Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2223

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2223 Evolution of Classroom Languaging in Multilingual Contexts: Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Jabulani Sibanda, Clemence Chikiwa


This paper traces diverse language practices representative of equally diverse conceptions of language. To be dynamic with languaging practices, one needs to appreciate nuanced languaging practices, their challenges, prospects, and opportunities. The paper presents what we envision as three major conceptions of language that give impetus to diverse language practices. It examines theoretical models of the bilingual mental lexicon and how they inform language practices. The paper explores classroom languaging practices that have been promulgated and experimented with. The paper advocates the deployment of multisensory semiotic systems to complement linguistic classroom communication and the acknowledgement of learners’ linguistic and semiotic resources as valid in the learning enterprise. It recommends the enactment of specific clauses on language in education policies and curriculum documents that empower classroom interactants to exercise discretion in languaging practices.

Keywords: languaging, monolingual, multilingual, semiotic and linguistic repertoire

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2222 Rhythmic Sound: Presence and Significance: A Study of the Yue Drum Used in the Han Chinese Shigong Ritual in Guangxi, China

Authors: Li-Jun Zheng


The use of drums as an accompanying instrument is a common phenomenon in traditional Chinese folk rituals and musical culture. Especially, some folk rituals construct ritual-related sounds and give them ritual-specific symbolic and meaningful systems through the combination and use of multiple percussion instruments. The Yue drum(岳鼓), an asymmetrically shaped thin waist drum, is currently used in Han Chinese Shigong(师公)rituals in Guangxi, China, and is an important ritual instrument in Shigong rituals. This paper examines the use of the Yue drum and other percussion instruments in Han Chinese Shigong rituals in Guangxi, China, and shows the current status of combining instrumental accompaniment forms with human voices in Shigong rituals. Through further analysis of the musical and dance forms of Han Chinese Shigong rituals, this paper shows how Han Chinese Shigong ritual performers construct the ritual field through "sound-human-dance" and further explains the relationship between the existing and fictitious performance fields in the rituals. In addition, this paper demonstrates the relationship between Han Chinese Shigong rituals and the religious beliefs they involve, such as Taoism and Buddhism. And it further explores how performers in Han Chinese Shigong rituals use Yue drums for the dual purpose of "entertaining the gods" and "entertaining the people".

Keywords: sound research, the Han Chinese Shigong ritual, the thin waist drum, folk beliefs, ritual music

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2221 Morphosyntactic Abilities in Speakers with Broca’s Aphasia: A Preliminary Examination

Authors: Mile Vuković, Lana Jerkić Rajić


Introduction: Broca's aphasia is a non-fluent type of aphasic syndrome, which is primarily manifested by impairment of language production. In connected speech, patients with this type of aphasia produce short sentences in which they often omit function words and morphemes or choose inadequate forms. Aim: This research was conducted to examine the morphosyntactic abilities of people with Broca's aphasia, comparing them with neurologically healthy subjects without a language disorder. Method: The sample included 15 patients with Broca's post-stroke aphasia, who had the relatively intact ability of auditory comprehension. The diagnosis of aphasia was based on the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. The control group comprised 16 neurologically healthy subjects without data on the presence of disorders in speech and language development. The patients' mother tongue was Serbian. The new Serbian Morphosyntactic Abilities Test (SMAT) was used. Descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean, SD, min, max) and inferential (Mann-Whitney U-test) statistics were used in data processing. Results: We noticed statistically significant differences between people with Broca's aphasia and neurotypical subjects on the SMAT (U = 1.500, z = -4.982, p = 0.000). The results showed that people with Broca's aphasia had achieved low scores on the SMAT, regardless of age (ρ = -0.045, p = 0.873) and time post onset (ρ = 0.330, p = 0.229). Conclusion: Preliminary results show that the SMAT has the potential to detect morphosyntactic deficits in Serbian speakers with Broca's aphasia.

Keywords: Broca’s aphasia, morphosyntactic abilities, agrammatism, Serbian language

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2220 Beyond Replicating Linguistic Elements: Novel Concept Combinations in Multilingual Children

Authors: Xiao-lei Wang


The Novel Concept Combination (NCC) refers to the unique ability of multilingual children to creatively merge and integrate different linguistic and cultural elements to form innovative and original concepts. Children raised with more than one language often exhibit this skill in their daily communication, such as creating innovative metaphors that enrich their communication, showcasing their creativity in conveying the essence of their messages. This paper explores NCC abilities in multilingual children by focusing on two male trilingual siblings exposed to Chinese, French, and English from birth. The siblings were observed for 19 years in their daily context. Seventy-six hours of video-recorded data were used for this study (38 hours for each participant). A coding scheme developed by Wang et al. was employed to code the recorded data. The results suggest that these multilingual siblings proportionally increased their NCC skills over the years, emerging at age 3 and peaking at age 15. The characteristic of their NCC lies in their capacity to not merely replicate linguistic elements of different languages but to recreate, reshape, and reconstruct novel ideas in communication, enriching their interactions. The paper also addresses the educational implications for educators and parents, emphasizing the importance of valuing these novel ideas in everyday environments to encourage NCC development. This, in turn, contributes to cognitive and social development.

Keywords: multilingual children, novel concept combination, multilingual creativity, linguistic richness

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2219 A Modest Proposal for Deep-Sixing Propositions in the Philosophy of Language

Authors: Patrick Duffley


Hanks (2021) identifies three Frege-inspired commitments concerning propositions that are widely shared across the philosophy of language: (1) propositions are the primary, inherent bearers of representational properties and truth-conditions; (2) propositions are neutral representations possessing a ‘content’ that is devoid of ‘force; (3) propositions can be entertained or expressed without being asserted. Hanks then argues that the postulate of neutral content must be abandoned, and the primary bearers of truth-evaluable representation must be identified as the token acts of assertoric predication that people perform when they are thinking or speaking about the world. Propositions are ‘types of acts of predication, which derive their representational features from their tokens.’ Their role is that of ‘classificatory devices that we use for the purposes of identifying and individuating mental states and speech acts,’ so that ‘to say that Russell believes that Mont Blanc is over 4000 meters high is to classify Russell’s mental state under a certain type, and thereby distinguish that mental state from others that Russell might possess.’ It is argued in this paper that there is no need to classify an utterance of 'Russell believes that Mont Blanc is over 4000 meters high' as a token of some higher-order utterance-type in order to identify what Russell believes; the meanings of the words themselves and the syntactico-semantic relations between them are sufficient. In our view what Hanks has accomplished in effect is to build a convincing argument for dispensing with propositions completely in the philosophy of language. By divesting propositions of the role of being the primary bearers of representational properties and truth-conditions and fittingly transferring this role to the token acts of predication that people perform when they are thinking or speaking about the world, he has situated truth in its proper place and obviated any need for abstractions like propositions to explain how language can express things that are true. This leaves propositions with the extremely modest role of classifying mental states and speech acts for the purposes of identifying and individuating them. It is demonstrated here however that there is no need whatsoever to posit such abstract entities to explain how people identify and individuate such states/acts. We therefore make the modest proposal that the term ‘proposition’ be stricken from the vocabulary of philosophers of language.

Keywords: propositions, truth-conditions, predication, Frege, truth-bearers

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2218 Investigation of the Influencing Factors of Functional Communication Assessment for Adults with Aphasia

Authors: Yun-Ching Tu, Yu-Chun Chih


People with aphasia (PWA) may have communicative difficulties in their daily lives, but research on functional communication in aphasia is still limited in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of aphasia-related factors on functional communication assessment. Thirty aphasic participants participated in the study. The results showed that the non-fluent aphasia group performed significantly worse than the fluent aphasia group. In addition, patients with severe aphasia performed significantly lower scores than patients with moderate aphasia and mild aphasia. However, group differences in the chronic stage and acute stage were not significant. In sum, since communication in daily life is diverse and language is still needed in the communication process, patients with aphasia who have better language ability may have relatively better functional communication. In contrast, the more severely impaired the language ability of a patient with aphasia is, the more functional communication will be affected, resulting in poor communication performance in daily life.

Keywords: adult, aphasia, assessment, functional communication

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2217 Protective Effect of Herniarin on Ionizing Radiation-Induced Impairments in Brain

Authors: Sophio Kalmakhelidze, Eka Shekiladze, Tamar Sanikidze, Mikheil Gogebashvili, Nazi Ivanishvili


Radiation-induced various degrees of brain injury and cognitive impairment have been described after cranial radiotherapy of brain tumors. High doses of ionizing radiation have a severe impact on the central nervous system, resulting in morphological and behavioral impairments. Structures of the limbic system are especially sensitive to radiation exposure. Hence, compounds or drugs that can reduce radiation-induced impairments can be used as promising antioxidants or radioprotectors. In our study Mice whole-body irradiation with 137Cs was performed at a dose rate of 1,1 Gy/min for a total dose of 5 Gy with a “Gamma-capsule-2”. Irradiated mice were treated with Herniarin (20 mg/kg) for five days before irradiation and the same dose was administrated after one hour of irradiation. The immediate and delayed effects of ionizing radiation, as well as, protective effect of Herniarin was evaluated during early and late post-irradiation periods. The results reveal that ionizing radiation (5 Gy) alters the structure of the hippocampus in adult mice during the late post-irradiation period resulting in the decline of memory formation and learning process. Furthermore, Simple Coumarin-Herniarin reveals a radiosensitizing effect reducing morphological and behavioral alterations.

Keywords: ionizing radiation, cognitive impairments, hippocampus, limbic system, Herniarin

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2216 Investigating (Im)Politeness Strategies in Email Communication: The Case Algerian PhD Supervisees and Irish Supervisors

Authors: Zehor Ktitni


In pragmatics, politeness is regarded as a feature of paramount importance to successful interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, emails have recently become one of the indispensable means of communication in educational settings. This research puts email communication at the core of the study and analyses it from a politeness perspective. More specifically, it endeavours to look closely at how the concept of (im)politeness is reflected through students’ emails. To this end, a corpus of Algerian supervisees’ email threads, exchanged with their Irish supervisors, was compiled. Leech’s model of politeness (2014) was selected as the main theoretical framework of this study, in addition to making reference to Brown and Levinson’s model (1987) as it is one of the most influential models in the area of pragmatic politeness. Further, some follow-up interviews are to be conducted with Algerian students to reinforce the results derived from the corpus. Initial findings suggest that Algerian Ph.D. students’ emails tend to include more politeness markers than impoliteness ones, they heavily make use of academic titles when addressing their supervisors (Dr. or Prof.), and they rely on hedging devices in order to sound polite.

Keywords: politeness, email communication, corpus pragmatics, Algerian PhD supervisees, Irish supervisors

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2215 A Study of a Diachronic Relationship Between Two Weak Inflection Classes in Norwegian, with Emphasis on Unexpected Productivity

Authors: Emilija Tribocka


This study is concerned with the diachronic relationship between two inflection classes of the weak verbs in Norwegian dialects, the a-class (e.g., the paradigm of ‘throw’: kast-a – kast-a(r) – kast-a – kast-a) and the e-class (e.g., the paradigm of ‘buy’: kjøp-e – kjøp-e(r) – kjøp-te – kjøp-t). The main emphasis lies on a theoretically unexpected spread of the e-class at the expense of the a-class, mostly in Southwestern dialects of Norway. This is unexpected due to several reasons: 1) Commonly, it is expected that the most type frequent patterns will be extended. However, the e-class was a minor class in the ancestor language Old Norse and still is for many speakers of Norwegian. 2) There seems to be no extramorphological factors motivating the inflection class shift, at least not for most verbs. 3) The spread of the e-class inflection yields phonotactically “unnatural” forms such as elsk-te instead of elsk-a, preterit of elska ‘love’. 4) The e-class inflection often spreads to the preterit and the supine only, e.g., lik-a – lik-a(r) – lik-te – lik-t, in this way giving rise to a new inflection class, the so-called mixed inflection. Because this new class combines inflection affixes from the a-class and the e-class in one paradigm, it makes the inflectional system more “blurred” and less predictable. The aim of this study is to explore how different factors might have contributed to the theoretically unexpected spread of the e-class inflection. The factors that will be examined are as follows: 1) the restrictions for the extension of the e-class inflection posed by the phonological form; 2) the role of token frequency; 3) the role of historical developments (e.g., sound change); 4) the dialect-specific conditions (e.g., homonymy of the present and the preterit created by regular sound change). The empirical data will largely consist of the inflection information of over 30 verbs collected from a variety of Modern Norwegian dialects. This material will be analyzed in accordance with the factors mentioned above and compared to the inflection found in Old Norse and Middle Norwegian. The empirical data for the historical language stages will be gathered from dictionaries and several texts written during the relevant period. By examining this theoretically unexpected inflection class shift, the study will contribute to a greater understanding of language change. The aim is to shed new light on why some inflection patterns become productive unexpectedly, when type frequency and extramorphological factors are not involved. The study will also investigate several related questions and concepts such as directionality of the class shift, i.e., how the inflectional affixes spread in terms of paradigm members; the structure of the inflection paradigm; the consequences of the inflection class shift for overall complexity of the morphological system; and the relationship between morphology and phonology.

Keywords: inflection class, productivity, token frequency, morphological complexity

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2214 Cancerous Mass Segmentation Using Heterogeneous Datasets in Computer-Aided Diagnosis

Authors: Giuseppe Cuccu, Jonas Fontana, Christophe Broillet, Somayeh Danafar, Philippe Cudré-Mauroux


Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can help radiologists detect malignant cancerous masses at earlier stages, drastically improving patient prospects. Beyond detection, predictions, including mass segmentation, are easier to validate for the radiologist while extending their support to delicate, invasive techniques such as biopsies. Neural network models for segmentation applications, however, are significantly larger than basic identification and classification tasks, as they need to retain precise pixel-wise information. This only compounds the data scarcity problem that afflicts all medical imaging applications: available data typically comes in the form of small, diverse, and incompatible datasets, limiting the applicability of techniques based on traditional methods such as (sequential) transfer learning and multitask learning. The Typhon meta-learning framework overcomes such limitations by leveraging multiple heterogeneous datasets in the training of a single, highly generic model through an application of parallel transfer. Previous work, however, comes short of scaling this approach to the larger models required in complex applications such as cancerous mass segmentation. This paper adapts and extends the Typhon framework to use a new and significantly larger model trained on a new set of datasets. We present new state-of-the-art results on the challenging UDIAT tumor segmentation dataset, improving in F1-Score (Dice) by 10% and in IoU (Jaccard Index) by 11%.

Keywords: cancerous mass segmentation, computer-aided diagnosis, deep learning, meta learning, parallel transfer learning

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2213 Multi-Generational Analysis of Perception and Acceptance of Mental Illnesses: Current Indian Context

Authors: Anvi Kumar


This paper explores the attitudes and awareness of multiple generations ranging from Boomers I to GenZ (i.e. from 1954 to 2012) towards mental health issues. A convenient sample of 191 people was gathered in India aged 11-77. 20 people each were considered from 5 generational cohorts, namely- Boomers I, Boomers II, Gen X, Millennials, and Gen Z. The study tool comprised a survey that included demographic questions and the Community Attitude towards Mental Illness (CAMI) scale by Taylor & Dear (1981). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Bonferonni’s post-hoc analysis have been used to perform the analysis. The findings reveal that the level of kindness towards those who struggle with mental health varies through certain age groups. An overall sense of exclusion of those struggling with mental health is prevalent among all age groups. GenZ’s awareness of mental health issues is primarily via social media, as against the rest of the generations seeking it from close relatives and friends. The study’s findings suggest a need to investigate further the quality of mental health knowledge content and its consumption pattern. Understanding the dynamics of information sharing and the potential for biases requires further discovery.

Keywords: attitude, behaviour, mental illness, Gen Z, millennials, Gen Y, multi-generations, generational differences

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2212 Speech Community and Social Language Codes: A Sociolinguistic Study of Mampruli-English Codeswitching in Nalerigu, Ghana

Authors: Gertrude Yidanpoa Grumah


Ghana boasts of a rich linguistic diversity, with around eighty-seven indigenous languages coexisting with English, the official language. Within this multilingual environment, speech communities adopt bilingual code choices as a common practice, as people seamlessly switch between Ghanaian languages and English. Extensive research has delved into this phenomenon from various perspectives, including the role of bilingual code choices in teaching, its implications for language policy, and its significance in multilingual communities. Yet, a noticeable gap in the literature persists, with most studies focusing on codeswitching between English and the major southern Ghanaian languages like Twi, Ga, and Ewe. The intricate dynamics of codeswitching with minority indigenous languages, such as Mampruli spoken in northern Ghana, remain largely unexplored. This thesis embarks on an investigation into Mampruli-English codeswitching, delving into the linguistic practices of educated Mampruli speakers. The data collection methods encompass interviews, recorded radio programs, and ethnographic observation. The analytical framework employed draws upon the Ethnography of Communication, with observation notes and transcribed interviews thoughtfully classified into discernible themes. The research findings suggest that a bilingual's tendency to switch from Mampruli to English is significantly influenced by factors such as the level of education, age, gender, perceptions of language prestige, and religious beliefs. In essence, this study represents a pioneering endeavor, marking the first comprehensive study on codeswitching practices within the Mampruli-English context and making a significant contribution to our understanding of Mampruli linguistics, covering the social language codes reflecting the speech community. In a region where such research has been scarce for the past four decades, this study addresses a critical knowledge gap, shedding light on the intricate dynamics of language use in northern Ghana.

Keywords: codeswitching, English, ethnography of communication, Mampruli, sociolinguistics

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2211 Facilitating Active Reading Strategies through Caps Chart to Foster Elementary EFL Learners’ Reading Skills and Reading Competency

Authors: Michelle Bulawan, Mei-Hua Chen


Reading comprehension is crucial for acquiring information, analyzing critically, and achieving academic proficiency. However, there is a lack of growth in reading comprehension skills beyond fourth grade. The developmental shift from "learning to read" to "reading to learn" occurs around this stage. Factual knowledge and diverse views in articles enhance reading comprehension abilities. Nevertheless, some face difficulties due to evolving textual requirements, such as expanding vocabulary and using longer, more complex terminology. Most research on reading strategies has been conducted at the tertiary and secondary levels, while few have focused on the elementary levels. Furthermore, the use of character, ask, problem, solution (CAPS) charts in teaching reading has also been hardly explored. Thus, the researcher decided to explore the facilitation of active reading strategies through the CAPS chart and address the following research questions: a) What differences existed in elementary EFL learners' reading competency among those who engaged in active reading strategies and those who did not? b) What are the learners’ metacognitive skills of those who engage in active reading strategies and those who do not, and what are their effects on their reading competency? c) For those participants who engage in active reading activities, what are their perceptions about incorporating active reading activities into their English classroom learning? Two groups of elementary EFL learners, each with 18 students of the same level of English proficiency, participated in this study. Group A served as the control group, while Group B served as the experimental group. Two teachers also participated in this research; one of them was the researcher who handled the experimental group. The treatment lasts for one whole semester or seventeen weeks. In addition to the CAPS chart, the researcher also used the metacognitive awareness of reading strategy inventory (MARSI) and a ten-item, five-point Likert scale survey.

Keywords: active reading, EFL learners, metacognitive skills, reading competency, student’s perception

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2210 Selection Criteria in the Spanish Secondary Education Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes and Their Effect on Code-Switching in CLIL Methodology

Authors: Dembele Dembele, Philippe


Several Second Language Acquisition (SLA) studies have stressed the benefits of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and shown how CLIL students outperformed their non-CLIL counterparts in many L2 skills. However, numerous experimental CLIL programs seem to have mainly targeted above-average and rather highly motivated language learners. The need to understand the impact of the student’s language proficiency on code-switching in CLIL instruction motivated this study. Therefore, determining the implications of the students’ low-language proficiency for CLIL methodology, as well as the frequency with which CLIL teachers use the main pedagogical functions of code-switching, seemed crucial for a Spanish CLIL instruction on a large scale. In the mixed-method approach adopted, ten face-to-face interviews were conducted in nine Valencian public secondary education schools, while over 30 CLIL teachers also contributed with their experience in two online survey questionnaires. The results showed the crucial role language proficiency plays in the Valencian CLIL/Plurilingual selection criteria. The presence of a substantial number of low-language proficient students in CLIL groups, which in turn implied important methodological consequences, was another finding of the study. Indeed, though the pedagogical use of L1 was confirmed as an extended practice among CLIL teachers, more than half of the participants perceived that code-switching impaired attaining their CLIL lesson objectives. Therein, the dissertation highlights the need for more extensive empirical research on how code-switching could prove beneficial in CLIL instruction involving low-language proficient students while maintaining the maximum possible exposure to the target language.

Keywords: CLIL methodology, low language proficiency, code switching, selection criteria, code-switching functions

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2209 Deep Learning Based-Object-classes Semantic Classification of Arabic Texts

Authors: Imen Elleuch, Wael Ouarda, Gargouri Bilel


We proposes in this paper a Deep Learning based approach to classify text in order to enrich an Arabic ontology based on the objects classes of Gaston Gross. Those object classes are defined by taking into account the syntactic and semantic features of the treated language. Thus, our proposed approach is a hybrid one. In fact, it is based on the one hand on the object classes that represents a knowledge based-approach on classification of text and in the other hand it uses the deep learning approach that use the word embedding-based-approach to classify text. We have applied our proposed approach on a corpus constructed from an Arabic dictionary. The obtained semantic classification of text will enrich the Arabic objects classes ontology. In fact, new classes can be added to the ontology or an expansion of the features that characterizes each object class can be updated. The obtained results are compared to a similar work that treats the same object with a classical linguistic approach for the semantic classification of text. This comparison highlight our hybrid proposed approach that can be ameliorated by broaden the dataset used in the deep learning process.

Keywords: deep-learning approach, object-classes, semantic classification, Arabic

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2208 An Exploration of Promoting EFL Students’ Language Learning Autonomy Using Multimodal Teaching - A Case Study of an Art University in Western China

Authors: Dian Guan


With the wide application of multimedia and the Internet, the development of teaching theories, and the implementation of teaching reforms, many different university English classroom teaching modes have emerged. The university English teaching mode is changing from the traditional teaching mode based on conversation and text to the multimodal English teaching mode containing discussion, pictures, audio, film, etc. Applying university English teaching models is conducive to cultivating lifelong learning skills. In addition, lifelong learning skills can also be called learners' autonomous learning skills. Learners' independent learning ability has a significant impact on English learning. However, many university students, especially art and design students, don't know how to learn individually. When they become university students, their English foundation is a relative deficiency because they always remember the language in a traditional way, which, to a certain extent, neglects the cultivation of English learners' independent ability. As a result, the autonomous learning ability of most university students is not satisfactory. The participants in this study were 60 students and one teacher in their first year at a university in western China. Two observations and interviews were conducted inside and outside the classroom to understand the impact of a multimodal teaching model of university English on students' autonomous learning ability. The results were analyzed, and it was found that the multimodal teaching model of university English significantly affected learners' autonomy. Incorporating classroom presentations and poster exhibitions into multimodal teaching can increase learners' interest in learning and enhance their learning ability outside the classroom. However, further exploration is needed to develop multimodal teaching materials and evaluate multimodal teaching outcomes. Despite the limitations of this study, the study adopts a scientific research method to analyze the impact of the multimodal teaching mode of university English on students' independent learning ability. It puts forward a different outlook for further research on this topic.

Keywords: art university, EFL education, learner autonomy, multimodal pedagogy

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2207 British Aristocratic Irony on Screen: Subtitling Shifts in Downton Abbey

Authors: Nahed Almutairi


The subtitling process for period dramas implies a set of linguistic challenges. Audio-visual (AV) texts in this genre weave a rich tapestry of verbal irony blended with humor. The famous TV series Downtown Abbey contains such irony as one of the British aristocracy's linguistic markers. This study aims to examine subtitling strategies utilized in rendering such verbal irony. To counteract the negative postulated by Berman with the positive shifts, a qualitative analysis is conducted to examine the impact of the presence and absence of negative deforming tendencies in the Arabic subtitles of the first season of the British drama. This research is significant because it contributes to the discipline of translation studies, specifically the realm of AV translation. It seeks to provide a set of guidelines for optimal subtitling strategies that maintain the stylistic peculiarities of a social class that don’t exist in the target culture while also considering the practical aspects of translating subtitles. The findings indicate that negative shifts in the use of ironic expressions distort not only the stylistic elements of British aristocracy's utterances but also result in a loss of the intended meaning. This implies that what Berman’s model identifies as negative is also perceived as negative linguistic shifts in the Arabic subtitles of the British aristocracy’s verbal irony.

Keywords: Downton Abbey, deforming tendencies, berman, subtitling shifts, verbal irony

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2206 Cultural Adaptation of Foreign Students in Vienna, A Sociolinguistic Case Study of Iranian Students in Vienna

Authors: Roshanak Nouralian


The primary focus of my Ph.D. dissertation revolves around the interconnection between language and culture, as well as the crucial role that language plays in facilitating communication and fostering integration within the host society for immigrants. This research specifically focuses on Iranian students studying at various universities in Vienna. Throughout this study, I have attempted to examine and analyze their challenges in various life situations in Austria. The broad dimensions of the research question led the research process to apply a constructivist grounded theory strategy. I have also used critical discourse analysis that is in line with constructivist GT's point of view to look closely at the borders, contradictions, and inequalities that came up in the participants' real-life experiences. Data from individual interviews and group discussions have expanded the research trajectory beyond disciplinary boundaries toward a transdisciplinary approach. The research findings indicate how the language policy of the host society leads to the establishment of power relationships and the arousal of a sense of cultural dominance among the research participants. This study investigates the problems experienced by participants in their daily interactions within the host society. Additionally, the results illustrate the development of a dependency relationship between participants and their host society despite linguistic policies that cause a sense of cultural hegemony. Conversely, the obtained data allowed me to examine the participants' language ideologies. The findings of this study show that social linguistics has the potential to go beyond the boundaries of its field. This is possible by using a variety of research strategies and analyzing people's real-life experiences to find out how language affects different parts of their daily lives. Therefore, in this conference, discussing the logic of employing a constructivist GT strategy along with critical discourse analysis (CDA) in this research, I intend to discuss the achieved results.

Keywords: cultural adapttaion, language policy, language ideology, cultural hegemony, transdisciplinary research, constructivist grounded theory, critical discourse analysis

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2205 Poetic Music by the Poet, Commander of the Faithful, Muhammad Bello: Prosodical Study

Authors: Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto


The Commander of the Faithful, Muhammad Bello, is considered one of the most distinguished scholars and poetic geniuses who is famous for reciting poetry in the classical vertical style. He is also represented by pre-Islamic poets such as Imru’ al-Qays and Alqamah and among the Islamists such as Hassan bin Thabit, Amr bin Abi Rabi’ah, and others. The poet drew from the seas of the Arabic language and its styles at the hands of His father, Sheikh Othman Bin Fodio, and his uncle, Sheikh Abdullah Bin Fodio, are both things that made Muhammad Bello conversant with the Arabic language until he was able to write poetry in a beautiful format and good style. The Commander of the Faithful, Muhammad Bello, did not deviate from what the Arabs know of poetic elements, such as taking into account its meanings and music; Muhammadu Bello has used every Bahr of prosody and its technicals in many of his poems. This article prepares the reader for the efforts made by the poet Muhammad Bello in composing poems on poetic seas, taking into account musical tones for different purposes according to his desire. The article will also discuss the poet’s talent, skill, and eloquence.

Keywords: music, Muhammad Bello, poetry, performances

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2204 Hand Symbol Recognition Using Canny Edge Algorithm and Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Harshit Mittal, Neeraj Garg


Hand symbol recognition is a pivotal component in the domain of computer vision, with far-reaching applications spanning sign language interpretation, human-computer interaction, and accessibility. This research paper discusses the approach with the integration of the Canny Edge algorithm and convolutional neural network. The significance of this study lies in its potential to enhance communication and accessibility for individuals with hearing impairments or those engaged in gesture-based interactions with technology. In the experiment mentioned, the data is manually collected by the authors from the webcam using Python codes, to increase the dataset augmentation, is applied to original images, which makes the model more compatible and advanced. Further, the dataset of about 6000 coloured images distributed equally in 5 classes (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) are pre-processed first to gray images and then by the Canny Edge algorithm with threshold 1 and 2 as 150 each. After successful data building, this data is trained on the Convolutional Neural Network model, giving accuracy: 0.97834, precision: 0.97841, recall: 0.9783, and F1 score: 0.97832. For user purposes, a block of codes is built in Python to enable a window for hand symbol recognition. This research, at its core, seeks to advance the field of computer vision by providing an advanced perspective on hand sign recognition. By leveraging the capabilities of the Canny Edge algorithm and convolutional neural network, this study contributes to the ongoing efforts to create more accurate, efficient, and accessible solutions for individuals with diverse communication needs.

Keywords: hand symbol recognition, computer vision, Canny edge algorithm, convolutional neural network

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2203 Subtitled Based-Approach for Learning Foreign Arabic Language

Authors: Elleuch Imen


In this paper, it propose a new approach for learning Arabic as a foreign language via audio-visual translation, particularly subtitling. The approach consists of developing video sequences appropriate to different levels of learning (from A1 to C2) containing conversations, quizzes, games and others. Each video aims to achieve a specific objective, such as the correct pronunciation of Arabic words, the correct syntactic structuring of Arabic sentences, the recognition of the morphological characteristics of terms and the semantic understanding of statements. The subtitled videos obtained can be incorporated into different Arabic second language learning tools such as Moocs, websites, platforms, etc.

Keywords: arabic foreign language, learning, audio-visuel translation, subtitled videos

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2202 Interlingual Interference in Students’ Writing

Authors: Zakaria Khatraoui


Interlanguage has transcendentally capitalized its central role over a considerable metropolitan landscape. Either academically driven or pedagogically oriented, Interlanguage has principally floated as important than ever before. It academically probes theoretical and linguistic issues in the turf and further malleably flows from idea to reality to vindicate a bridging philosophy between theory and educational rehearsal. Characteristically, the present research grants a prolifically developed theoretical framework that is conversely sustained by empirical teaching practices, along with teasing apart the narrowly confined implementation. The focus of this interlingual study is placed stridently on syntactic errors projected in students’ writing as performance. To attain this endeavor, the paper appropriates qualitatively a plethora of focal methodological choices sponsored by a solid design. The steadily undeniable ipso facto to be examined is the creative sense of syntactic errors unequivocally endorsed by the tangible dominance of cognitively intralingual errors over linguistically interlingual ones. Subsequently, this paper attempts earnestly to highlight transferable implications worth indicating both theoretical and pedagogically professional principles. In particular, results are fundamentally relative to the scholarly community in a multidimensional sense to recommend actions of educational value.

Keywords: interlanguage, interference, error, writing

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2201 Tracing the Evolution of English and Urdu Languages: A Linguistic and Cultural Analysis

Authors: Aamna Zafar


Through linguistic and cultural analysis, this study seeks to trace the development of the English and Urdu languages. Along with examining how the vocabulary and syntax of English and Urdu have evolved over time and the linguistic trends that may be seen in these changes, this study will also look at the historical and cultural influences that have shaped the languages throughout time. The study will also look at how English and Urdu have changed over time, both in terms of language use and communication inside each other's cultures and globally. We'll research how these changes affect social relations and cultural identity, as well as how they might affect the future of these languages.

Keywords: linguistic and cultural analysis, historical factors, cultural factors, vocabulary, syntax, significance

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2200 Role of Speech Articulation in English Language Learning

Authors: Khadija Rafi, Neha Jamil, Laiba Khalid, Meerub Nawaz, Mahwish Farooq


Speech articulation is a complex process to produce intelligible sounds with the help of precise movements of various structures within the vocal tract. All these structures in the vocal tract are named as articulators, which comprise lips, teeth, tongue, and palate. These articulators work together to produce a range of distinct phonemes, which happen to be the basis of language. It starts with the airstream from the lungs passing through the trachea and into oral and nasal cavities. When the air passes through the mouth, the tongue and the muscles around it form such coordination it creates certain sounds. It can be seen when the tongue is placed in different positions- sometimes near the alveolar ridge, soft palate, roof of the mouth or the back of the teeth which end up creating unique qualities of each phoneme. We can articulate vowels with open vocal tracts, but the height and position of the tongue is different every time depending upon each vowel, while consonants can be pronounced when we create obstructions in the airflow. For instance, the alphabet ‘b’ is a plosive and can be produced only by briefly closing the lips. Articulation disorders can not only affect communication but can also be a hurdle in speech production. To improve articulation skills for such individuals, doctors often recommend speech therapy, which involves various kinds of exercises like jaw exercises and tongue twisters. However, this disorder is more common in children who are going through developmental articulation issues right after birth, but in adults, it can be caused by injury, neurological conditions, or other speech-related disorders. In short, speech articulation is an essential aspect of productive communication, which also includes coordination of the specific articulators to produce different intelligible sounds, which are a vital part of spoken language.

Keywords: linguistics, speech articulation, speech therapy, language learning

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2199 The Battle between French and English in the Algerian University: Ideological and Pedagogical Stakes

Authors: Taoufik Djennane


Algeria is characterized by a fragmented language education policy. While pre-university education is entirely conducted in Arabic, higher education remains linguistically divided, with some fields offered in Arabic and others exclusively based on French. Within this linguistic policy, English remains far behind French. However, there has been a significant shift in the state’s linguistic orientation since the social riot of March 2019, known as El-Hirak, which ousted away the ex-president. Since then, social calls were voiced to get rid of French, and English started to receive an unprecedented political push. The historical decision only came at the beginning of the academic year 2023-2024 when the ministry of higher education imposed English as medium of instruction (hereafter EMI), especially in scientific and technological fields. As such, this paper considered this abrupt switch in the medium of instruction and its effects on the community of teachers. Building on a socio-psychological approach, teachers’ attitudes towards EMI were measured. Data were collected using classroom observation, semi-structured interviews and a survey. The results showed that a clear majority of teachers hold negative attitudes towards EMI. The point is that they are linguistically incompetent, and they are not ready yet to deliver content subjects in a language they have no, or little, command of. The study showed the importance of considering attitudes in the ‘policy-formation’ stage before the ‘implementation’ stage. The findings also proved that teachers are not passive bystanders; they can rather be the final arbiters imposing themselves as policy-makers resisting ministerial instructions through their linguistic practices inside the classroom which only acknowledge French. The study showed the necessity to avoid sudden switch and opt for gradual change, without putting aside those who are directly concerned with political/pedagogical measures (teachers, learners, etc).

Keywords: micro planning, EMI, language education policy, agency

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2198 Translation Training in the AI Era

Authors: Min Gao


In the past year, the advent of large language models (LLMs) has brought about a revolution in the language service industry, making it possible to efficiently produce more satisfactory and higher-quality translations. This is groundbreaking news for commercial companies involved in language services since much of a translator's work can now be completed by machines. However, it may be bad news for universities that provide translation training programs. They need to confront the challenges posed by AI in education by reconsidering issues such as the reform of traditional teaching methods, the translation ethics of students, and the new demands of the job market for their graduates. This article is an exploratory study of these issues based on the author's experiences in translation teaching. The research combines methods in the form of questionnaires and interviews. The findings include: (1) students may lose their motivation to learn in the AI era, but this can be compensated for by encouragement from the lecturer; (2) Translation ethics are not a serious problem in schools, considering the strict policies and regulations in place; (3) The role of translators has evolved in the new era, necessitating a reform of the traditional teaching methods.

Keywords: job market of translation, large language model, translation ethics, translation training

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2197 Leveraging Deep Learning for the Reconstruction of Plant Hyperspectral Data from RGB Images

Authors: Serge Sarkis, Ibrahim Issa, Dany Abou Jaoude, Salma Talhouk


Hyperspectral imaging is an important tool used in plant health assessment. Crucially, it allows for early detection of plant stress prior to the onset of visual symptoms, which allows for timely intervention and thus improved conservation efforts. However, hyperspectral cameras are very expensive and thus not commonly used. To mitigate this issue, the problem of reconstructing plant hyperspectral data from RGB images is investigated. There are many studies on hyperspectral image reconstruction from RGB images. The work herein differs from the literature in two main ways: 1) existing works are limited to the spectrum reconstruction in the visible range, whereas both the visible range and the near-infrared range (relevant to plant health) are considered here; and 2) existing works design ``generic'' models to reconstruct the hyperspectral image of any input, whereas the focus here is solely on images of vegetation. It is hypothesised that training on a specific material (i.e., vegetation) allows a less complex model to generalize well, even with a relatively small training dataset. To that end, the HSCNN-D model (winner of the NTIRE 2018 competition) is adopted, simplified (in terms of numbers of layers), and trained on a small dataset of vegetation images to predict the hyperspectral image in the full 400 - 1000 nm range. Despite being much smaller than the 2018 model, it is shown that the simplified model has comparable performance to state-of-the-art models on images of vegetation.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, plant health, deep learning, Near-infrared

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2196 Modeling Visual Memorability Assessment with Autoencoders Reveals Characteristics of Memorable Images

Authors: Elham Bagheri, Yalda Mohsenzadeh


Image memorability refers to the phenomenon where certain images are more likely to be remembered by humans than others. It is a quantifiable and intrinsic attribute of an image. Understanding how visual perception and memory interact is important in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. It reveals the complex processes that support human cognition and helps to improve machine learning algorithms by mimicking the brain's efficient data processing and storage mechanisms. To explore the computational underpinnings of image memorability, this study examines the relationship between an image's reconstruction error, distinctiveness in latent space, and its memorability score. A trained autoencoder is used to replicate human-like memorability assessment inspired by the visual memory game employed in memorability estimations. This study leverages a VGG-based autoencoder that is pre-trained on the vast ImageNet dataset, enabling it to recognize patterns and features that are common to a wide and diverse range of images. An empirical analysis is conducted using the MemCat dataset, which includes 10,000 images from five broad categories: animals, sports, food, landscapes, and vehicles, along with their corresponding memorability scores. The memorability score assigned to each image represents the probability of that image being remembered by participants after a single exposure. The autoencoder is finetuned for one epoch with a batch size of one, attempting to create a scenario similar to human memorability experiments where memorability is quantified by the likelihood of an image being remembered after being seen only once. The reconstruction error, which is quantified as the difference between the original and reconstructed images, serves as a measure of how well the autoencoder has learned to represent the data. The reconstruction error of each image, the error reduction, and its distinctiveness in latent space are calculated and correlated with the memorability score. Distinctiveness is measured as the Euclidean distance between each image's latent representation and its nearest neighbor within the autoencoder's latent space. Different structural and perceptual loss functions are considered to quantify the reconstruction error. The results indicate that there is a strong correlation between the reconstruction error and the distinctiveness of images and their memorability scores. This suggests that images with more unique distinct features that challenge the autoencoder's compressive capacities are inherently more memorable. There is also a negative correlation between the reduction in reconstruction error compared to the autoencoder pre-trained on ImageNet, which suggests that highly memorable images are harder to reconstruct, probably due to having features that are more difficult to learn by the autoencoder. These insights suggest a new pathway for evaluating image memorability, which could potentially impact industries reliant on visual content and mark a step forward in merging the fields of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The current research opens avenues for utilizing neural representations as instruments for understanding and predicting visual memory.

Keywords: autoencoder, computational vision, image memorability, image reconstruction, memory retention, reconstruction error, visual perception

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2195 English Theticity and Focus Expression in Spanish Heritage Speakers

Authors: Sebastian Leal-Arenas


English uses in-situ Nuclear Stress (NS) to express the meanings of theticity and focus. The NS is phonetically represented by an increase in duration, intensity, and pitch range. On the other hand, Spanish conveys the same meanings by aligning the constituent that carries the NS to the end of the sentence via word-order movement. However, little is known about heritage speakers’ production of theticity and focus in English or Spanish. The present study investigates heritage speakers’ production of thetic and subject focus statements. Participants (n = 11) were heritage speakers of Spanish with varying proficiency enrolled in a writing course at a university in the United States. In the production task, participants observed contextualized images and uttered a sentence to answer a provided question. Duration, intensity, and F0 peak were the correlates to stress considered in this investigation. Results indicated that participants tended to present an intonation closer to what is expected in English monolinguals in subject-focus statements than in thetic sentences. However, participants with lower Spanish proficiency used in-situ NS placement in thetic statements more often than those with higher proficiency. Results are discussed in terms of the production patterns observed in heritage speakers with emphasis on the role of language dominance.

Keywords: focus, heritage speakers, prosody, theticity

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2194 Large Language Model Powered Chatbots Need End-to-End Benchmarks

Authors: Debarag Banerjee, Pooja Singh, Arjun Avadhanam, Saksham Srivastava


Autonomous conversational agents, i.e., chatbots, are becoming an increasingly common mechanism for enterprises to provide support to customers and partners. In order to rate chatbots, especially ones powered by Generative AI tools like Large Language Models (LLMs), we need to be able to accurately assess their performance. This is where chatbot benchmarking becomes important. In this paper, authors propose the use of a benchmark that they call the E2E (End to End) benchmark and show how the E2E benchmark can be used to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the answers provided by chatbots, especially ones powered by LLMs. The authors evaluate an example chatbot at different levels of sophistication based on both our E2E benchmark as well as other available metrics commonly used in the state of the art and observe that the proposed benchmark shows better results compared to others. In addition, while some metrics proved to be unpredictable, the metric associated with the E2E benchmark, which uses cosine similarity, performed well in evaluating chatbots. The performance of our best models shows that there are several benefits of using the cosine similarity score as a metric in the E2E benchmark.

Keywords: chatbot benchmarking, end-to-end (E2E) benchmarking, large language model, user centric evaluation.

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