Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1429

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1429 Beliefs, Practices and Identity about Bilingualism: Korean-australian Immigrant Parents and Family Language Policies

Authors: Eun Kyong Park

Abstract:

This study explores the relationships between immigrant parents’ beliefs about bilingualism, family literacy practices, and their children’s identity development in Sydney, Australia. This project examines how these parents’ ideological beliefs and knowledge are related to their provision of family literacy practices and management of the environment for their bilingual children based on family language policy (FLP). This is a follow-up study of the author’s prior thesis that presented Korean immigrant mothers’ beliefs and decision-making in support of their children’s bilingualism. It includes fathers’ perspectives within the participating families as a whole by foregrounding their perceptions of bilingual and identity development. It adopts a qualitative approach with twelve immigrant mothers and fathers living in a Korean-Australian community whose child attends one of the communities Korean language programs. This time, it includes introspective and self-evocative auto-ethnographic data. The initial data set collected from the first part of this study demonstrated the mothers provided rich, diverse, and specific family literacy activities for their children. These mothers selected specific practices to facilitate their child’s bilingual development at home. The second part of data has been collected over a three month period: 1) a focus group interview with mothers; 2) a brief self-report of fathers; 3) the researcher’s reflective diary. To analyze these multiple data, thematic analysis and coding were used to reveal the parents’ ideologies surrounding bilingualism and bilingual identities. It will highlight the complexity of language and literacy practices in the family domain interrelated with sociocultural factors. This project makes an original contribution to the field of bilingualism and FLP and a methodological contribution by introducing auto-ethnographic input of this community’s lived practices. This project will empower Korean-Australian immigrant families and other multilingual communities to reflect their beliefs and practices for their emerging bilingual children. It will also enable educators and policymakers to access authentic information about how bilingualism is practiced within these immigrant families in multiple ways and to help build the culturally appropriate partnership between home and school community.

Keywords: Identity, bilingualism, beliefs, family language policy, Korean immigrant parents in Australia

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1428 Pictorial Multimodal Analysis of Selected Paintings of Salvador Dali

Authors: Shaza Melies, Abeer Refky, Nihad Mansoor

Abstract:

Multimodality involves communication between verbal and visual components in various discourses. A painting represents a form of communication between the artist and the viewer in terms of colors, shades, objects, and the title. This thesis aims to present how multimodality can be used to decode the verbal and visual dimensions a painting holds. For that purpose, this study uses Kress and van Leeuwen's theoretical framework of visual grammar for the analysis of the multimodal semiotic resources of selected paintings of Salvador Dali. This study investigates the visual decoding of the selected paintings of Salvador Dali and analyzing their social and political meanings using Kress and van Leeuwen’s framework of visual grammar. The thesis attempts to answer the following questions: 1. How far can multimodality decode the verbal and non-verbal meanings of surrealistic art? 2. How can Kress and van Leeuwen’s theoretical framework of visual grammar be applied to analyze Dali’s paintings? 3. To what extent is Kress and van Leeuwen’s theoretical framework of visual grammar apt to deliver political and social messages of Dali? The thesis reached the following findings: the framework’s descriptive tools (representational, interactive, and compositional meanings) can be used to analyze the paintings' title and their visual elements. Social and political messages were delivered by appropriate usage of color, gesture, vectors, modality, and the way social actors were represented.

Keywords: visual grammar, multimodal analysis, painting analysis, Salvador Dali

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1427 An Event-Related Potential Study of Individual Differences in Word Recognition: The Evidence from Morphological Knowledge of Sino-Korean Prefixes

Authors: Jinwon Kang, Seonghak Jo, Joohee Ahn, Junghye Choi, Sun-Young Lee

Abstract:

A morphological priming has proved its importance by showing that segmentation occurs in morphemes when visual words are recognized within a noticeably short time. Regarding Sino-Korean prefixes, this study conducted an experiment on visual masked priming tasks with 57 ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) to see how individual differences in the amount of morphological knowledge affect morphological priming. The relationship between the prime and target words were classified as morphological (e.g., 미개척 migaecheog [unexplored] – 미해결 mihaegyel [unresolved]), semantical (e.g., 친환경 chinhwangyeong [eco-friendly]) – 무공해 mugonghae [no-pollution]), and orthographical (e.g., 미용실 miyongsil [beauty shop] – 미확보 mihwagbo [uncertainty]) conditions. We then compared the priming by configuring irrelevant paired stimuli for each condition’s control group. As a result, in the behavioral data, we observed facilitatory priming from a group with high morphological knowledge only under the morphological condition. In contrast, a group with low morphological knowledge showed the priming only under the orthographic condition. In the event-related potential (ERP) data, the group with high morphological knowledge presented the N250 only under the morphological condition. The findings of this study imply that individual differences in morphological knowledge in Korean may have a significant influence on the segmental processing of Korean word recognition.

Keywords: Individual Differences, ERP, morphological priming, sino-Korean prefixes

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1426 Resource Framework Descriptors for Interestingness in Data

Authors: C. B. Abhilash, Kavi Mahesh

Abstract:

Human beings are the most advanced species on earth; it's all because of the ability to communicate and share information via human language. In today's world, a huge amount of data is available on the web in text format. This has also resulted in the generation of big data in structured and unstructured formats. In general, the data is in the textual form, which is highly unstructured. To get insights and actionable content from this data, we need to incorporate the concepts of text mining and natural language processing. In our study, we mainly focus on Interesting data through which interesting facts are generated for the knowledge base. The approach is to derive the analytics from the text via the application of natural language processing. Using semantic web Resource framework descriptors (RDF), we generate the triple from the given data and derive the interesting patterns. The methodology also illustrates data integration using the RDF for reliable, interesting patterns.

Keywords: Semantic Data, knowledge base, RDF, Interestingness

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1425 Comparison of Sign Language Skill and Academic Achievement of Deaf Students in Special and Inclusive Primary Schools of South Nation Nationalities People Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Tesfaye Basha

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the sign language and academic achievement of deaf students in special and inclusive primary schools of Southern Ethiopia. The study used a mixed-method to collect varied data. The study contained Signed Amharic and English skill tasks, questionnaire, 8th-grade Primary School Leaving Certificate Examination results, classroom observation, and interviews. For quantitative (n=70) deaf students and for qualitative data collection, 16 participants were involved. The finding revealed that the limitation of sign language is a problem in signing and academic achievements. This displays that schools are not linguistically rich to enable sign language achievement for deaf students. Moreover, the finding revealed that the contribution of Total Communication in the growth of natural sign language for deaf students was unsatisfactory. The results also indicated that special schools of deaf students performed better sign language skills and academic achievement than inclusive schools. In addition, the findings revealed that high signed skill group showed higher academic achievement than the low skill group. This displayed that sign language skill is highly associated with academic achievement. In addition, to qualify deaf students in sign language and academics, teacher institutions must produce competent teachers on how to teach deaf students with sign language and literacy skills.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Sign Language, inclusive school, signed Amharic, signed English, special school, total communication

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1424 Parvi̇z Jabrail's Novel 'in Foreign Language': Delimitation of Postmodernism with Modernism

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova

Abstract:

The issue of modernism and the concept of postmodernism has been the focus of world researchers for many years, and there are very few researchers who have come to a common denominator about this term. During the independence period, the expansion of the relations of Azerbaijani literature with the world has led to the spread of many currents and tendencies formed in the West to the literary environment in our country. In this context, the works created in our environment are distinguished by their extreme richness in terms of subject matter and diversity in terms of genre. As an interesting example of contemporary postmodern prose in Azerbaijan, Parviz Jabrayil's novel "In a Foreign Language" pays attention with its more different plotline. The disagreement exists among the critics about the novel. Some are looking for high artistry in work; others are satisfied with the elements of postmodernism in work. Delimitation of the border between modernism and postmodernism can serve to carry out a deep scientific study of the novel. The novel depicts the world in the author's consciousness against the background of water shortage (thirst) in the Old City (Icharishahar). The author deconstructs today's Ichari Shahar mould. Along with modernism, elements of postmodernism occupy a large place in the work. When we look at the general tendencies of postmodernist art, we see that science and individuality are questioned, criticizing the sharp boundaries of modernism and the negativity of these restrictions, and modernism offers alternatives to artistic production by identifying its negatives and shortcomings in the areas of artistic freedom. The novel is extremely interesting in this point of view.

Keywords: Analysis, Modernism, comparison, novel, concept of postmodernism, delimitation, political postmodernism, modern postmodern prose, Azerbaijani literature, world literature

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1423 A Pragmatic Approach of Memes Created in Relation to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Alexandra-Monica Toma

Abstract:

Internet memes are an element of computer mediated communication and an important part of online culture that combines text and image in order to generate meaning. This term coined by Richard Dawkings refers to more than a mere way to briefly communicate ideas or emotions, thus naming a complex and an intensely perpetuated phenomenon in the virtual environment. This paper approaches memes as a cultural artefact and a virtual trope that mirrors societal concerns and issues, and analyses the pragmatics of their use. Memes have to be analysed in series, usually relating to some image macros, which is proof of the interplay between imitation and creativity in the memes’ writing process. We believe that their potential to become viral relates to three key elements: adaptation to context, reference to a successful meme series, and humour (jokes, irony, sarcasm), with various pragmatic functions. The study also uses the concept of multimodality and stresses how the memes’ text interacts with the image, discussing three types of relations: symmetry, amplification, and contradiction. Moreover, the paper proves that memes could be employed as speech acts with illocutionary force, when the interaction between text and image is enriched through the connection to a specific situation. The features mentioned above are analysed in a corpus that consists of memes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This corpus shows them to be highly adaptable to context, which helps build the feeling of connection and belonging in an otherwise tremendously fragmented world. Some of them are created based on well-known image macros, and their humour results from an intricate dialogue between texts and contexts. Memes created in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic can be considered speech acts and are often used as such, as proven in the paper. Consequently, this paper tackles the key features of memes, makes a thorough analysis of the memes sociocultural, linguistic, and situational context, and emphasizes their intertextuality, with special accent on their illocutionary potential.

Keywords: Multimodality, memes, Speech Acts, context

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1422 Kinaesthetic Method in Apprenticeship Training: Support for Finnish Learning in Vocational Education

Authors: Inkeri Jääskeläinen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to shed light on what is it like to study in apprenticeship training using Finnish as second language. This study examines the stories and experiences of apprenticeship students learning and studying Finnish as part of their vocational studies. Also, this pilot study examines the effects of learning to pronounce Finnish through body motions and gestures. Many foreign students choose apprenticeships and start vocational training too early, while their language skills in Finnish are still very weak. Both duties at work and school assignments require reasonably good general language skills (B1.1) and, especially at work, language skills are also a safety issue. At work students should be able to simultaneously learn Finnish and do vocational studies in a noisy, demanding, and stressing environment. Learning and understanding new things is very challenging under these circumstances and sometimes students get exhausted and experience a lot of stress - which makes learning even more difficult. Students are different from each other and so are their ways to learn. Thereafter, one of the most important features of apprenticeship training and second language learning is good understanding of adult learners and their needs. Kinaesthetic methods are an effective way to support adult students’ cognitive skills and make learning more relaxing and fun. Empirical findings show that language learning can indeed be supported physical ways, by body motions and gestures. The method used here, named TFFL (Touch and Feel Foreign Languages), was designed to support adult language learning, to correct or prevent language fossilization and to help the student to manage emotions. Finnish is considered as a difficult language to learn, mostly because it is so different from nearly all other languages. Many learners complain that they are lost or confused and there is a need to find a way to simultaneously learn the language and to handle negative emotion which come from Finnish language and the learning process itself. Due to the nature of Finnish language good pronunciation skills are needed just to understand the way the language work. Movements (body movements etc.) are a natural part of many cultures but not Finnish – In Finland students have traditionally been expected to stay still and that is not a natural way for many foreign students. However, kinaesthetic TFFL method proved out to be a useful way to help some L2 students to feel phonemes, rhythm and intonation, to improve their Finnish and, thereby, also to successfully complete their vocational studies.

Keywords: Interference, Finnish, fossilization, kinaesthetic method

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1421 Genre Hybridity and Postcolonialism in 'Chairil: The Voice of Indonesia's Decolonisation'

Authors: Jack Johnstone

Abstract:

This research presents postcolonial translation as an approach to eradicate traces of colonialism in former colonies. An example of demonstrating postcolonial translation in the Indonesian context is in Hasan Aspahani's Chairil, a biographical narrative and history book based on the personal life of a well-known Indonesian poet and writer, Chairil Anwar (1922-1949) in Dutch occupied Indonesia. This postcolonial translation approach has been applied in the first five chapters on his early years under Dutch colonization, in an attempt to show a postcolonialised TT. This approach aims to demonstrate the postcolonial refutation of the Dutch colonial language to convey the Indonesian setting to target readers. It is also designed to explicate the summary of the book as well as my attempt to apply postcolonial translation as a strategy to reject the Dutch colonial terms in this book. The data conveys 26 important examples of the ST and TT, in consideration of the chosen three factors of culture, forced-Europeanisation, and cross-genre between a biographical narrative and history under categories of Cultural Bound Objects, Politics and Place. However, the 10 selected examples will be analyzed in the Analysis Chapter, which are discussed at word, sentence, and paragraph level. As well, the translation strategies used, namely retention, substitution and specification on four main examples, on the methods utilized to achieve a postcolonialised translation that attempts to 1) examine the way the alteration of the TT can affect the message portrayed within the ST, 2) show the notion of disagreement between the Dutch colonizers and colonized Indonesians on their views on the way Indonesia should be governed and 3) present a translation that reverses the inequality between the superior colonials and inferior Indigenous Indonesians during the Dutch colonial era.

Keywords: Indonesia, Chairil, Dutch colonialism, postcolonial translation

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1420 Intervention of Self-Limiting L1 Inner Speech during L2 Presentations: A Study of Bangla-English Bilinguals

Authors: Abdul Wahid

Abstract:

Inner speech, also known as verbal thinking, self-talk or private speech, is characterized by the subjective language experience in the absence of overt or audible speech. It is a psychological form of verbal activity which is being rehearsed without the articulation of any sound wave. In Psychology, self-limiting speech means the type of speech which contains information that inhibits the development of the self. People, in most cases, experience inner speech in their first language. It is very frequent in Bangladesh where the Bangla (L1) speaking students lose track of speech during their presentations in English (L2). This paper investigates into the long pauses (more than 0.4 seconds long) in English (L2) presentations by Bangla speaking students (18-21 year old) and finds the intervention of Bangla (L1) inner speech as one of its causes. The overt speeches of the presenters are placed on Audacity Audio Editing software where the length of pauses are measured in milliseconds. Varieties of inner speech questionnaire (VISQ) have been conducted randomly amongst the participants out of whom 20 were selected who have similar phenomenology of inner speech. They have been interviewed to describe the type and content of the voices that went on in their head during the long pauses. The qualitative interview data are then codified and converted into quantitative data. It was observed that in more than 80% cases students experience self-limiting inner speech/self-talk during their unwanted pauses in L2 presentations.

Keywords: Working memory, inner speech, Bangla-English Bilinguals, L1 intervention in bilingualism, motor schema, pauses, phonological loop, phonological store

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1419 Association between Polygenic Risk of Alzheimer's Dementia, Brain MRI and Cognition in UK Biobank

Authors: Rachana Tank, Donald. M. Lyall, Kristin Flegal, Joey Ward, Jonathan Cavanagh

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s research UK estimates by 2050, 2 million individuals will be living with Late Onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). However, individuals experience considerable cognitive deficits and brain pathology over decades before reaching clinically diagnosable LOAD and studies have utilised gene candidate studies such as genome wide association studies (GWAS) and polygenic risk (PGR) scores to identify high risk individuals and potential pathways. This investigation aims to determine whether high genetic risk of LOAD is associated with worse brain MRI and cognitive performance in healthy older adults within the UK Biobank cohort. Previous studies investigating associations of PGR for LOAD and measures of MRI or cognitive functioning have focused on specific aspects of hippocampal structure, in relatively small sample sizes and with poor ‘controlling’ for confounders such as smoking. Both the sample size of this study and the discovery GWAS sample are bigger than previous studies to our knowledge. Genetic interaction between loci showing largest effects in GWAS have not been extensively studied and it is known that APOE e4 poses the largest genetic risk of LOAD with potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions of e4, for this reason we  also analyse genetic interactions of PGR with the APOE e4 genotype. High genetic loading based on a polygenic risk score of 21 SNPs for LOAD is associated with worse brain MRI and cognitive outcomes in healthy individuals within the UK Biobank cohort. Summary statistics from Kunkle et al., GWAS meta-analyses (case: n=30,344, control: n=52,427) will be used to create polygenic risk scores based on 21 SNPs and analyses will be carried out in N=37,000 participants in the UK Biobank. This will be the largest study to date investigating PGR of LOAD in relation to MRI. MRI outcome measures include WM tracts, structural volumes. Cognitive function measures include reaction time, pairs matching, trail making, digit symbol substitution and prospective memory. Interaction of the APOE e4 alleles and PGR will be analysed by including APOE status as an interaction term coded as either 0, 1 or 2 e4 alleles. Models will be adjusted partially for adjusted for age, BMI, sex, genotyping chip, smoking, depression and social deprivation. Preliminary results suggest PGR score for LOAD is associated with decreased hippocampal volumes including hippocampal body (standardised beta = -0.04, P = 0.022) and tail (standardised beta = -0.037, P = 0.030), but not with hippocampal head. There were also associations of genetic risk with decreased cognitive performance including fluid intelligence (standardised beta = -0.08, P<0.01) and reaction time (standardised beta = 2.04, P<0.01). No genetic interactions were found between APOE e4 dose and PGR score for MRI or cognitive measures. The generalisability of these results is limited by selection bias within the UK Biobank as participants are less likely to be obese, smoke, be socioeconomically deprived and have fewer self-reported health conditions when compared to the general population. Lack of a unified approach or standardised method for calculating genetic risk scores may also be a limitation of these analyses. Further discussion and results are pending.

Keywords: Cognition, MRI, Alzheimer's dementia, polygenic risk

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1418 An Investigation of Migrants' Attitudes towards Their Ethnic Languages: A Study of Angolan Migrants in Namibia

Authors: Julia Indongo - Haiduwa

Abstract:

The study looks at the attitudes of Angolan migrants in the informal sectors towards their ethnic languages. The assumption is most Angolan migrants speak Portuguese instead of their ethnic languages as they lack interest in their ethnic languages. The study was qualitative in nature, and 20 Angolan migrants who are operating in the informal sector where purposively selected for the semistructured interviews. The study revealed that many Angolan has negative attitudes towards their ethnic language because even prior to their migration to Namibia, they use Portuguese to communicate as opposed to their ethnic languages. The ethnic languages are associated with old people and the ethnic languages do not offer the migrants any economic benefits. The study recommends that there is a need for the revitalization of Angolan ethnic languages in Namibia in order to maintain the language and prevent them from dying.

Keywords: Language, Multilingualism, language maintenance, Choice, ethnic languages language attitude

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1417 Competing Conflict Leads to Bilingual Disadvantage in the Simon Task

Authors: Ana Rivera, Lise Abrams, Lori Altmann

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of bilingualism on performance in an implicit and explicit Simon task. Participants and Methods: Participants included 56 bilingual and 57 monolingual healthy young adults. Participants completed linguistic and nonlinguistic Simon tasks with either implicit vs explicit instructions. Attending to the language/orientation was either implicit (when the task required naming the color) or explicit (when the task required naming the language or orientation). The linguistic stimuli were the color words ‘BLUE’, ‘GREEN’, ‘AZUL’, or ‘VERDE’ shown in black font, whereas the nonlinguistic stimuli comprised of blue and green rectangles. The directions for the implicit Simon task instructed participants to name the color of the presented stimuli, ignoring the completing conflict of either the language (English or Spanish) or orientation (vertical or horizontal). The directions for the explicit Simon instructed participants to indicate the language or orientation, ignoring the competing conflict of the color of the stimuli. The dependent variables were the Simon Effect (Incongruent RT – Congruent RT) and the Global effect (mean of Congruent and Incongruent RTs). Results: Results showed that bilinguals were significantly disadvantaged on the Simon effect when the stimuli was in written form (linguistic stimuli) for both implicit (naming the color) and explicit tasks (naming the language/orientation). Bilinguals had a larger Simon effect compared to monolinguals, but there was no significant difference between groups for global effects. Conclusions: Results suggest a bilingual disadvantage on tasks that require any mode of language processing.

Keywords: Cognition, Language, bilingualism, Simon task

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1416 Against Language Disorder: A Way of Reading Dialects in Yan Lianke’s Novels

Authors: Thuy Hanh Nguyen Thi

Abstract:

By the method of deep reading and text analysis, this article will analyze the use and creation of dialects as a way of demonstrating Yan Lianke's creative stance. This article indicates that this is the writer’s narrative strategy in a fight against aphasia, a language disorder of Chinese people and culture, demonstrating a sense of return to folklore and marks his own linguistic style. In terms of verbal text, the dialect in the Yan Lianke’s novels manifested through the use of words, sentences and dialects. There are two types of dialects that exist in Yan Lianke’s novels: the current dialect system and the particular dialect system of Pa Lau world created by the writer himself in order to enrich the vocabulary of Han Chinese.

Keywords: Dialect, Aphasia, Yan Lianke, Pa Lou world

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1415 Chinese Undergraduates’ Trust in And Usage of Machine Translation: A Survey

Authors: Bi Zhao

Abstract:

Neural network technology has greatly improved the output of machine translation in terms of both fluency and accuracy, which greatly increases its appeal for young users. The present exploratory study aims to find out how the Chinese undergraduates perceive and use machine translation in their daily life. A survey is conducted to collect data from 100 undergraduate students from multiple Chinese universities and with varied academic backgrounds, including arts, business, science, engineering, and medicine. The survey questions inquire about their use (including frequency, scenarios, purposes, and preferences) of and attitudes (including trust, quality assessment, justifications, and ethics) toward machine translation. Interviews and tasks of evaluating machine translation output are also employed in combination with the survey on a sample of selected respondents. The results indicate that Chinese undergraduate students use machine translation on a daily basis for a wide range of purposes in academic, communicative, and entertainment scenarios. Most of them have preferred machine translation tools, but the availability of machine translation tools within a certain scenario, such as the embedded machine translation tool on the webpage, is also the determining factor in their choice. The results also reveal that despite the reportedly limited trust in the accuracy of machine translation output, most students lack the ability to critically analyze and evaluate such output. Furthermore, the evidence is revealed of the inadequate awareness of ethical responsibility as machine translation users among Chinese undergraduate students.

Keywords: Trust, Machine Translation, usage, Chinese undergraduates

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1414 Identitarian Speech in Exile by Representatives of Central Europe

Authors: Georgiana Ciobotaru

Abstract:

The experience of exile is a defining one for the mittleeuropean writers, which is also the generator of an identity discourse manifested in the plan of fiction. In exile, the authors often build their marginality in opposition to that deserted mundi center. The Polish Gombrowicz carried out his existence, for more than twenty-three years, in a geographical exile, distancing himself from his country, and, from a cultural point of view, the writing meant a possibility of escape, of plunge into a literary exile that often constituted a way of conditioning the practice of writers. He opted for one of the attitudes that a writer in exile may have, namely he preferred to continue speaking Polish, although he was far from his homeland, turning to the public in his homeland, his entire literary creation in exile being promoted through Kulturia, the Paris-based immigration magazine. The problem of exile must be constantly related to three essential aspects, namely: territory, identity and language. The exile, both the writer and his characters, displays a characteristic attitude towards the abandoned land, but also towards the adoptive, towards the mother tongue, but also towards the idiom encountered, thus proving an original manner in terms of how it asserts, de-builds or re-builds its identity. In these texts written after leaving Poland, a series of open works by Trans-Atlantic, Gombrowicz assumes and internalizes the inadequacy between his self and the reality outside to make it the principle of his perception of the world. The expression of marginality that characterized the texts developed when the writer was still in Poland seems to acquire a certain coherence against the background of a logic imposed on the new experience, namely that of exile. Texts created during his exile in Argentina appear in a different context, in other words, in a situation of inadequacy towards the world: ignorance of the language, poverty, isolation that characterizes especially the first years spent there. This study aims to highlight how the Polish author de-builds and reconstructs his Mittel-European identity profile through language.

Keywords: Identity, Immigration, discourse, exile

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1413 The Discursive Construction of Emotions in the Headlines of French Newspapers on Seismic Disasters

Authors: Mirela-Gabriela Bratu

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to highlight the way in which emotions are constructed discursively in the French written press, more particularly in the titles of informative articles. To achieve this objective, we will begin the study with the theoretical part, which aims to capture the characteristics of journalistic discourse, to which we will add clues of emotions that we will identify in the titles of the articles. The approach is based on the empirical results from the analysis of the articles published on the earthquake that took place on August 24, 2016, in Italy, as described by two French national daily newspapers: Le Monde and Le Point. The corpus submitted to the analysis contains thirty-seven titles, published between August 24, 2016, and August 24, 2017. If the textual content of the speech offers information respecting the grammatical standards and following the presentation conventions, the choice of words can touch the reader, so the journalist must add other means than mastering of the language to create emotion. This study aims to highlight the strategies, such as rhetorical figures, the tenses, or factual data, used by journalists to create emotions for the readers. We also try, thanks to the study of the articles which were published for several days relating to the same event, to emphasize whether we can speak or not of the dissipation of emotion and the catastrophic side as the event fades away in time. The theoretical framework is offered by works on rhetorical strategies (Perelman, 1992; Amossi, 2000; Charaudeau, 2000) and on the study of emotions (Plantin, 1997, 1998, 2004; Tetu, 2004).

Keywords: Earthquake, Disaster, emotion, Feeling

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1412 Multimodal Analysis of News Magazines' Front-Page Portrayals of the US, Germany, China, and Russia

Authors: Alena Radina

Abstract:

On the global stage, national image is shaped by historical memory of wars and alliances, government ideology and particularly media stereotypes which represent countries in positive or negative ways. News magazine covers are a key site for national representation. The object of analysis in this paper is the portrayals of the US, Germany, China, and Russia in the front pages and cover stories of “Time”, “Der Spiegel”, “Beijing Review”, and “Expert”. Political comedy helps people learn about current affairs even if politics is not their area of interest, and thus satire indirectly sets the public agenda. Coupled with satirical messages, cover images and the linguistic messages embedded in the covers become persuasive visual and verbal factors, known to drive about 80% of magazine sales. Preliminary analysis identified satirical elements in magazine covers, which are known to influence and frame understandings and attract younger audiences. Multimodal and transnational comparative framing analyses lay the groundwork to investigate why journalists, editors and designers deploy certain frames rather than others. This research investigates to what degree frames used in covers correlate with frames within the cover stories and what these framings can tell us about media professionals’ representations of their own and other nations. The study sample includes 32 covers consisting of two covers representing each of the four chosen countries from the four magazines. The sampling framework considers two time periods to compare countries’ representation with two different presidents, and between men and women when present. The countries selected for analysis represent each category of the international news flows model: the core nations are the US and Germany; China is a semi-peripheral country; and Russia is peripheral. Examining textual and visual design elements on the covers and images in the cover stories reveals not only what editors believe visually attracts the reader’s attention to the magazine but also how the magazines frame and construct national images and national leaders. The cover is the most powerful editorial and design page in a magazine because images incorporate less intrusive framing tools. Thus, covers require less cognitive effort of audiences who may therefore be more likely to accept the visual frame without question. Analysis of design and linguistic elements in magazine covers helps to understand how media outlets shape their audience’s perceptions and how magazines frame global issues. While previous multimodal research of covers has focused mostly on lifestyle magazines or newspapers, this paper examines the power of current affairs magazines’ covers to shape audience perception of national image.

Keywords: Multimodality, Satire, national image, framing analysis, magazine covers

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1411 A Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Researchers in Business Translation at Spanish Centers

Authors: Daniel Gallego-Hernández

Abstract:

Business translation is a professional activity often requested in Spain. Spanish universities included this type of translation in their curricula at the end of the last century, thus focusing the attention of researchers towards its teaching. This paper explores a set of 617 publications in business translation. Since scientific knowledge is socially developed, this document analyses the collaborations among scholars affiliated to Spanish centers by focusing on co-authorship networks with the goal of characterizing scientific production in business translation. They involve 302 different authors affiliated to 44 centers. A total of 24.1% of publications are co-authored. Previous data may be nuanced when analyzing author categories and the evolution of social networks. As for categories, authors were distributed according to five classes: continuants (contributing more than one publication distributed across several years, with at least one in the last five years); transients (with more than one publication distributed across no more than four years, with at least one in the last five years and at least one in earlier years); one-timers (contributing one single study); entrants (contributing at least two publications exclusively in the last five years), and terminants (contributing more than one publication in at least one year but without publications in the last five years). Bibexcel and Pajek were used to detect co-authorship and plot sociograms. The results show a trend of increasing interest in business translation despite the field being in its infancy. Although a high percentage of isolated authors with no apparent cooperation with others, was identified, the number of publications and the social networks kept growing, especially in the last years. When considering inter-institutional cooperation, the largest network is, at the same time, the most recent one and involves various universities and author categories. Since international cooperation was practically non-existent, this network may represent an interesting point of contact for those researchers seeking international cooperation or even for those international entrants looking for research stays at continuants' institutions.

Keywords: Translation Studies, Bibliometrics, co-authorship, business translation

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1410 Myers-Briggs Type Index Personality Type Classification Based on an Individual’s Spotify Playlists

Authors: Ibrahim Demir, Sefik Can Karakaya

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between musical preferences and personality traits has been investigated in terms of Spotify audio analysis features. The aim of this paper is to build such a classifier capable of segmenting people into their Myers-Briggs Type Index (MBTI) personality type based on their Spotify playlists. Music takes an important place in the lives of people all over the world and online music streaming platforms make it easier to reach musical contents. In this context, the motivation to build such a classifier is allowing people to gain access to their MBTI personality type and perhaps for more reliably and more quickly. For this purpose, logistic regression and deep neural networks have been selected for classifier and their performances are compared. In conclusion, it has been found that musical preferences differ statistically between personality traits, and evaluated models are able to distinguish personality types based on given musical data structure with over %60 accuracy rate.

Keywords: music Psychology, Logistic Regression, Deep Neural Networks, Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Spotify, behavioural user profiling

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1409 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Haq Nawaz, Kamran Malik

Abstract:

"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: Quran, computational linguistics, NLP, e learning

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1408 The Effect of Brand Recovery Communications on Embarrassed Consumers’ Cognitive Appraisal and Post-purchase Behavior

Authors: Kin Yan Ho

Abstract:

Negative brand news (such as Volkswagen’s faulty carbon emission reports, China’s Luckin Coffee scandal, and bribery in reputable US universities) influence how people perceive a company. Germany’s citizens claimed Volkswagen’s scandal as a national embarrassment and cannot recover their psychological damages through monetary and non-monetary compensation. The main research question is to examine how consumers evaluate and respond to embarrassing brand publicity. The cognitive appraisal theory is used as a theoretical foundation. This study describes the use of scenario-based experiment. The findings suggest that consumers with different levels of embarrassment evaluate brand remedial offers from emotion-focused and task-focused restorative justice perspectives (newly derived from the well-established scales of perceived justice). When consumers face both negative and positive brand information (i.e., negative publicity news and a remedial offer), they change their appraisal criterion. The social situation in the cognitive reappraisal process influences the quality of the customer-brand relationship and the customer’s recovery from brand embarrassment. The results also depict that the components of recovery compensation cause differences in emotion recovery, relationship quality, and repurchase intentions. This study extends embarrassment literature in an embarrassing brand publicity context. The emotional components of brand remedial tactics provide insights to brand managers on how to handle different consumers’ emotions, consumer satisfaction, and foster positive future behavior.

Keywords: Justice, emotion, Crisis Communications, brand relationship quality, cognitive appraisal, social presence

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1407 Mondoc: Informal Lightweight Ontology for Faceted Semantic Classification of Hypernymy

Authors: M. Regina Carreira-Lopez

Abstract:

Lightweight ontologies seek to concrete union relationships between a parent node, and a secondary node, also called "child node". This logic relation (L) can be formally defined as a triple ontological relation (LO) equivalent to LO in ⟨LN, LE, LC⟩, and where LN represents a finite set of nodes (N); LE is a set of entities (E), each of which represents a relationship between nodes to form a rooted tree of ⟨LN, LE⟩; and LC is a finite set of concepts (C), encoded in a formal language (FL). Mondoc enables more refined searches on semantic and classified facets for retrieving specialized knowledge about Atlantic migrations, from the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America (1776) and to the end of the Spanish Civil War (1939). The model looks forward to increasing documentary relevance by applying an inverse frequency of co-ocurrent hypernymy phenomena for a concrete dataset of textual corpora, with RMySQL package. Mondoc profiles archival utilities implementing SQL programming code, and allows data export to XML schemas, for achieving semantic and faceted analysis of speech by analyzing keywords in context (KWIC). The methodology applies random and unrestricted sampling techniques with RMySQL to verify the resonance phenomena of inverse documentary relevance between the number of co-occurrences of the same term (t) in more than two documents of a set of texts (D). Secondly, the research also evidences co-associations between (t) and their corresponding synonyms and antonyms (synsets) are also inverse. The results from grouping facets or polysemic words with synsets in more than two textual corpora within their syntagmatic context (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) state how to proceed with semantic indexing of hypernymy phenomena for subject-heading lists and for authority lists for documentary and archival purposes. Mondoc contributes to the development of web directories and seems to achieve a proper and more selective search of e-documents (classification ontology). It can also foster on-line catalogs production for semantic authorities, or concepts, through XML schemas, because its applications could be used for implementing data models, by a prior adaptation of the based-ontology to structured meta-languages, such as OWL, RDF (descriptive ontology). Mondoc serves to the classification of concepts and applies a semantic indexing approach of facets. It enables information retrieval, as well as quantitative and qualitative data interpretation. The model reproduces a triple tuple ⟨LN, LE, LT, LCF L, BKF⟩ where LN is a set of entities that connect with other nodes to concrete a rooted tree in ⟨LN, LE⟩. LT specifies a set of terms, and LCF acts as a finite set of concepts, encoded in a formal language, L. Mondoc only resolves partial problems of linguistic ambiguity (in case of synonymy and antonymy), but neither the pragmatic dimension of natural language nor the cognitive perspective is addressed. To achieve this goal, forthcoming programming developments should target at oriented meta-languages with structured documents in XML.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Resonance, hypernymy, lightweight ontology

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1406 Chinese Sentence Level Lip Recognition

Authors: Peng Wang, Tigang Jiang

Abstract:

The computer based lip reading method of different languages cannot be universal. At present, for the research of Chinese lip reading, whether the work on data sets or recognition algorithms, is far from mature. In this paper, we study the Chinese lipreading method based on machine learning, and propose a Chinese Sentence-level lip-reading network (CNLipNet) model which consists of spatio-temporal convolutional neural network(CNN), recurrent neural network(RNN) and Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss function. This model can map variable-length sequence of video frames to Chinese Pinyin sequence and is trained end-to-end. More over, We create CNLRS, a Chinese Lipreading Dataset, which contains 5948 samples and can be shared through github. The evaluation of CNLipNet on this dataset yielded a 41% word correct rate and a 70.6% character correct rate. This evaluation result is far superior to the professional human lip readers, indicating that CNLipNet performs well in lipreading.

Keywords: Machine Learning, recurrent neural network, convolutional neural network, spatio-temporal, LipReading

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1405 Intercultural Education through Literature Reception: An in-Depth Study of the Cultural and Literary Relations of Romania and China during 1948-2018

Authors: Iulia Elena Gîță

Abstract:

According to the sociological theory of literature, constraints on the creation and share of cultural works can be placed between two extremes: one with a high level of politicization and the other with a high level of commercialization. The overall objective of the present research is to follow the principles of Sociology of Translation to closely map and analyse the publishing activity of Romania concerning China and Chinese literature during four stages of Romanian history between 1948-2018. This paper proposes, thus, an extended approach to literature, to its cultural, political and economic reception. In achieving the proposed objectives, the research expands far beyond the literary text itself, to its macro context, analysing, through quantitative research methods, a statistical database created based on two phases - the first part containing literary and non-fictional works that address and discuss issues related to China; the second part includes literary translations of Chinese literature into Romanian, either by direct translation or by an intermediate language. Throughout this paper we will map not only the number of works, but also the topics approached by writers along the two periods of the political life of Romania.

Keywords: International Relations, Publishing, Chinese Literature, intercultural understanding, bilateral relations, socio-cultural reception, socio-political constraints

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1404 Teaching Attentive Literature Reading in Higher Education French as a Foreign Language: A Pilot Study of a Flipped Classroom Teaching Model

Authors: Malin Isaksson

Abstract:

Teaching French as a foreign language usually implies teaching French literature, especially in higher education. Training university students in literary reading in a foreign language requires addressing several aspects at the same time: the (foreign) language, the poetic language, the aesthetic aspects of the studied works, and various interpretations of them. A pilot study sought to test a teaching model that would support students in learning to perform competent readings and short analyses of French literary works, in a rather independent manner. This shared practice paper describes the use of a flipped classroom method in two French literature courses, a campus course and an online course, and suggests that the teaching model may provide efficient tools for teaching literary reading and analysis in a foreign language. The teaching model builds on a high level of student activity and focuses on attentive reading, meta-perspectives such as theoretical concepts, individual analyses by students where said concepts are applied, and group discussions of the studied texts and of possible interpretations.

Keywords: Flipped Classroom, attentive reading, literature in foreign language studies, teaching literature analysis

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1403 NANCY: Combining Adversarial Networks with Cycle-Consistency for Robust Multi-Modal Image Registration

Authors: Mirjana Ruppel, Rajendra Persad, Amit Bahl, Sanja Dogramadzi, Chris Melhuish, Lyndon Smith

Abstract:

Multimodal image registration is a profoundly complex task which is why deep learning has been used widely to address it in recent years. However, two main challenges remain: Firstly, the lack of ground truth data calls for an unsupervised learning approach, which leads to the second challenge of defining a feasible loss function that can compare two images of different modalities to judge their level of alignment. To avoid this issue altogether we implement a generative adversarial network consisting of two registration networks GAB, GBA and two discrimination networks DA, DB connected by spatial transformation layers. GAB learns to generate a deformation field which registers an image of the modality B to an image of the modality A. To do that, it uses the feedback of the discriminator DB which is learning to judge the quality of alignment of the registered image B. GBA and DA learn a mapping from modality A to modality B. Additionally, a cycle-consistency loss is implemented. For this, both registration networks are employed twice, therefore resulting in images ˆA, ˆB which were registered to ˜B, ˜A which were registered to the initial image pair A, B. Thus the resulting and initial images of the same modality can be easily compared. A dataset of liver CT and MRI was used to evaluate the quality of our approach and to compare it against learning and non-learning based registration algorithms. Our approach leads to dice scores of up to 0.80 ± 0.01 and is therefore comparable to and slightly more successful than algorithms like SimpleElastix and VoxelMorph.

Keywords: Deep learning, gan, cycle consistency, deformable multimodal image registration

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1402 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: Mediation, Discourse Analysis, Emotions, Discursive Psychology

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1401 Formation of an Artificial Cultural and Language Environment When Teaching a Foreign Language in the Material of Original Films

Authors: Konysbek Aksaule

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to explore new and effective ways of teaching English to students who are studying a foreign language since the timeliness of the problem disclosed in this article is due to the high level of English proficiency that potential specialists must have due to high competition in the context of global globalization. The article presents an analysis of the feasibility and effectiveness of using an authentic feature film in teaching English to students. The methodological basis of the study includes an assessment of the level of students' proficiency in a foreign language, the stage of evaluating the film, and the method of selecting the film for certain categories of students. The study also contains a list of practical tasks that can be applied in the process of viewing and perception of an original feature film in a foreign language, and which are aimed at developing language skills such as speaking and listening. The results of this study proved that teaching English to students through watching an original film is one of the most effective methods because it improves speech perception, speech reproduction ability, and also expands the vocabulary of students and makes their speech fluent. In addition, learning English through watching foreign films has a huge impact on the cultural views and knowledge of students about the country of the language being studied and the world in general. Thus, this study demonstrates the high potential of using authentic feature film in English lessons for pedagogical science and methods of teaching English in general.

Keywords: Education, Foreign Language, students, University, feature film

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1400 Implementing a Plurilingual Approach to ELF in Primary School: An International Comparative Study

Authors: A. Chabert

Abstract:

The present paper is motivated by the current influence of communicative approaches in language policies around the globe (especially through the Common European Framework of Reference), along with the exponential spread of English as a Lingua Franca worldwide. This study focuses on English language learning and teaching in the last year of primary education in Spain (in the bilingual Valencian region), Norway (in the Trondelag region), and China (in the Hunan region) and proposes a plurilingual communicative approach to ELT in line with ELF awareness and the current retheorisation of ELF within multilingualism (Jenkins, 2018). This study, interdisciplinary in nature, attempts to find a convergence point among English Language Teaching, English as a Lingua Franca, Language Ecology and Multilingualism, breaking with the boundaries that separate languages in language teaching and acknowledging English as international communication, while protecting the mother tongue and language diversity within multilingualism. Our experiment included over 400 students across Spain, Norway, and China, and the outcomes obtained demonstrate that despite the different factors involved in different cultures and contexts, a plurilingual approach to English learning improved English scores by 20% in each of the contexts. Through our study, we reflect on the underestimated value of the mother tongue in ELT, as well as the need for a sustainable ELF perspective in education worldwide.

Keywords: Multilingualism, English Language Teaching, English as a lingua franca, language ecology

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