Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1613

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1613 Taiwan’s Democratic Institutions: The Electoral Rise and Recall of Kuomintang’s Han Kuo-YU Mayor

Authors: Ryan Brading

Abstract:

The results of Taiwan’s presidential election, which took place on 11 January 2020, were alarming for the Kuomintang (KMT). A party that was once the pillar of Taiwan’s institutional apparatus is now losing its direction. Since 2016, the inability of KMT to construct a winning presidential election campaign strategy has made its Chinese ancestry an obstacle in Taiwan’s vibrant and transparent democracy. The appearance of the little-known legislator Han Kuo-yu as the leadership alternative opened the possibility of reigniting the party. Han’s victory in the Kaohsiung mayoral election in November 2018 provided hope that Han could also win the presidency. Wrongly described as a populist, Han, however, was defeated in the January 2020 presidential race. This article analyses why Han is not a populist, his triumph in Kaohsiung, humiliation in running for the presidency and suffering a complete ‘loss of face’ when Kaohsiungers democratically ousted him from the mayoral post on 6 June 2020.

Keywords: populism, 1992 consensus, youth vote, Taiwan, recall

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1612 On a Theoretical Framework for Language Learning Apps Evaluation

Authors: Juan Manuel Real-Espinosa

Abstract:

This paper addresses the first step to evaluate language learning apps: what theoretical framework to adopt when designing the app evaluation framework. The answer is not just one since there are several options that could be proposed. However, the question to be clarified is to what extent the learning design of apps is based on a specific learning approach, or on the contrary, on a fusion of elements from several theoretical proposals and paradigms, such as m-learning, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, and a number of theories about language acquisition. The present study suggests that the reality is closer to the second assumption. This implies that the theoretical framework against which the learning design of the apps should be evaluated must also be a hybrid theoretical framework, which integrates evaluation criteria from the different theories involved in language learning through mobile applications.

Keywords: mobile-assisted language learning, second language acquisition, materials' evaluation, m-learning, action-oriented approach

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1611 Neuroimaging Markers for Screening Former NFL Players at Risk for Developing Alzheimer's Disease / Dementia Later in Life

Authors: Vijaykumar M. Baragi, Ramtilak Gattu, Gabriela Trifan, John L. Woodard, K. Meyers, Tim S. Halstead, Eric Hipple, Ewart Mark Haacke, Randall R. Benson

Abstract:

NFL players, by virtue of their exposure to repetitive head injury, are at least twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia as the general population. Early recognition and intervention prior to onset of clinical symptoms could potentially avert/delay the long-term consequences of these diseases. Since AD is thought to have a long preclinical incubation period, the aim of the current research was to determine whether former NFL players, referred to a depression center, showed evidence of incipient dementia in their structural imaging prior to diagnosis of dementia. Thus, to identify neuroimaging markers of AD, against which former NFL players would be compared, we conducted a comprehensive volumetric analysis using a cohort of early stage AD patients (ADNI) to produce a set of brain regions demonstrating sensitivity to early AD pathology (i.e., the “AD fingerprint”). A cohort of 46 former NFL players’ brain MRIs were then interrogated using the AD fingerprint. Brain scans were done using a T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence. The Free Surfer image analysis suite (version 6.0) was used to obtain the volumetric and cortical thickness data. A total of 55 brain regions demonstrated significant atrophy or ex vacuo dilatation bilaterally in AD patients vs. healthy controls. Of the 46 former NFL players, 19 (41%) demonstrated a greater than expected number of atrophied/dilated AD regions when compared with age-matched controls, presumably reflecting AD pathology.

Keywords: alzheimers, neuroimaging biomarkers, traumatic brain injury, free surfer, ADNI

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1610 Aspects of the Promotional Language of Tourism in Social Media. A Case Study of Romanian Accommodation Industry

Authors: Sanda-Maria Ardeleanu, Ana Crăciunescu

Abstract:

This paper is sustained by our previous research on discursive strategies, whichdemonstrated that tourismhas developed and employed apromotional languageper se. We have studied this concept within the framework of audio-visual advertising by analyzing its discursive structures at the level of three main strategies (textual, visual, and both textual and visual) and confirmed the applicability of the promotional language per se within the field. Tourism, at large, represents a largely potential interdisplinary field, which allowed us to use qualitative methods of research such as Discourse Analysis (DA). Due to further research which showed that in the third phase of qualitative research methodologies, scholars in tourism recognized semiotics and DA as potential paths to follow, but which were insufficiently explored at the time, we soon realized that the natural next step to take is to bring together common qualitative methodologies for both fields, such as the method of observation, the triangulation, Discourse Analysis, etc. Therefore and in the light of fast transformations of the medium that intermediates the message, in this paper, we are going to focus on the manifestations of the promotional language in social media texts, which advertise for the urban industry of accommodation in Romania. We shall constitute a corpus of study as the basis for our research methodology and, through the empirical method of observation and DA, we propose to recognize or discover new patterns developed at textual (mainly) and visual level or the mix of the two, known as strategies of the promotional language of tourism.

Keywords: discourse analysis, promotional language of tourism, social media, urban accommodation industry, tourism

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1609 Investigating Introvert and Extrovert University Students’ Perception of the Use of Interactive Digital Tools in a Face-To-Face ESP Class

Authors: Eunice Tang

Abstract:

The main focus of this study is investigating introvert and extrovert university students’ perception of the use of interactive digital tools (such as Padlet and Mentimeter) in a face-to-face English for Specific Purposes (ESP) class after all classes in the university had been switched to online mode for three semesters. The subjects of the study were business students from three ESP classes at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. The basic tool for data collection was an anonymous online survey, which included 3 required multiple-choice questions and 3 open questions (2 required; 1 optional) about the effects of interactive digital tools on their amount of contribution to the class discussions, their perception of the role of interactive digital tools to the sharing of ideas and whether the students considered themselves introvert or extrovert. The online survey will be emailed to all 54 students in the three ESP classes and subjected to a three-week data collection period. The survey results will then be analyzed qualitatively, particularly on the effect the use of interactive digital tools had on the amount of contribution to the class among introvert and extrovert students, their perception of a language class with and without digital tools and most importantly, the implication to educators about how interactive digital tools can be used (or not) to cater for the needs of the introvert and extrovert students. The pandemic has given educators various opportunities to use interactive digital tools in class, especially in an online environment. It is interesting for educators to explore the potential of such tools when classes are back face-to-face. This research thus offers the students’ perspective on using interactive digital tools in a face-to-face classroom. While a lot has been said about introverted students responding positively to digital learning online, the student's perception of their own personality collected in the survey and the digital impact tools have on their contribution to class may shed some light on the potential of interactive digital tools in a post-pandemic era.

Keywords: psychology for language learning, interactive digital tools, personality-based investigation, ESP

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1608 A Futuristic Look at American Indian Nationhood: Zits in Sherman Alexie’s Flight

Authors: Shaimaa Alobaidi

Abstract:

The presentation examines how urbanization opens possibilities for American Indian characters like Zits in Alexie’s Flightto explore new definitionsoftheirtribal self-identification. Zits travels in time and views the world from different bodies, ages, and races; his journeys end with different perspectives on the idea of nationhood as an American Indian. He is an example of Vine Deloria’s statementthat “urban Indians have become the cutting edge of the new Indian nationalism” (248). Flight is chosen because the momentZits leaves the real world for time-traveling adventures is very critical; it is a moment of rage that ends in the mass murder of many Anglo-Americans. The paper focus on the turning point when he returns into his body with new opportunities towards his existence among the majority of anglo-Americans who cannot help but see him American Indian minority in need of help and assistance. Characters, such as Zits, attempt to outlive alienation, and Alexie gives new definitionsof their ethnic nationhood. Futuristicdoes not mean the very far unpredictable future; it is rather a nearpotential future for teenagers of American Indians, like Zits, Arnold, andCoyoteSprings- the band in ReservationBlues; all revolutionary personalitiesin Alexie’s works. They will be analyzed as Gerald Vizenor’s “postindianwarriors” who have the ability to identify Indigenous nationalism in a post-colonial context.

Keywords: alienation, self-identification, nationhood, urbanization, postindian

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1607 Sexual Violence and Persecution That Occurred at the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic Boarding School

Authors: Siamrotul Ayu Masruroh

Abstract:

Cases of sexual violence among Islamic boarding schools have now reached a point of equal concern with other cases of sexual violence that have occurred in universities, schools, offices, mass halls, and even churches. Worse yet, several cases of sexual violence that occurred in Islamic boarding schools were actually carried out by religious authorities such as kyai, caregivers, and ndalem families. This article discusses the phenomenon of cases of sexual violence and mistreatment of victims with cases that occurred in the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic boarding school, the importance of creating a safe space, preventing and dealing with sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools. The author uses the theory of masculinity from Raewyn W. Connell to see sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools and its relation to masculinity and femininity. In addition, the author also uses the spiral theory of violence from Dom Helder Camara to analyze the persecution case. The author conducted a literature study, observation, questionnaire, and interviews in the process of this research.

Keywords: sexual violence, islamic boarding school, safe space, women

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1606 Code Switching: A Case Study Of Lebanon

Authors: Wassim Bekai

Abstract:

Code switching, as its name states, is altering between two or more languages in one sentence. The speaker tends to use code switching in his/her speech for better clarification of his/her message to the receiver. It is commonly used in sociocultural countries such as Lebanon because of the various cultures that have come across its lands through history, considering Lebanon is geographically located in the heart of the world, and hence between many cultures and languages. In addition, Lebanon was occupied by Turkish authorities for about 400 years, and later on by the French mandate, where both of these countries forced their languages in official papers and in the Lebanese educational system. In this paper, the importance of code switching in the Lebanese workplace will be examined, stressing the efficiency and amount of the production resulting from code switching in the workplace (factories, universities among other places) in addition to exploring the social, education, religious and cultural factors behind this phenomenon in Lebanon.

Keywords: code switching, Lebanon, cultural, factors

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1605 Self-denigration in Doctoral Defense Sessions: Scale Development and Validation

Authors: Alireza Jalilifar, Nadia Mayahi

Abstract:

The dissertation defense as a complicated conflict-prone context entails the adoption of elegant interactional strategies, one of which is self-denigration. This study aimed to develop and validate a self-denigration model that fits the context of doctoral defense sessions in applied linguistics. Two focus group discussions provided the basis for developing this conceptual model, which assumed 10 functions for self-denigration, namely good manners, modesty, affability, altruism, assertiveness, diffidence, coercive self-deprecation, evasion, diplomacy, and flamboyance. These functions were used to design a 40-item questionnaire on the attitudes of applied linguists concerning self-denigration in defense sessions. The confirmatory factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated the predictive ability of the measurement model. The findings of this study suggest that self-denigration in doctoral defense sessions is the social representation of the participants’ values, ideas and practices adopted as a negotiation strategy and a conflict management policy for the purpose of establishing harmony and maintaining resilience. This study has implications for doctoral students and academics and illuminates further research on self-denigration in other contexts.

Keywords: academic discourse, politeness, self-denigration, grounded theory, dissertation defense

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1604 Attitudes of University Students toward English Language Education Policy in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Momen Yaseen M. Amin

Abstract:

Despite widespread coverage of language policy in the literature, there has been scant research probing into English language education policy at tertiary levels in general and in the case of higher education context of Iraqi Kurdistan in particular. The present qualitative study investigated the results of a questionnaire on attitudes toward English language education policy in terms of attitudes toward the English language in general, the current English education policy, and the purposes for learning English among Kurdish EFL university students. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate this topic in light of the participants’ gender and major. To this end, an adapted version of Yang’s (2012) questionnaire was administered to university EFL students majoring in soft and hard sciences (N=300, male 34%, female 67%, four and two disciplines, respectively) at two-state and private universities in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings revealed positive attitudes toward English as an international language in both soft and hard sciences. While strongly subscribing to the idea that all Iraqi Kurdish students should learn the English language and the courses to be offered in English as well as Kurdish, the majority of the participants expressed their readiness and enthusiasm to excel in English and considered such competency a significant academic accomplishment. However, a good number felt dissatisfied with the status quo of English education at their institutions. This paper provides some implications and recommendations for English education policies makers, administrators, and English language instructors at tertiary levels.

Keywords: attitudes, language policy, English language education, Iraqi Kurdistan

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1603 Heritage Spanish Speaker’s Bilingual Practices and Linguistic Varieties: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Ana C. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper will discuss some of the bilingual practices of Heritage Spanish speakers caused by living within two cultures and two languages, Spanish, the heritage language, and English, the dominant language. When two languages remain in contact for long periods, such as the case of Spanish and English, it is common that both languages can be affected by bilingual practices such as Spanglish, code-switching, borrowing, anglicisms and calques. Examples of these translingual practices will be provided, as well as HS speaker’s linguistic dialects, and the challenges they encounter with the standard variety used in the Spanish classroom.

Keywords: heritage, practices, Spanish, speakers translingual

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1602 Investigating Naming and Connected Speech Impairments in Moroccan AD Patients

Authors: Mounia El Jaouhari, Mira Goral, Samir Diouny

Abstract:

Introduction: Previous research has indicated that language impairments are recognized as a feature of many neurodegenerative disorders, including non-language-led dementia subtypes such as Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In this preliminary study, the focal aim is to quantify the semantic content of naming and connected speech samples of Moroccan patients diagnosed with AD using two tasks taken from the culturally adapted and validated Moroccan version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Methods: Five individuals with AD and five neurologically healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and education will participate in the study. Participants with AD will be diagnosed on the basis of the Moroccan version of the Diagnostic and Statistial Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-4) screening test, the Moroccan version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores, and neuroimaging analyses. The participants will engage in two tasks taken from the MDAE-SF: 1) Picture description and 2) Naming. Expected findings: Consistent with previous studies conducted on English speaking AD patients, we expect to find significant word production and retrieval impairments in AD patients in all measures. Moreover, we expect to find category fluency impairments that further endorse semantic breakdown accounts. In sum, not only will the findings of the current study shed more light on the locus of word retrieval impairments noted in AD, but also reflect the nature of Arabic morphology. In addition, the error patterns are expected to be similar to those found in previous AD studies in other languages.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, anomia, connected speech, semantic impairments, moroccan arabic

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1601 Chinese Event Detection with Joint Learning of Semantic and Syntactic Representation

Authors: Yao Bai, Dan Liu, Youming Guo, Meiwen Li

Abstract:

Event detection (ED), the basis of event extraction, is a very challenging problem, especially in Chinese scenes. The syntactic structure of event sentences is helpful for semantic understanding. This paper proposed a novel ED model called BERT+D-T-LSTM+D-Attention (BDD), which aims to learn semantic and syntactic representation of sentences jointly to enhance event-sentence understanding ability. We use the word vector based on BERT as the information source, the Long-Short Term Memory model based on the dependency tree (DT-LSTM) to integrate the learning of syntactic structure and sentence semantics, an attention mechanism based on the dependency vector to strengthen the distinction of different syntactic structure at the aim of ED. The experiment results on the CEC corpus demonstrate that BDD performs rather well, especially outperforming the SOTA models on recall rate and F value.

Keywords: BERT, D-Attention, dependency vector, D-T-LSTM, event detection

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1600 Understanding English Language in Career Development of Academics in Non-English Speaking HEIs: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Ricardo Pinto Mario Covele, Patricio V. Langa, Patrick Swanzy

Abstract:

The English language has been recognized as a universal medium of instruction in academia, especially in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) hence exerting enormous influence within the context of research and publication. By extension, the English Language has been embraced by scholars from non-English speaking countries. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the discussions using four databases. Discussion in the English language in the career development of academics, particularly in non-English speaking universities, is largely less visible. This paper seeks to fill this gap and to improve the visibility of the English language in the career development of academics focusing on non-English language speaking universities by undertaking a systematic literature review. More specifically, the paper addresses the language policy, English language learning model as a second language, sociolinguistic field and career development, methods, as well as its main findings. This review analyzed 75 relevant resources sourced from Western Cape’s Library, Scopus, Google scholar, and web of science databases from November 2020 to July 2021 using the PQRS framework as an analytical lens. The paper’s findings demonstrate that, while higher education continues to be under-challenges of English language usage, literature targeting non-English speaking universities remains less discussed than it is often described. The findings also demonstrate the dominance of English language policy, both for knowledge production and dissemination of literature challenging emerging scholars from non-English speaking HEIs. Hence, the paper argues for the need to reconsider the context of non-English language speakers in the English language in the career development of academics’ research, both as empirical fields and as emerging knowledge producers. More importantly, the study reveals two bodies of literature: (1) the instrumentalist approach to English Language learning and (2) Intercultural approach to the English Language for career opportunities, classified as the appropriate to explain the English language learning process and how is it perceived towards scholars’ academic careers in HEIs.

Keywords: English language, public and private universities, language policy, career development, non-English speaking countries

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1599 The Experiences of Agency in the Utilization of Twitter for English Language Learning in a Saudi Tertiary EFL Context

Authors: Fahd Hamad Alqasham

Abstract:

This longitudinal study investigates Saudi students’ use trajectory and experiences of Twitter as an innovative tool for in class learning of English language in a Saudi tertiary EFL (English as a foreign language) context for a 12-week semester. The study adopted van Lier’s agency theory (2008, 2010) as the analytical framework to obtain an in-depth analysis of how the learners’ could utilize Twitter to create innovates ways for them to engage in English learning inside the language classroom. The study implemented a mixed methods approach which included six data collection instruments consisting of a research log, observations, focus group participation, initial and post-project interviews, and a post-project questionnaire. The study was conducted at Qassim University, specifically at Preparatory Year Program (PYP) in the main campus, and included a sample of 25 male students studying in the first level of PYP. The findings results revealed that although Twitter’s affordances which initially paled a crucial role in motivating the learners to initiate their agency inside the classroom to learn English, the contextual constraints, mainly anxiety, the university infrastructure, and the teacher’s role negatively influenced the sustainability of Twitter’s use past week nine of its implementation.

Keywords: applied linguistics, agency, language learning, nnovation, van lier

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1598 The Experiences of Agency in the Utilization of Twitter for English Language Learning in a Saudi EFL Context

Authors: Fahd Hamad Alqsham

Abstract:

This longitudinal study investigates Saudi students’ use trajectory and experiences of Twitter as an innovative tool for in-class learning of the English language in a Saudi tertiary EFL (English as a foreign language) context for a 12-week semester. The study adopted van Lier’s agency theory (2008, 2010) as the analytical framework to obtain an in-depth analysis of how the learners’ could utilize Twitter to create innovates ways for them to engage in English learning inside the language classroom. The study implemented a mixed-methods approach which included six data collection instruments consisting of a research log, observations, focus group participation, initial and post-project interviews, and a post-project questionnaire. The study was conducted at Qassim University, specifically at Preparatory Year Program (PYP) in the main campus, and included a sample of 25 male students studying in the first level of PYP. The findings results revealed that although Twitter’s affordances which initially paled a crucial role in motivating the learners to initiate their agency inside the classroom to learn English, the contextual constraints, mainly anxiety, the university infrastructure, and the teacher’s role negatively influenced the sustainability of Twitter’s use past week nine of its implementation.

Keywords: agency, language learning, e-language learning, innovation

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1597 A Critical Genre Analysis of Negative Parts in CSR Reports

Authors: Shuai Liu

Abstract:

In corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting, companies are expected to present both the positive and negative parts of the social and environmental impacts of their performance. This study investigates how the companies that listed in fortune 500 respond to this challenge by analyzing the representations of negative part especially the safety performance. It has found that in the level of genre analysis, it presented 3 major moves and 11 steps in terms of the interdiscursivity analysis. It was made up of three dominant discourse.. The study calls for greater focus on the internal and external analysis of the negative aspect of aspects of companies’ self-disclosure.

Keywords: CSR reports, negative parts, critical genre analysis, interdiscursivity

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1596 The Use of Authentic Materials in the Chinese Language Classroom

Authors: Yiwen Jin, Jing Xiao, Pinfang Su

Abstract:

The idea of adapting authentic materials in language teaching is from the communicative method in the 1970s. Different from the language in language textbooks, authentic materials is not deliberately written, it is from the native speaker’s real life and contains real information, which can meet social needs. It could improve learners ' interest, create authentic context and improve learners ' communicative competence. Authentic materials play an important role in CFL(Chinese as a foreign language) classroom. Different types of authentic materials can be used in different ways during learning and teaching. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic,a lot of Chinese learners are learning Chinese without the real language environment. Although there are some well-written textbooks, there is a certain distance between textbook language materials and daily life. Learners cannot automatically fill this gap. That is why it is necessary to apply authentic materials as a supplement to the language textbook to create the real context. Chinese teachers around the world are working together, trying to integrate the resources and apply authentic materials through different approach. They apply authentic materials in the form of new textbooks, manuals, apps and short videos they collect and create to help Chinese learning and teaching. A review of previous research on authentic materials and the Chinese teachers’ attempt to adapt it in the classroom are offered in this manuscript.

Keywords: authentic materials, Chinese as a second language, developmental use of digital resources, materials development for language teaching

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1595 Preserving Digital Arabic Text Integrity Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Zineb Touati Hamad, Mohamed Ridda Laouar, Issam Bendib

Abstract:

With the massive development of technology today, the Arabic language has gained a prominent position among the languages most used for writing articles, expressing opinions, and also for citing in many websites, defying its growing sensitivity in terms of structure, language skills, diacritics, writing methods, etc. In the context of the spread of the Arabic language, the Holy Quran represents the most prevalent Arabic text today in many applications and websites for citation purposes or for the reading and learning rituals. The Quranic verses / surahs are published quickly and without cost, which may cause great concern to ensure the safety of the content from tampering and alteration. To protect the content of texts from distortion, it is necessary to refer to the original database and conduct a comparison process to extract the percentage of distortion. The disadvantage of this method is that it takes time, in addition to the lack of any guarantee on the integrity of the database itself as it belongs to one central party. Blockchain technology today represents the best way to maintain immutable content. Blockchain is a distributed database that stores information in blocks linked to each other through encryption, where the modification of each block can be easily known. To exploit these advantages, we seek in this paper to justify the use of this technique in preserving the integrity of Arabic texts sensitive to change by building a decentralized framework to authenticate and verify the integrity of the digital Quranic verses/surahs spread on websites.

Keywords: arabic text, authentication, blockchain, integrity, quran, verification

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1594 Trade-Offs between Verb Frequency and Syntactic Complexity in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

Authors: Pui I. Chao, Shanju Lin

Abstract:

Purpose: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have persistent language difficulties and often face great challenges when demands are high. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verb frequency would trade-off with syntactic complexity when they talk. Method: Forty-five children with DLD, 45 chronological age matches with TD (AGE), and 45 MLU-matches with TD (MLU) who were Mandarin speakers were selected from the previous study. Language samples were collected under three contexts: conversation about children’s family and school, story retelling, and free play. MLU, verb density, utterance length difference, verb density difference, and average verb frequency were calculated and further analyzed by ANOVAs. Results: Children with DLD and their MLU matches produced shorter utterances and used fewer verbs in expressions than the AGE matches. Compared to their AGE matches, the DLD group used more verbs and verbs with lower frequency in shorter utterances but used fewer verbs and verbs with higher frequency in longer utterances. Conclusion: Mandarin-speaking children with DLD showed difficulties in verb usage and were more vulnerable to trade-offs than their age-matched peers in utterances with high demand. As a result, task demand should be taken into account as speech-language pathologists assess whether children with DLD have adequate abilities in verb usage.

Keywords: developmental language disorder, syntactic complexity, trade-offs, verb frequency

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1593 The Next Generation’s Learning Ability, Memory, as Well as Cognitive Skills Is under the Influence of Paternal Physical Activity (An Intergenerational and Trans-Generational Effect): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Parvin Goli, Amirhosein Kefayat, Rezvan Goli

Abstract:

Background: It is well established that parents can influence their offspring's neurodevelopment. It is shown that paternal environment and lifestyle is beneficial for the progeny's fitness and might affect their metabolic mechanisms; however, the effects of paternal exercise on the brain in the offspring have not been explored in detail. Objective: This study aims to review the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity, as well as DNA methylation levels in the off-spring's hippocampus. Study design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, an electronic literature search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were those with an experimental design, including an exercise intervention arm, with the assessment of any type of memory function, learning ability, or any type of brain plasticity as the outcome measures. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as effect size. Results: The systematic review revealed the important role of environmental enrichment in the behavioral development of the next generation. Also, offspring of exercised fathers displayed higher levels of memory ability and lower level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A significant effect of paternal exercise on the hippocampal volume was also reported in the few available studies. Conclusion: These results suggest an intergenerational effect of paternal physical activity on cognitive benefit, which may be associated with hippocampal epigenetic programming in offspring. However, the biological mechanisms of this modulation remain to be determined.

Keywords: hippocampal plasticity, learning ability, memory, parental exercise

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1592 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani

Abstract:

Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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1591 Kabyles in Britain: Negotiating Identities in a Transnational Setting

Authors: Souhila Belabbas

Abstract:

This paper examines the everyday and online practices of identity among Kabyle immigrants in the UK who are simultaneously embedded within a Kabyle transnational social field. The Kabyles are an Amazigh ethnic sub-group indigenous to northern Algeria, many Kabyles have emigrated abroad as a direct consequence of the subjugation of Kabylia by the French colonisation and the social and political instability in post-independent Algeria. While the overwhelming majority moved to France and Canada, their immigration to the UK is relatively recent and small-scale. This provides the context for this paper. It focuses on a varied group of Kabyles who have settled in the UK over the past few years and examines their engagement with ‘being Kabyle’ in three key sites: The Kabyle/Amazigh Cultural Organisation in London; their everyday encounters with Kabyles and non-Kabyles in different spaces and the participants’ interactions within the digital world. Based on ethnographic and interview research the paper examines how the Kabyle/Amazigh identity and language which are currently undergoing a degree of recognition and revitalisation in Algeria, are being negotiated both at a public and personal level in a relatively new migratory setting. The study draws on the notion of a transnational social field to include the participants’ orientation towards Algeria and other sites as they engage online as part of expressing and revitalising their everyday ethnicity in the UK. The analysis suggests that the formation of Kabyleness within the transnational social field involves the creation of overlapping and fluid boundaries between and within the social fields caused by the multiple understandings of Kabyle cultural capital. Therefore, by way of mapping the Kabyle immigrants’ activities within the transnational social field, I show their complex, multiple and situational affiliations, where Kabyleness is entangled with gender, age, language, history and/or politics.

Keywords: Kabyle immigrants, transnational Social field, capital, online interactions, identities

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1590 A Translation Criticism of the Persian Translation of “A**Hole No More” Written by Xavier Crement

Authors: Mehrnoosh Pirhayati

Abstract:

Translation can be affected by different meta-textual factors of target context such as ideology, politics, and culture. So, the rule of fidelity, or being faithful to the source text, can be ignored by the translator. On the other hand, critical discourse analysis, derived from applied linguistics, is entered into the field of translation studies and used by scholars for revealing hidden deviations and possible roots of manipulations. This study focused on the famous Persian translation of the bestseller book, “A**hole No More,” written by XavierCrement 1990, performed by Mahmud Farjami to comparatively and critically analyze it with its corresponding English original book. The researcher applied Pirhayati’s model and framework of translation criticism at the textual and semiotic levels for this qualitative study. It should be noted that Kress and Van Leeuwen’s semiotic model, along with Machin’s model of typographical analysis, was also used at the semiotic level. The results of the comparisons and analyses indicate thatthis Persian translation of the book is affected by the factors of ideology and economics and reveal that the Islamic attitude causes the translator to employ some strategies such as substitution and deletion. Those who may benefit from this research are translation trainers, students of translation studies, critics, and scholars.

Keywords: farjami (2013), Ideology, manipulation, pirhayati's (2013) model of translation criticism, Xavier crement (1990)

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1589 Developing an Intonation Labeled Dataset for Hindi

Authors: Esha Banerjee, Atul Kumar Ojha, Girish Nath Jha

Abstract:

This study aims to develop an intonation labeled database for Hindi. Although no single standard for prosody labeling exists in Hindi, researchers in the past have employed perceptual and statistical methods in literature to draw inferences about the behavior of prosody patterns in Hindi. Based on such existing research and largely agreed upon intonational theories in Hindi, this study attempts to develop a manually annotated prosodic corpus of Hindi speech data, which can be used for training speech models for natural-sounding speech in the future. 100 sentences ( 500 words) each for declarative and interrogative types have been labeled using Praat.

Keywords: speech dataset, Hindi, intonation, labeled corpus

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1588 Language Transfer in Graduate Candidates’ Essays

Authors: Erika Martínez Lugo

Abstract:

Candidates to some graduate studies are asked to write essays in English to prove their competence to write essays and to do it in English. In the present study, language transfer (LT) in 15 written essays is identified, documented, analyzed, and classified. The essays were written in 2019, and the graduate program is a Masters in Modern Languages in a North-Western Mexican city border with USA. This study is of interest since it is important to determine whether or not some errors have been fossilized and have become mistakes, or if it is part of the candidates’ interlanguage. The results show that most language transfer is negative and syntactic, where the influence of candidates L1 (Spanish) is evident in their use of L2 (English).

Keywords: language transfer, cross-linguistic influence, interlanguage, error vs mistake

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1587 A Novel Machine Learning Approach to Aid Agrammatism in Non-fluent Aphasia

Authors: Rohan Bhasin

Abstract:

Agrammatism in non-fluent Aphasia Cases can be defined as a language disorder wherein a patient can only use content words ( nouns, verbs and adjectives ) for communication and their speech is devoid of functional word types like conjunctions and articles, generating speech of with extremely rudimentary grammar . Past approaches involve Speech Therapy of some order with conversation analysis used to analyse pre-therapy speech patterns and qualitative changes in conversational behaviour after therapy. We describe this approach as a novel method to generate functional words (prepositions, articles, ) around content words ( nouns, verbs and adjectives ) using a combination of Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning algorithms. The applications of this approach can be used to assist communication. The approach the paper investigates is : LSTMs or Seq2Seq: A sequence2sequence approach (seq2seq) or LSTM would take in a sequence of inputs and output sequence. This approach needs a significant amount of training data, with each training data containing pairs such as (content words, complete sentence). We generate such data by starting with complete sentences from a text source, removing functional words to get just the content words. However, this approach would require a lot of training data to get a coherent input. The assumptions of this approach is that the content words received in the inputs of both text models are to be preserved, i.e, won't alter after the functional grammar is slotted in. This is a potential limit to cases of severe Agrammatism where such order might not be inherently correct. The applications of this approach can be used to assist communication mild Agrammatism in non-fluent Aphasia Cases. Thus by generating these function words around the content words, we can provide meaningful sentence options to the patient for articulate conversations. Thus our project translates the use case of generating sentences from content-specific words into an assistive technology for non-Fluent Aphasia Patients.

Keywords: aphasia, expressive aphasia, assistive algorithms, neurology, machine learning, natural language processing, language disorder, behaviour disorder, sequence to sequence, LSTM

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1586 Towards Kurdish Internet Linguistics: A Case Study on the Impact of Social Media on Kurdish Language

Authors: Karwan K. Abdalrahman

Abstract:

Due to the impacts of the internet and social media, new words and expressions enter the Kurdish language, and a number of familiarized words get new meanings. The case is especially true when the technique of transliteration is taken into consideration. Through transliteration, a number of selected words widely used on social media are entering the Kurdish media discourse. In addition, a selected number of Kurdish words get new cultural and psychological meanings. The significance of this study is to delve into the process of word formation in the Kurdish language and explore how new words and expressions are formed by social media users and got public recognition. First, the study investigates the English words that enter the Kurdish language through different social media platforms. All of these words are transliterated and are used in spoken and written discourses. Second, there are a specific number of Kurdish words that got new meanings in social media. As for these words, there are psychological and cultural factors that make people use these expressions for specific political reasons. It can be argued that they have an indirect political message along with their new linguistic usages. This is a qualitative study analyzing video content that was published in the last two years on social media platforms, including Facebook and YouTube. The collected data was analyzed based on the themes discussed above. The findings of the research can be summarized as follows: the widely used transliterated words have entered both the spoken and written discourses. Authors in online and offline newspapers, TV presenters, literary writers, columnists are using these new expressions in their writings. As for the Kurdish words with new meanings, they are also widely used for psychological, cultural, and political reasons.

Keywords: Kurdish language, social media, new meanings, transliteration, vocabulary

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1585 Self-serving Anchoring of Self-judgments

Authors: Elitza Z. Ambrus, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay

Abstract:

Individuals’ self-judgments might be malleable and influenced by comparison with a random value. On the one hand, self-judgments reflect our self-image, which is typically considered to be stable in adulthood. Indeed, people also strive hard to maintain a fixed, positive moral image of themselves. On the other hand, research has shown the robustness of the so-called anchoring effect on judgments and decisions. The anchoring effect refers to the influence of a previously considered comparative value (anchor) on a consecutive absolute judgment and reveals that individuals’ estimates of various quantities are flexible and can be influenced by a salient random value. The present study extends the anchoring paradigm to the domain of the self. We also investigate whether participants are more susceptible to self-serving anchors, i.e., anchors that enhance participant’s self-image, especially their moral self-image. In a pre-reregistered study via the online platform Prolific, 249 participants (156 females, 89 males, 3 other and 1 who preferred not to specify their gender; M = 35.88, SD = 13.91) ranked themselves on eight personality characteristics. However, in the anchoring conditions, respondents were asked to first indicate whether they thought they would rank higher or lower than a given anchor value before providing their estimated rank in comparison to 100 other anonymous participants. A high and a low anchor value were employed to differentiate between anchors in a desirable (self-serving) direction and anchors in an undesirable (self-diminishing) direction. In the control treatment, there was no comparison question. Subsequently, participants provided their self-rankings on the eight personality traits with two personal characteristics for each combination of the factors desirable/undesirable and moral/non-moral. We found evidence of an anchoring effect for self-judgments. Moreover, anchoring was more efficient when people were anchored in a self-serving direction: the anchoring effect was enhanced when supporting a more favorable self-view and mitigated (even reversed) when implying a deterioration of the self-image. The self-serving anchoring was more pronounced for moral than for non-moral traits. The data also provided evidence in support of a better-than-average effect in general as well as a magnified better-than-average effect for moral traits. Taken together, these results suggest that self-judgments might not be as stable in adulthood as previously thought. In addition, considerations of constructing and maintaining a positive self-image might interact with the anchoring effect on self-judgments. Potential implications of our results concern the construction and malleability of self-judgments as well as the psychological mechanism shaping anchoring.

Keywords: anchoring, better-than-average effect, self-judgments, self-serving anchoring

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1584 Let’s Work It Out: Effects of a Cooperative Learning Approach on EFL Students’ Motivation and Reading Comprehension

Authors: Shiao-Wei CHu

Abstract:

In order to enhance the ability of their graduates to compete in an increasingly globalized economy, the majority of universities in Taiwan require students to pass Freshman English in order to earn a bachelor's degree. However, many college students show low motivation in English class for several important reasons, including exam-oriented lessons, unengaging classroom activities, a lack of opportunities to use English in authentic contexts, and low levels of confidence in using English. Students’ lack of motivation in English classes is evidenced when students doze off, work on assignments from other classes, or use their phones to chat with others, play video games or watch online shows. Cooperative learning aims to address these problems by encouraging language learners to use the target language to share individual experiences, cooperatively complete tasks, and to build a supportive classroom learning community whereby students take responsibility for one another’s learning. This study includes approximately 50 student participants in a low-proficiency Freshman English class. Each week, participants will work together in groups of between 3 and 4 students to complete various in-class interactive tasks. The instructor will employ a reward system that incentivizes students to be responsible for their own as well as their group mates’ learning. The rewards will be based on points that team members earn through formal assessment scores as well as assessment of their participation in weekly in-class discussions. The instructor will record each team’s week-by-week improvement. Once a team meets or exceeds its own earlier performance, the team’s members will each receive a reward from the instructor. This cooperative learning approach aims to stimulate EFL freshmen’s learning motivation by creating a supportive, low-pressure learning environment that is meant to build learners’ self-confidence. Students will practice all four language skills; however, the present study focuses primarily on the learners’ reading comprehension. Data sources include in-class discussion notes, instructor field notes, one-on-one interviews, students’ midterm and final written reflections, and reading scores. Triangulation is used to determine themes and concerns, and an instructor-colleague analyzes the qualitative data to build interrater reliability. Findings are presented through the researcher’s detailed description. The instructor-researcher has developed this approach in the classroom over several terms, and its apparent success at motivating students inspires this research. The aims of this study are twofold: first, to examine the possible benefits of this cooperative approach in terms of students’ learning outcomes; and second, to help other educators to adapt a more cooperative approach to their classrooms.

Keywords: freshman English, cooperative language learning, EFL learners, learning motivation, zone of proximal development

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