OR=0.608, p=.0227), and stroke subtype (OR=0.506, p=.0032). After adjustment of confounders, pneumonia was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality. However, it is most likely to develop in patients who are age ≧ 75, dyslipidemia , coronary artery disease , albumin < 2.5 , eGFR <60 , ventilator use , stay in ICU , dysphagia, without speech therapy , urinary tract infection , Atrial fibrillation , Admission NIHSS > 11, length of hospitalization > 30(d) , stroke severity (mRS=3-5) ,stroke Conclusion: In this study, different from previous research findings, we found that elderly age, severe neurological deficit and rehabilitation therapy were significantly associated with Post-stroke Pneumonia. However, specific preventive strategies are needed to target the high risk groups to improve their long-term outcomes after acute stroke. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, survival

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849 Stroke Rehabilitation via Electroencephalogram Sensors and an Articulated Robot

Authors: Winncy Du, Jeremy Nguyen, Harpinder Dhillon, Reinardus Justin Halim, Clayton Haske, Trent Hughes, Marissa Ortiz, Rozy Saini

Abstract:

Stroke often causes death or cerebro-vascular (CV) brain damage. Most patients with CV brain damage lost their motor control on their limbs. This paper focuses on developing a reliable, safe, and non-invasive EEG-based robot-assistant stroke rehabilitation system to help stroke survivors to rapidly restore their motor control functions for their limbs. An electroencephalogram (EEG) recording device (EPOC Headset) and was used to detect a patient’s brain activities. The EEG signals were then processed, classified, and interpreted to the motion intentions, and then converted to a series of robot motion commands. A six-axis articulated robot (AdeptSix 300) was employed to provide the intended motions based on these commends. To ensure the EEG device, the computer, and the robot can communicate to each other, an Arduino microcontroller is used to physically execute the programming codes to a series output pins’ status (HIGH or LOW). Then these “hardware” commends were sent to a 24 V relay to trigger the robot’s motion. A lookup table for various motion intensions and the associated EEG signal patterns were created (through training) and installed in the microcontroller. Thus, the motion intention can be direct determined by comparing the EEG patterns obtaibed from the patient with the look-up table’s EEG patterns; and the corresponding motion commends are sent to the robot to provide the intended motion without going through feature extraction and interpretation each time (a time-consuming process). For safety sake, an extender was designed and attached to the robot’s end effector to ensure the patient is beyond the robot’s workspace. The gripper is also designed to hold the patient’s limb. The test results of this rehabilitation system show that it can accurately interpret the patient’s motion intension and move the patient’s arm to the intended position.

Keywords: brain waves, EEG sensor, motion control, robot-assistant stroke rehabilitation

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848 Predictors of Motor and Cognitive Domains of Functional Performance after Rehabilitation of Individuals with Acute Stroke

Authors: A. F. Jaber, E. Dean, M. Liu, J. He, D. Sabata, J. Radel

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a serious health care concern and a major cause of disability in the United States. This condition impacts the individual’s functional ability to perform daily activities. Predicting functional performance of people with stroke assists health care professionals in optimizing the delivery of health services to the affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify significant predictors of Motor FIM and of Cognitive FIM subscores among individuals with stroke after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation (typically 4-6 weeks after stroke onset). A second purpose is to explore the relation among personal characteristics, health status, and functional performance of daily activities within 2 weeks of stroke onset. Methods: This study used a retrospective chart review to conduct a secondary analysis of data obtained from the Healthcare Enterprise Repository for Ontological Narration (HERON) database. The HERON database integrates de-identified clinical data from seven different regional sources including hospital electronic medical record systems of the University of Kansas Health System. The initial HERON data extract encompassed 1192 records and the final sample consisted of 207 participants who were mostly white (74%) males (55%) with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke (77%). The outcome measures collected from HERON included performance scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The data analysis plan included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, and Stepwise regression analysis. Results: significant predictors of discharge Motor FIM subscores included age, baseline Motor FIM subscores, discharge NIHSS scores, and comorbid electrolyte disorder (R2 = 0.57, p <0.026). Significant predictors of discharge Cognitive FIM subscores were age, baseline cognitive FIM subscores, client cooperative behavior, comorbid obesity, and the total number of comorbidities (R2 = 0.67, p <0.020). Functional performance on admission was significantly associated with age (p < 0.01), stroke severity (p < 0.01), and length of hospital stay (p < 0.05). Conclusions: our findings show that younger age, good motor and cognitive abilities on admission, mild stroke severity, fewer comorbidities, and positive client attitude all predict favorable functional outcomes after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. This study provides health care professionals with evidence to evaluate predictors of favorable functional outcomes early at stroke rehabilitation, to tailor individualized interventions based on their client’s anticipated prognosis, and to educate clients about the benefits of making lifestyle changes to improve their anticipated rate of functional recovery.

Keywords: functional performance, predictors, stroke, recovery

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847 A Multilevel Approach for Stroke Prediction Combining Risk Factors and Retinal Images

Authors: Jeena R. S., Sukesh Kumar A.

Abstract:

Stroke is one of the major reasons of adult disability and morbidity in many of the developing countries like India. Early diagnosis of stroke is essential for timely prevention and cure. Various conventional statistical methods and computational intelligent models have been developed for predicting the risk and outcome of stroke. This research work focuses on a multilevel approach for predicting the occurrence of stroke based on various risk factors and invasive techniques like retinal imaging. This risk prediction model can aid in clinical decision making and help patients to have an improved and reliable risk prediction.

Keywords: prediction, retinal imaging, risk factors, stroke

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846 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Y. S. Yusoff, G. Streftaris, H. R Waters

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Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease

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845 Rehabilitative Walking: The Development of a Robotic Walking Training Device Using Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treating Spinal Cord Injuries and Lower-Limb Paralysis

Authors: Chung Hyun Goh, Armin Yazdanshenas, X. Neil Dong, Yong Tai Wang

Abstract:

Physical rehabilitation is a necessary step in regaining lower body function after a partial paralysis caused by a spinal cord injury or a stroke. The purpose of this paper is to present the development and optimization of a training device that accurately recreates the motions in a gait cycle with the goal of rehabilitation for individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries or who are victims of a stroke. A functional electrical stimulator was used in conjunction with the training device to stimulate muscle groups pertaining to rehabilitative walking. The feasibility and reliability of the design are presented. To validate the design functionality, motion analyses of the knee and ankle gait paths were made using motion capture systems. Key results indicate that the robotic walking training device provides a viable mode of physical rehabilitation.

Keywords: functional electrical stimulation, rehabilitative walking, robotic walking training device, spinal cord injuries

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844 Biomechanical Evaluation of the Chronic Stroke with 3D-Printed Hand Device

Authors: Chen-Sheng Chen, Tsung-Yi Huang, Pi-Chang Sun

Abstract:

Chronic stroke patients often have complaints about hand dysfunction due to flexor hypertonia and extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independence. Constraint-induced movement therapy has shown to be a successful treatment for patients who have acquired certain level of wrist and finger extension. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of task-oriented approach incorporating 3D-printed dynamic hand device by evaluating hand functional performance. This study manufactured a hand device using 3d printer for chronic stroke. The experimental group engaged task-oriented approach with dynamic hand device, but the control group only received task-oriented approach. Outcome measurements include palmar pinch force (PPF), lateral pinch force (LPF), grip force (GF), and Box and Blocks Test (BBT). The results of study revealed the improvement of PPF in experimental group but not in control group. Meanwhile, improvement in LPF, GF and BBT can be found in both groups. This study demonstrates that the 3D-printed dynamic hand device is an effective therapeutic assistive device to improve pinch force, grasp force, and dexterity and facilitate motivation during home program in individuals with chronic stroke.

Keywords: 3D printing, biomechanics, hand orthosis, stroke

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843 A Top-down vs a Bottom-up Approach on Lower Extremity Motor Recovery and Balance Following Acute Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Vijaya Kumar, Vidayasagar Pagilla, Abraham Joshua, Rakshith Kedambadi, Prasanna Mithra

Abstract:

Background: Post stroke rehabilitation are aimed to accelerate for optimal sensorimotor recovery, functional gain and to reduce long-term dependency. Intensive physical therapy interventions can enhance this recovery as experience-dependent neural plastic changes either directly act at cortical neural networks or at distal peripheral level (muscular components). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a traditional bottom-up approach, mirror therapy (MT), a relatively new top down approach have found to be an effective adjuvant treatment methods for lower extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. However there is a scarcity of evidence to compare their therapeutic gain in stroke recovery.Aim: To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and mirror therapy (MT) in very early phase of post stroke rehabilitation addressed to lower extremity motor recovery and balance. Design: observer blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Setting: Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals. Subjects: 32 acute stroke subjects with first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis, referred for rehabilitation (onset < 3 weeks), Brunnstorm lower extremity recovery stages ≥3 and MMSE score more than 24 were randomized into two group [Group A-NMES and Group B-MT]. Interventions: Both the groups received eclectic approach to remediate lower extremity recovery which includes treatment components of Roods, Bobath and Motor learning approaches for 30 minutes a day for 6 days. Following which Group A (N=16) received 30 minutes of surface NMES training for six major paretic muscle groups (gluteus maximus and medius,quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius). Group B (N=16) was administered with 30 minutes of mirror therapy sessions to facilitate lower extremity motor recovery. Outcome measures: Lower extremity motor recovery, balance and activities of daily life (ADLs) were measured by Fugyl Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI) before and after intervention. Results: Pre Post analysis of either group across the time revealed statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all the outcome variables for the either group. All parameters of NMES had greater change scores compared to MT group as follows: FMA-LE (25.12±3.01 vs. 23.31±2.38), BBS (35.12±4.61 vs. 34.68±5.42) and BI (40.00±10.32 vs. 37.18±7.73). Between the groups comparison of pre post values showed no significance with FMA-LE (p=0.09), BBS (p=0.80) and BI (p=0.39) respectively. Conclusion: Though either groups had significant improvement (pre to post intervention), none of them were superior to other in lower extremity motor recovery and balance among acute stroke subjects. We conclude that eclectic approach is an effective treatment irrespective of NMES or MT as an adjunct.

Keywords: balance, motor recovery, mirror therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, stroke

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842 Preliminary Proposal to Use Adaptive Computer Games in the Virtual Rehabilitation Therapy

Authors: Mamoun S. Ideis, Zein Salah

Abstract:

Virtual Rehabilitation (VR) refers to using Virtual Reality’s hardware and simulations as means of exercising tools to rehabilitate patients in need. These patients will undergo their treatment exercises while playing different computer games, which helps achieve greater motivation for patients undergoing their therapeutic exercises. Virtual Rehabilitation systems adopt computer games as part of the treatment therapy. In this paper, we present a preliminary proposal to using adaptive computer games in Virtual Rehabilitation therapy. We also present some tips in designing those adaptive computer games by using different machine learning algorithms in order to create a personalized experience for each patient, which in turn, increases the potential benefits of the treatment that each patient receives. Furthermore, we propose a method of comparing the results of treatment using the adaptive computer games with the results of using static and classical computer games.

Keywords: virtual rehabilitation, physiotherapy, adaptive computer games, post-stroke, game design

Procedia PDF Downloads 163