Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1898

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1898 Forensics Linguistics and Phonetics: The Analysis of Language to Support Investigations

Authors: Andreas Aceranti, Simonetta Vernocchi, Marco Colorato, Kaoutar Filahi


This study was inspired by the necessity of giving forensic linguistics and phonetics more and more importance and the intention to explore those topics in an attempt to understand what the role of these disciplines really is in investigations of any nature. The goal is to analyze what are the achievements that those subjects have been able to reach, and what contribution they gave to the legal world; the analysis and study of those topics are supported by the recounting of real cases that have included forensic and phonetic linguistics. One of the most relevant cases is that of the Unabomber, an investigation that brought to light the importance and highlighted the importance this matter can have in difficult and time-consuming cases such as the one we have here. We also focus on the areas of expertise of those new branches of applied linguistics, focusing on what is the use of this new discipline in Italy and abroad and showing what could be the possible improvements that the Italian state could apply in order to be able to catch up with countries like Great Britain.

Keywords: forensic linguistic, forensic phonetics, investigation, criminalistics

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1897 Online Assessment in the Ligh of Resiliance

Authors: Renáta Nagy, Alexandra Csongor, Vilmos Warta


The presentation aims at eliciting insight into the results of ongoing research regarding evolving trends and attitudes towards online assessment of English and other languages. The focus pinpoints online as one of the most trending forms available during the global pandemic. The study was first initiated in 2019 in which its main target was to reveal the intriguing question of students’ and assessors’ attitudes towards online assessment. The research questions the attitudes towards the latest trends, possible online task types, and their advantages and disadvantages through an in-depth experimental process currently undergoing implementation. Material and methods include surveys, needs and wants analysis, and thorough investigations regarding candidates’ and assessors’ attitudes towards online tests in the field of languages. Over 400 respondents from more than 28 countries participated in the survey, which gives us an international and intercultural insight into how students with different cultural and educational background deal with the evolving online world. The results show the pandemic’s impact, which brought the slumbering online world of assessing roaring alive, fully operational, and now bears phenomenal relevance in today’s global education. Undeniably, the results can be used as a perspective in a vast array of contents. The survey hypothesized the generation of the 21st century expect everything readily available online, however, questions whether they are ready for this challenge are lurking in the background.

Keywords: assessment, english, intercultural, international, online, testing

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1896 Poor Proficiency of English Language among Tertiary Level Students in Bangladesh and Its Effect on Employability: An Investigation to Find Facts and Solutions

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Nahian Fyrose Fahim, Subrata Majumder, Sarker Kibria


English is unanimously recognized as the standard second language in the world, and no one can deny this fact. Many people believe that possessing English proficiency skills is the key to communicating effectively globally, especially for developing countries, which can bring further success to itself on many fronts, as well as to other countries, by ensuring its people worldwide access to education, business, and technology. Bangladesh is a developing country of about 160 million people. A notable number of students in Bangladesh are currently pursuing higher education, especially at the tertiary or collegiate level, in more than 150 public and private universities. English is the dominant linguistic medium through which college instruction and lectures are given to students in Bangladesh. However, many of our students who have only completed their primary and secondary levels of education in the Bangla medium or language are generally in an awkward position to suddenly take and complete many unfamiliar requirements by the time they enter the university as freshmen. As students, they struggle to complete at least 18 courses to acquire proficiency in English. After obtaining a tertiary education certificate, the students could then have the opportunity to acquire a sustainable position in the job market industry; however, many of them do fail, unfortunately, because of poor English proficiency skills. Our study focuses on students in both public and private universities (N=150) as well as education experts (N=30) in Bangladesh. We had prepared two sets of questionnaires that were based upon a literature review on this subject, as we had also collected data and identified the reasons, and arrived at probable solutions to overcoming these problems. After statistical analysis, the study suggested certain remedial measures that could be taken in order to increase student's proficiency in English as well as to ensure their employability potential.

Keywords: tertiary education, English language proficiency, employability, unemployment problems

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1895 Challenges for Adult English to Speakers of Other Language Learners

Authors: Halima Zaman


This paper identifies real-life challenges faced by non-English-speaking learners. The author focuses on challenges both inside and outside the classroom. A qualitative approach has been applied to conduct the study with two different groups of ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) learners. The author pays attention to the reasons behind the difficulties in controlling the learners’ focus within the classroom. Learners’ lifestyles, motivations, and previous educational backgrounds have been considered while determining the challenges they face within the classroom. Some existing challenges of teaching English to adults have been discussed in this paper; however, the primary focus is to observe those two groups of learners to identify their challenges. In this paper, the author has applied the academic knowledge of her Master of Arts in English Language teaching program to support and strengthen the observation of this case study. The paper ends with a number of recommendations that can be beneficial for newcomers to ESOL teaching and a scope of further exploratory research.

Keywords: ESOL, challenges, classroom, motivation, adult learners, teaching

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1894 Towards the Unification of Hijri Calendar: A Study in the Application of Hilal Visibility Criteria According to the Agreement of Four Religious Ministers in Southeast Asia

Authors: Abdul Mufid


This study aims to integrate hadith, astronomy, and sociology studies in studying the accelerated implementation of the unification of the Hijri calendar through a multidisciplinary approach. The Hijri calendar is compiled based on the astronomical phenomena of regular movements of the earth, moon, and sun. Meanwhile, for the implementation of worship, the Hijri calendar must refer to the provisions of Islamic law or fiqh. To set the Hijri calendar, agreement on the criteria for the visibility of the new moon (first crescent), date limits, and absolute authority is required. Agreement on visibility criteria requires a valid basis for astronomical studies. Agreement on territorial boundaries is necessary because our earth is round, and the new moon cannot be observed simultaneously. And the agreement of the authorities is also needed to resolve unavoidable differences, especially differences in the appearance of the new moon and differences in schools of thought. The research is based on astronomical data, the experiences of Indonesia and Islamic countries regarding the Hijri calendar, in-depth and focused interviews with various sources, as well as a review of hadith literature. The results of the study show that the implementation of the unification of the Hijri calendar through the three approaches above can be carried out and can be accelerated.

Keywords: calendar unification, new moon (hilal) visibility, multidisciplinary approach, the unity of the Muslims

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1893 Some Specialized Prosaic Arts of the Ancient Arabic Literature; An Introductory Analysis

Authors: Shams Ul Hussain Zaheer, Bakht Rahman, Shehla Shams, Bibi Alia


Arabic literature, from the very past, is divided into two basic parts: prose and poetry. It will not be wrong if it is said that this division of literature is found even in the era of ignorance (before-Islam). In this period, prose was given a kind of ignorance while poetry was given much significance since people showed deeper interest in its melodious impact while listening and singing as compared to prose writing. Because poetry was directly appealing to the emotions of the people, it was celebrated as universal genre and prose remained in a subordinate position due to its diction. Despite this attitude towards the genre of prose, some of the prosaic arts were orally transmitted from one generation to another during the era of ignorance. Later on, in the Omayyad and Abbasside periods, when literature was properly classified, this art was given its proper placement in the history. In this connection, there are three important aspects of this genre i.e. will, tales, and sacerdotal words. This paper traces the historical background of these categories and how they contributed to the modern understanding of literature in terms of its diction, themes, and kinds of prose writing. This is a descriptive and qualitative research which will add insight into the role these terms can play in understanding the thinking and inclination of people in the days of ignorance.

Keywords: Arabic literature, era of ignorance, prose, special arts, analysis

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1892 Cataphora in English and Chinese Conversation: A Corpus-based Contrastive Study

Authors: Jun Gao


This paper combines the corpus-based and contrastive approaches, seeking to provide a systematic account of cataphora in English and Chinese natural conversations. Based on spoken corpus data, the first part of the paper examines a range of characteristics of cataphora in the two languages, including frequency of occurrence, patterns, and syntactic features. On the basis of this exploration, cataphora in the two languages are contrasted in a structured way. The analysis shows that English and Chinese share a similar distribution of cataphora in natural conversations in terms of frequency of occurrence, with repeat identification cataphora higher than first mention cataphora and intra-sentential cataphora much higher than inter-sentential cataphora. In terms of patterns, three types are identified in English, i.e. P+N, Ø+N, and it+Clause, while in Chinese, two types are identified, i.e., P+N and Ø+N. English and Chinese are similar in terms of syntactic features, i.e., cataphor and postcedent in the intra-sentential cataphora mainly occur in the initial subject position of the same clause, with postcedent immediately followed or delayed, and cataphor and postcedent are mostly in adjacent sentences in inter-sentential cataphora. In the second part of the paper, the motivations of cataphora are investigated. It is found that cataphora is primarily motivated by the speaker and hearer’s different knowledge states with regard to the referent. Other factors are also involved, such as interference, word search, and the tension between the principles of Economy and Clarity.

Keywords: cataphora, contrastive study, motivation, pattern, syntactic features

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1891 Teachers’ Language Insecurity in English as a Second Language Instruction: Developing Effective In-Service Training

Authors: Mamiko Orii


This study reports on primary school second language teachers’ sources of language insecurity. Furthermore, it aims to develop an in-service training course to reduce anxiety and build sufficient English communication skills. Language/Linguistic insecurity refers to a lack of confidence experienced by language speakers. In particular, second language/non-native learners often experience insecurity, influencing their learning efficacy. While language learner insecurity has been well-documented, research on the insecurity of language teaching professionals is limited. Teachers’ language insecurity or anxiety in target language use may adversely affect language instruction. For example, they may avoid classroom activities requiring intensive language use. Therefore, understanding teachers’ language insecurity and providing continuing education to help teachers to improve their proficiency is vital to improve teaching quality. This study investigated Japanese primary school teachers’ language insecurity. In Japan, teachers are responsible for teaching most subjects, including English, which was recently added as compulsory. Most teachers have never been professionally trained in second language instruction during college teacher certificate preparation, leading to low confidence in English teaching. Primary source of language insecurity is a lack of confidence regarding English communication skills. Their actual use of English in classrooms remains unclear. Teachers’ classroom speech remains a neglected area requiring improvement. A more refined programme for second language teachers could be constructed if we can identify areas of need. Two questionnaires were administered to primary school teachers in Tokyo: (1) Questionnaire A: 396 teachers answered questions (using a 5-point scale) concerning classroom teaching anxiety and general English use and needs for in-service training (Summer 2021); (2) Questionnaire B: 20 teachers answered detailed questions concerning their English use (Autumn 2022). Questionnaire A’s responses showed that over 80% of teachers have significant language insecurity and anxiety, mainly when speaking English in class or teaching independently. Most teachers relied on a team-teaching partner (e.g., ALT) and avoided speaking English. Over 70% of the teachers said they would like to participate in training courses in classroom English. Questionnaire B’s results showed that teachers could use simple classroom English, such as greetings and basic instructions (e.g., stand up, repeat after me), and initiate conversation (e.g., asking questions). In contrast, teachers reported that conversations were mainly carried on in a simple question-answer style. They had difficulty continuing conversations. Responding to learners’ ‘on-the-spot’ utterances was particularly difficult. Instruction in turn-taking patterns suitable in the classroom communication context is needed. Most teachers received grammar-based instruction during their entire English education. They were predominantly exposed to displayed questions and form-focused corrective feedback. Therefore, strategies such as encouraging teachers to ask genuine questions (i.e., referential questions) and responding to students with content feedback are crucial. When learners’ utterances are incorrect or unsatisfactory, teachers should rephrase or extend (recast) them instead of offering explicit corrections. These strategies support a continuous conversational flow. These results offer benefits beyond Japan’s English as a second Language context. They will be valuable in any context where primary school teachers are underprepared but must provide English-language instruction.

Keywords: english as a second/non-native language, in-service training, primary school, teachers’ language insecurity

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1890 Artificial Neural Networks Application on Nusselt Number and Pressure Drop Prediction in Triangular Corrugated Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hany Elsaid Fawaz AbdAllah


This study presents a new artificial neural network(ANN) model to predict the Nusselt Number and pressure drop for the turbulent flow in a triangular corrugated plate heat exchanger for forced air and turbulent water flow. An experimental investigation was performed to create a new dataset for the Nusselt Number and pressure drop values in the following range of dimensionless parameters: The plate corrugation angles (from 0° to 60°), the Reynolds number (from 10000 to 40000), pitch to height ratio (from 1 to 4), and Prandtl number (from 0.7 to 200). Based on the ANN performance graph, the three-layer structure with {12-8-6} hidden neurons has been chosen. The training procedure includes back-propagation with the biases and weight adjustment, the evaluation of the loss function for the training and validation dataset and feed-forward propagation of the input parameters. The linear function was used at the output layer as the activation function, while for the hidden layers, the rectified linear unit activation function was utilized. In order to accelerate the ANN training, the loss function minimization may be achieved by the adaptive moment estimation algorithm (ADAM). The ‘‘MinMax’’ normalization approach was utilized to avoid the increase in the training time due to drastic differences in the loss function gradients with respect to the values of weights. Since the test dataset is not being used for the ANN training, a cross-validation technique is applied to the ANN network using the new data. Such procedure was repeated until loss function convergence was achieved or for 4000 epochs with a batch size of 200 points. The program code was written in Python 3.0 using open-source ANN libraries such as Scikit learn, TensorFlow and Keras libraries. The mean average percent error values of 9.4% for the Nusselt number and 8.2% for pressure drop for the ANN model have been achieved. Therefore, higher accuracy compared to the generalized correlations was achieved. The performance validation of the obtained model was based on a comparison of predicted data with the experimental results yielding excellent accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, corrugated channel, heat transfer enhancement, Nusselt number, pressure drop, generalized correlations

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1889 “Divorced Women are Like Second-Hand Clothes” - Hate Language in Media Discourse (Using the Example of Electronic Media Platforms)

Authors: Sopio Totibadze


Although the legal framework of Georgia reflects the main principles of gender equality and is in line with the international situation (UNDP, 2018), Georgia remains a male-dominated society. This means that men prevail in many areas of social, economic, and political life, which frequently gives women a subordinate status in society and the family (UN women). According to the latest study, “violence against women and girls in Georgia is also recognized as a public problem, and it is necessary to focus on it” (UN women). Moreover, the Public Defender's report on the protection of human rights in Georgia (2019) reveals that “in the last five years, 151 women were killed in Georgia due to gender and family violence”. Sadly, these statistics have increased significantly since that time. The issue was acutely reflected in the document published by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, “Gender Hate Crime” (March 10, 2021). “Unfortunately, the rates of femicide ..... are still high in the country, and distrust of law enforcement agencies often makes such cases invisible, which requires special attention from the state.” More precisely, the cited document considers that there are frequent cases of crimes based on gender-based oppression in Georgia, which pose a threat not only to women but also to people of any gender whose desires and aspirations do not correspond to the gender norms and roles prevailing in society. According to the study, this type of crime has a “significant and lasting impact on the victim(s) and also undermines the safety and cohesion of society and gender equality”. It is well-known that language is often used as a tool for gender oppression (Rusieshvili-Cartledge and Dolidze, 2021; Totibadze, 2021). Therefore, feminist and gender studies in linguistics ultimately serve to represent the problem, reflect on it, and propose ways to solve it. Together with technical advancement in communication, a new form of discrimination has arisen- hate language against women in electronic media discourse. Due to the nature of social media and the internet, messages containing hate language can spread in seconds and reach millions of people. However, only a few know about the detrimental effects they may have on the addressee and society. This paper aims to analyse the hateful comments directed at women on various media platforms to determine (1) the linguistic strategies used while attacking women and (2) the reasons why women may fall victim to this type of hate language. The data have been collected over six months, and overall, 500 comments will be examined for the paper. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was chosen for the methodology of the study. The comments posted on various media platforms, including social media posts, articles, or pictures, have been selected manually due to several reasons, the most important being the problem of identifying hate speech as it can disguise itself in different ways- humour, memes, etc. The comments on the articles, posts, pictures, and videos selected for sociolinguistic analysis depict a woman, a taboo topic, or a scandalous event centred on a woman that triggered a lot of hatred and hate language towards the person to whom the post/article was dedicated. The study has revealed that a woman can become a victim of hatred directed at them if they do something considered to be a deviation from a societal norm, namely, get a divorce, be sexually active, be vocal about feministic values, and talk about taboos. Interestingly, people who utilize hate language are not only men trying to “normalize” the prejudiced patriarchal values but also women who are equally active in bringing down a "strong" woman. The paper also aims to raise awareness about the hate language directed at women, as being knowledgeable about the issue at hand is the first step to tackling it.

Keywords: femicide, hate language, media discourse, sociolinguistics

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1888 Translanguaging In Preschools: New Evidence from Polish-English Bilingual Children

Authors: Judyta Pawliszko


The study draws on the theoretical framework of translanguaging. It investigates translanguaging patterns and how meaning-making processes among bilingual children in preschool are affected by using two different languages, 8 months of observation and 200 hours of vocal recordings of children (3-6 years old) provide data on bilingual children’s linguistic repertoire why children translanguage, and how they achieve understanding with the strategic use of the two languages. The data gathered point to translanguaging as a practice that maximizes meaning-making processes among preschool bilingual children.

Keywords: translanguaging, bilingualism, preschool, polish-english bilingual children

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1887 Kitchenary Metaphors In Hindi-urdu: A Cognitive Analysis

Authors: Bairam Khan, Premlata Vaishnava


The ability to conceptualize one entity in terms of another allows us to communicate through metaphors. This central feature of human cognition has evolved with the development of language, and the processing of metaphors is without any conscious appraisal and is quite effortless. South Asians, like other speech communities, have been using the kitchenary [culinary] metaphor in a very simple yet interesting way and are known for bringing into new and unique constellations wherever they are. This composite feature of our language is used to communicate in a precise and compact manner and maneuvers the expression. The present study explores the role of kitchenary metaphors in the making and shaping of idioms by applying Cognitive Metaphor Theories. Drawing on examples from a corpus of adverts, print, and electronic media, the study looks at the metaphorical language used by real people in real situations. The overarching theme throughout the course is that kitchenary metaphors are powerful tools of expression in Hindi-Urdu.

Keywords: cognitive metaphor theory, source domain, target domain, signifier- signified, kitchenary, ethnocultural elements of south asia and hindi- urdu language

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1886 The Regional Novel in India: Its Emergence and Trajectory

Authors: Aruna Bommareddi


The journey of the novel is well examined in Indian academia as an offshoot of the novel in English. There have been many attempts to understand aspects of the early novel in India which shared a commonality with the English novel. The regional novel has had an entirely different trajectory which is mapped in the paper. The main focus of the paper would be to look at the historical emergence of the genre of the regional novel in Indian Literatures with specific reference to Kannada, Hindi, and Bengali. The selection of these languages is guided not only by familiarity with these languages as also based on the significance that these languages enjoy in the sub-continent and for the emergence of the regional novel as a specific category in these languages. The regional novels under study are Phaneeswaranath Renu’s Maila Anchal, Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya’s Ganadevata, and Kuvempu’s House of Kanuru for exploration of the themes of its emergence and some aspects of the regional novel common to and different from each other. The paper would explore the various movements that have shaped the genre regional novel in these Literatures. Though Phaneeswarnath Renu’s Maila Anchal is published in 1956, the novel is set in pre-Independent India and therefore shares a commonality of themes with the other two novels, House of Kanuru and Ganadevata. All three novels explore themes of superstition, ignorance, poverty, and the interventions of educated youth to salvage the crises in these backward regional worlds. In fact, it was Renu who assertively declared that he was going to write a regional novel and hence the tile of the first regional novel in Hindi is Maila Anchal meaning the soiled border. In Hindi, anchal also means the region therefore, the title is suggestive of a dirty region as well. The novel exposes the squalor, ignorance, and the conflict ridden life of the village or region as opposed to the rosy image of the village in literature. With this, all such novels which depicted conflicts of the region got recognized as regional novels even though they may have been written prior to Renu’s declaration. All three novels under study succeed in bringing out the complexity of rural life at a given point of time in its history.

Keywords: bengali, hindi, kannada, regional novel, telugu

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1885 Emerging Virtual Linguistic Landscape Created by Members of Language Community in TikTok

Authors: Kai Zhu, Shanhua He, Yujiao Chang


This paper explores the virtual linguistic landscape of an emerging virtual language community in TikTok, a language community realizing immediate and non-immediate communication without a precise Spatio-temporal domain or a specific socio-cultural boundary or interpersonal network. This kind of language community generates a large number and various forms of virtual linguistic landscape, with which we conducted a virtual ethnographic survey together with telephone interviews to collect data from coping. We have been following two language communities in TikTok for several months so that we can illustrate the composition of the two language communities and some typical virtual language landscapes in both language communities first. Then we try to explore the reasons why and how they are formed through the organization, transcription, and analysis of the interviews. Our analysis reveals the richness and diversity of the virtual linguistic landscape, and finally, we summarize some of the characteristics of this language community.

Keywords: virtual linguistic landscape, virtual language community, virtual ethnographic survey, TikTok

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1884 Methodological Support for Teacher Training in English Language

Authors: Comfort Aina


Modern English, as we all know it to be a foreign language to many, will require training and re-training on the path of the teacher and learners alike. As a teacher, you cannot give that which you do not have. Teachers, many of whom are non-native speakers, are required to be competent in solving problems occurring in the teaching and learning processes. They should be conscious of up to date information about new approaches, methods, techniques as well as they should be capable in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and, of course, should work on the improvement of their language components and competence. For teachers to be successful in these goals, they need to be encouraged and motivated. So, for EFL teachers to be successful, they are enrolled to in-service teacher training, ICT training, some of the training they undergo and the benefits accrued to it will be the focus of the paper.

Keywords: training, management, method, english language, EFL teachers

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1883 Intellectual Telepathy between Arabs and Pashtuns; Study of Their Proverbs as a Model

Authors: Shams Ul Hussain Zaheer, Bibi Alia, Shehla Shams


With the creation of human beings, almost all of them are blessed with the award of the power of expression, and this series starts from the life of Adam (A.S) in Paradise when he was blesses with language and knowledge and given priority upon the Angels. Later on, when the population spread and many other languages came into being, the method of the different people of different regions remained various. And when the Arabic was formed as a language after Ismail (A.S) and his sons spread in the gulf area, the words adopted from other gulf languages also became a part of this new language with it immense. Beside this, the tone of expression in other areas of the word was different, but the incidents, norms of bad and good, parameters for like and dislike, thinking styles, and rules of good and bad governance with social values remained round about the same. People practiced their lives according to the set norms everywhere in the world. Especially the two built, i.e., Hijaz and Khurasan, wherein Arabs and Pashtun accordingly were dwelling; it seems that their social values were much closed to each other. These norms reflect in various kinds of literature of both of the nations, but this article deals in with their proverbs specifically. This article discusses the intellectual telepathic between them in a research way. And put the defined similarities and dissimilarities between both in the proverb. And it also draws a sketch in front of readers that how the thinking and expression styles remains same in humans. As it belongs to a comparative analysis of the proverbs so, the same methodology has been adopted in the articles.

Keywords: intellectual telepathy, hijaz, arab, khurasan, pashtun, proverbs, comparison

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1882 Graph-Based Semantical Extractive Text Analysis

Authors: Mina Samizadeh


In the past few decades, there has been an explosion in the amount of available data produced from various sources with different topics. The availability of this enormous data necessitates us to adopt effective computational tools to explore the data. This leads to an intense growing interest in the research community to develop computational methods focused on processing this text data. A line of study focused on condensing the text so that we are able to get a higher level of understanding in a shorter time. The two important tasks to do this are keyword extraction and text summarization. In keyword extraction, we are interested in finding the key important words from a text. This makes us familiar with the general topic of a text. In text summarization, we are interested in producing a short-length text which includes important information about the document. The TextRank algorithm, an unsupervised learning method that is an extension of the PageRank (algorithm which is the base algorithm of the Google search engine for searching pages and ranking them), has shown its efficacy in large-scale text mining, especially for text summarization and keyword extraction. This algorithm can automatically extract the important parts of a text (keywords or sentences) and declare them as a result. However, this algorithm neglects the semantic similarity between the different parts. In this work, we improved the results of the TextRank algorithm by incorporating the semantic similarity between parts of the text. Aside from keyword extraction and text summarization, we develop a topic clustering algorithm based on our framework, which can be used individually or as a part of generating the summary to overcome coverage problems.

Keywords: keyword extraction, n-gram extraction, text summarization, topic clustering, semantic analysis

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1881 Biomarker Profiling for Alzheimer-Like Dementia in Aged Non-Human Primates

Authors: Ying Yu, Mingyue Wang, Maoyun Tan, Zhichao Jiang, Gaorui Xu, Jiawen Zhou, Xue Gan, Yanlai Peng, Qian Zhong, Rongchen Wen, Yuqing Fan, Henry Lu, Guodong Zhang, Deming Xu


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia and the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. It places increasingly severe burdens on global healthcare. To date, strategies focused on the clearance and prevention of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary inclusions have yielded discouraging results in clinical trials for AD. Although non-human primates have been used in preclinical pharmacology for AD drug discovery, the AD animal models were based on the induction of amyloid plaque. A more fitting NHP model reflective of the natural ageing of the brain with an AD-related clinical profile would be most desirable for translational pharmacology. This pilot study initiated a profile in aged NHPs for biomarkers characteristic of AD-like dementia, including cognitive behavior, diagnostic neuroimaging, EEG, and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods: Two groups of male Macaca fascicularis (adult group: 9-11 years old, n=4; aged group: 20-25 years, n=10) were trained to perform a delay response task (DRT) at a 10-second delay to assess their short term memory. At the same time, their CSF levels of Aβ42 were determined. EEG signals at rest were captured at a sample rate of 1 kHz for each animal with a 20 channel neuroscan EEG system and data was processed with customized MATLAB code. The volume of the hippocampus in eight (8) selected animals were also analyzed through a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction process. Results: Six (6) out of 10 aged animals showed lower DRT performance (successful rate < 80 %) than the remaining four and those in the adult group. The overall DRT performance was positively correlated with the CSF levels of Aβ42 in all animals. Moreover, the slowing of EEG activity (increase of δ and θ activity and decrease of β activity) in the frontal lobe was observed in the six low DRT performers vis-à-vis the aged higher performers and the adult animals. Likewise, the average volume of the hippocampus of the low performers was less than the rest of the animals. Conclusion: We have identified a group of aged NHP with spontaneous dementia, with cognitive, electrophysiological, and brain structural changes characteristic of mild cognitive impairment in humans. Their CSF levels of Aβ42 strongly correlated inversely with the memory function. Most notably, EEG and neuroimaging showed promising potential as non-invasive approaches for the evaluation of aging-related dementia of NHP in longitudinal studies. The translational value of such animals could provide important insight into the disease progress and the therapeutic efficacy of AD treatment in the preclinical stages.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ42, EEG, MRI, NHP, short-term memory task

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1880 Official Game Account Analysis: Factors Influence Users' Judgments in Limited-Word Posts

Authors: Shanhua Hu


Social media as a critical propagandizing form of film, video games, and digital products has received substantial research attention, but there exists several critical barriers such as: (1) few studies exploring the internal and external connections of a product as part of the multimodal context that gives rise to readability and commercial return; (2) the lack of study of multimodal analysis in product’s official account of game publishers and its impact on users’ behaviors including purchase intention, social media engagement, and playing time; (3) no standardized ecologically-valid, game type-varying data can be used to study the complexity of official account’s postings within a time period. This proposed research helps to tackle these limitations in order to develop a model of readability study that is more ecologically valid, robust, and thorough. To accomplish this objective, this paper provides a more diverse dataset comprising different visual elements and messages collected from the official Twitter accounts of the Top 20 best-selling games of 2021. Video game companies target potential users through social media, a popular approach is to set up an official account to maintain exposure. Typically, major game publishers would create an official account on Twitter months before the game's release date to update on the game's development, announce collaborations, and reveal spoilers. Analyses of tweets from those official Twitter accounts would assist publishers and marketers in identifying how to efficiently and precisely deploy advertising to increase game sales. The purpose of this research is to determine how official game accounts use Twitter to attract new customers, specifically which types of messages are most effective at increasing sales. The dataset includes the number of days until the actual release date on Twitter posts, the readability of the post (Flesch Reading Ease Score, FRES), the number of emojis used, the number of hashtags, the number of followers of the mentioned users, the categorization of the posts (i.e., spoilers, collaborations, promotions), and the number of video views. The timeline of Twitter postings from official accounts will be compared to the history of pre-orders and sales figures to determine the potential impact of social media posts. This study aims to determine how the above-mentioned characteristics of official accounts' Twitter postings influence the sales of the game and to examine the possible causes of this influence. The outcome will provide researchers with a list of potential aspects that could influence people's judgments in limited-word posts. With the increased average online time, users would adapt more quickly than before in online information exchange and readings, such as the word to use sentence length, and the use of emojis or hashtags. The study on the promotion of official game accounts will not only enable publishers to create more effective promotion techniques in the future but also provide ideas for future research on the influence of social media posts with a limited number of words on consumers' purchasing decisions. Future research can focus on more specific linguistic aspects, such as precise word choice in advertising.

Keywords: engagement, official account, promotion, twitter, video game

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1879 Linguistic Analysis of Argumentation Structures in Georgian Political Speeches

Authors: Mariam Matiashvili


Argumentation is an integral part of our daily communications - formal or informal. Argumentative reasoning, techniques, and language tools are used both in personal conversations and in the business environment. Verbalization of the opinions requires the use of extraordinary syntactic-pragmatic structural quantities - arguments that add credibility to the statement. The study of argumentative structures allows us to identify the linguistic features that make the text argumentative. Knowing what elements make up an argumentative text in a particular language helps the users of that language improve their skills. Also, natural language processing (NLP) has become especially relevant recently. In this context, one of the main emphases is on the computational processing of argumentative texts, which will enable the automatic recognition and analysis of large volumes of textual data. The research deals with the linguistic analysis of the argumentative structures of Georgian political speeches - particularly the linguistic structure, characteristics, and functions of the parts of the argumentative text - claims, support, and attack statements. The research aims to describe the linguistic cues that give the sentence a judgmental/controversial character and helps to identify reasoning parts of the argumentative text. The empirical data comes from the Georgian Political Corpus, particularly TV debates. Consequently, the texts are of a dialogical nature, representing a discussion between two or more people (most often between a journalist and a politician). The research uses the following approaches to identify and analyze the argumentative structures Lexical Classification & Analysis - Identify lexical items that are relevant in argumentative texts creating process - Creating the lexicon of argumentation (presents groups of words gathered from a semantic point of view); Grammatical Analysis and Classification - means grammatical analysis of the words and phrases identified based on the arguing lexicon. Argumentation Schemas - Describe and identify the Argumentation Schemes that are most likely used in Georgian Political Speeches. As a final step, we analyzed the relations between the above mentioned components. For example, If an identified argument scheme is “Argument from Analogy”, identified lexical items semantically express analogy too, and they are most likely adverbs in Georgian. As a result, we created the lexicon with the words that play a significant role in creating Georgian argumentative structures. Linguistic analysis has shown that verbs play a crucial role in creating argumentative structures.

Keywords: georgian, argumentation schemas, argumentation structures, argumentation lexicon

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1878 Thematic English Textbook on Tasks Designed for a Public Educational Brazilian Context: Issues and Contributions

Authors: Fernanda Goulart, Rita de Cássia Barbirato


Task-based language teaching has received attention among researchers as it has been pointed out with the potential to provide more significant opportunities for using the target language and therefore generate successful language acquisition. Nevertheless, in the Brazilian context, few studies have analyzed the potential of tasks in English language acquisition. There is also a need for textbooks to meet the needs of Brazilian students. This work is part of doctoral research in its initial phase. It aims to demonstrate and discuss thematic textbook samples on tasks designed to be applied among high school and undergraduate students in a public technological educational context in São Paulo State, Brazil. It is a qualitative study. The data collection process for course design and textbook development initially included a survey administered to 159 students. Questions related to students’ English background knowledge, main learning interests, and needs. Most students reported difficulties communicating in English and showed a strong interest in a communicative English course. The theme “Cultural diversity” was chosen among other options provided. The textbook was then designed and comprised nine task cycles divided into four sequences. Cycles were composed of pre-tasks, tasks, and post-tasks. The main findings of this first phase of the research revealed that designing a task-based textbook is not easy and requires the necessary steps and lots of effort to meet students’ language needs. Several revisions were needed before the conclusion of the final version of the textbook. The material will be further applied in a three-month English course. In this presentation, we hope to contribute to discussions in research on task-based teaching. Also, we intend to support teachers with their knowledge of tasks and thematic material development in this field.

Keywords: task-based language teaching, language acquisition, English language teaching, task cycles

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1877 Cigarette Smoke Detection Based on YOLOV3

Authors: Wei Li, Tuo Yang


In order to satisfy the real-time and accurate requirements of cigarette smoke detection in complex scenes, a cigarette smoke detection technology based on the combination of deep learning and color features was proposed. Firstly, based on the color features of cigarette smoke, the suspicious cigarette smoke area in the image is extracted. Secondly, combined with the efficiency of cigarette smoke detection and the problem of network overfitting, a network model for cigarette smoke detection was designed according to YOLOV3 algorithm to reduce the false detection rate. The experimental results show that the method is feasible and effective, and the accuracy of cigarette smoke detection is up to 99.13%, which satisfies the requirements of real-time cigarette smoke detection in complex scenes.

Keywords: deep learning, computer vision, cigarette smoke detection, YOLOV3, color feature extraction

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1876 Investigating University Language Teacher’s Perception of Their Identities in the Algerian Multilingual Context

Authors: Yousra Drissi


This research explores language teacher identity in a multilingual context where both teachers and students come from different linguistic backgrounds. It seeks to understand how teachers perceive themselves as language teachers in this context in relation to different influencing factors, both internal and external. This study is being conducted due to the importance of language teacher identity (LTI) in the university context, which is being neglected in the present literature (in an attempt to address the gap in the present literature). The broader aim of this study is to bring attention to language teacher identity along with the different influencing elements which can either promote or hinder its development. In this research, we are using the sociocultural theory and post-structural theory. This research uses the mixed methods approach to collect and analyse relevant data. A structured survey was distributed to language teachers from different universities around Algeria, followed by in-depth interviews. Results are supposed to show the different points in self-perception that these teachers share or differ in. they will also help us identify the different internal and external factors that can be of influence. However, the results of this research can be used by institutions as well as decision-makers to better understand university teachers and help them improve their teaching practices by empowering their language teacher identity, starting from teacher education programs to continuous teacher development programs.

Keywords: identity, language teacher identity, multilingualism, university teacher

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1875 The Impact of Quranic Vocab on Pashto Language; An Analytical Study

Authors: Shams Ul Hussain Zaheer


The Holy Book Quran being a divine and universal Book has influenced almost all civilizations, cultures and especially its languages. Being a universal book it has both divine sweetness and harmony which is always a balm to the ear. So, the Pashto language is also not free from the divine influences of Quran, it has deeply influenced the very language that is Pashto. In this research, the Quranic vocabulary is investigated and its impact on Pashto language has been pointed out. The Holy Quran has influenced almost all aspect of Pashtun civilization; it has influenced its culture, art, sculpture, buildings, ethics and moralities. As language is the refection of all the above the elements, so the impact of the Holy Quran on Pashto language is extremely deep rooted. We have seen that Pashto has borrowed many words from Arabic language in common and especially Quranic Words. It needs to go back to the history of Pashtu language and bring to front the Arabic vocab which has been or is adopted. And also we have to find out of Arabic language with Pashto with respect to usage of words; Some borrowed words that are used in Pashto language has always that same meaning and pronunciation e.g. زکوٰۃ۔ حج, سحر In some borrowed words the pronunciation always same but the pronunciation does not echo the original meaning of that very word e.g. خلق۔ مخلوق ۔ قطع While some borrowed words have same meaning but structure of the word has some changes either in pronunciation or in essence e.g. صهر, نهر، شر، جنت Many time when a language adopts words from other languages it can be three condition either its take words with same meanings, or it take words with changing of meanings, or it can be changing of words and meanings. All these types of words need to be explored in The Holy Quran and be evaluated in a research manner. The Project is aimed to explore the relationship between Quran and Pashto as a language, As Arabic is Quran’s language and Pashtuns are Muslims, no doubt that the impact of Arabic language on Pashto language is understood. And to research from the different ways the dictionary and literary usage of those vocabularies which Pashtu borrowed from the Holy Quran. Adding more, Study of Pashtu folk and literature material is important part of this research. The new researchers will know about the Pashtu language and its vocab from a different way In Shaa ALLAH. Historical study of Arab invaders on Pashtun built and the influence of the Holy Quran on Pashto language will be discussed. The research study will be historical, analytical, descriptive and comparative. So, the tools used for the above mentioned types of studies have been used. Through this study we will dig out the relation between the Holy Quran and Pashto through historical, religious and linguistics links. And it will also define the everlasting impact of Islam and especially of the Holy Quran on Pashto culture and language. Adding more, this will further explore in breadth and width the language of the Holy Quran.

Keywords: impact, quranic vocab, pashto language, eloquence

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1874 A Critical Discourse Analysis on Ableist Ideologies in Primary Education English Language Textbooks in the Philippines

Authors: Brittany Joi B. Kirsch


Textbooks carry a crucial role in imparting ideologies that stimulate inclusivity and social diversity. In the Philippines, a law on inclusive education (IE) for differently-abled learners has recently been signed in order to ensure their rights to quality and IE are protected and upheld (Republic Act No. 11650, 2022). With the presence of ableism in textbooks, the promotion of IE may be challenged. A considerable amount of research has been done on disability representation and ableism in foreign countries; however, none, to the extent of the researcher’s knowledge, has been conducted on ableist ideologies in primary education English language textbooks in the Philippines. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the negotiation of ableist ideologies in primary education English language textbooks in the Philippines. Utilizing Fairclough’s (1995) three-dimensional model of critical discourse analysis (CDA) as the framework, six prescribed primary education English language textbooks from different grade levels were analyzed to examine instances of ableism in the texts. To further support the analysis of the study, supplemental data were gathered from the accounts of six public elementary school English language teachers. Findings reveal that the textbooks contain ableist ideologies with a limited representation of differently-abled people; by disclosing them as (1) invisible, (2) equipped with negative abilities, and (3) plagued with delicate health. By identifying ableist ideologies in textbooks, educational institutions and publishers may benefit in assessing and reforming instructional materials to resolve the presence of such ideologies, thereby abiding by the country’s law on IE and strengthening its overall implementation.

Keywords: textbooks, ideologies, inclusive education, critical discourse analysis, ableism

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1873 The Cultural and Semantic Danger of English Transparent Words Translated from English into Arabic

Authors: Abdullah Khuwaileh


While teaching and translating vocabulary is no longer a neglected area in ELT in general and in translation in particular, the psychology of its acquisition has been a neglected area. Our paper aims at exploring some of the learning and translating conditions under which vocabulary is acquired and translated properly. To achieve this objective, two teaching methods (experiments) were applied on 4 translators to measure their acquisition of a number of transparent vocabulary items. Some of these items were knowingly chosen from 'deceptively transparent words'. All the data, sample, etc., were taken from Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) and Yarmouk University, where the researcher is employed. The study showed that translators might translate transparent words inaccurately, particularly if these words are uncontextualised. It was also shown that the morphological structures of words may lead translators or even EFL learners to misinterpretations of meaning.

Keywords: english, transparent, word, processing, translation

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1872 Development of Educational Institutions in Afghanistan and Especially in the Region of “Herat” Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Sayed Jamal Ud Din Heravi


The development of educational institutions has an important role in the progress and advancement of the state, in the stability and security of the state and its exposure, in the flourishing of minds, in devoting the role of science, developing society, and meeting people’s desires and needs. Afghanistan is a Muslim country located in Central Asia on the borders of Pakistan, Iran, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and it also borders China's Xing yang. Unfortunately, these oppressed people have been living in wars that have been going on for four decades, in which educational institutions, schools and institutes have not developed. Rather, the war destroyed the infrastructure of this country, and no city or village remained in it but tasted the bloody wars. Now with the new government, we see that many government educational institutions are closed in this country, even if the state promises that it will open them quickly. As for universities and private institutions, they work in Afghanistan diligently and diligently, and among them, there is sharp competition in the use of professors and taking advantage of the available means for the sake of knowledge. It laid the building blocks for a bright dawn in which it seeks to keep pace with the procession of development and prosperity in the world.

Keywords: Afghanistan, higher education, Herat province, opportunities, challenges

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1871 Language Processing in Arabic: Writing Competence Across L1 (Arabic) and L2 (English)

Authors: Abdullah Khuwaileh


The central aim of this paper is to investigate writing skills in the two languages involved, English and Arabic, and to see whether there is an association between poor writing across languages. That is to say, and it is thought that learners might be excellent in their L1 (Language 1: Arabic) but not in L2 (language 2: English). However, our experimental research findings resulted in an interesting association between L1 and L2. Data were collected from 150 students (chosen randomly) who wrote about the same topic in English and Arabic. Topics needed no preparation as they were common and well-known. Scripts were assessed respectively by ELT (English Language Teaching) and Arabic specialists. The study confirms that poor writing in English correlates with similar deficiencies in the mother tongue (Arabic). Thus, the common assumption in ELT that all learners are fully competent in their first language skills is unfounded. Therefore, the criticism of ELT programs for speakers of Arabic, based on poor writing skills in English and good writing in Arabic is not justified. The findings of this paper can be extended to other learners of English who speak Arabic as a first language and English as a foreign and/or second language. The study is concluded with several research and practical recommendations

Keywords: language, writing, culture, l1

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1870 Revealing Corruption through Strategic Narration in Mandla Langa’s Memory of Stones (2000)

Authors: Dzunisani Sibuyi


This article demonstrates how corruption is revealed in Mandla Langa’s Memory of Stones (2000) through the deployment of narrational strategies by applying narrative theories by Gerard Genette’s Narrative Discourse and Narrative Discourse Revisited, as well as Mikhail Bakhtin’s Dialogic Imagination to the text. This is accomplished by analysing Langa’s use of extradiegetic-heterodiegetic and intradiegetic-homodiegetic narrational strategies respectively employed by the anonymous narrator and character narrator Mpanza. The narration provided by these narrators is multi-voiced in its approach to the events depicting corruption from various completing and explanatory perspectives. In addition, Langa also employs narrative techniques of narrating times such as simultaneous, subsequent, and interpolated narration to highlight corruption taking place, which is highlighted by situating the story in its presentness moments coinciding with the corruption action. As a result, by emphasising the events portraying the plight of the main characters and their struggle to resist and defeat corrupt leaders, the narration strategically reveals corruption.

Keywords: narrational strategies, narrating voice, dialogism, corruption, Gérard Genette, Mandla Langa, Mikhail Bakhtin, time(s) of the narration

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1869 The Combination of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, Perceptual Linear Prediction, Jitter and Shimmer Coefficients for the Improvement of Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthric Speech

Authors: Brahim Fares Zaidi


Our work aims to improve our Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthria Speech based on the Hidden Models of Markov and the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit to help people who are sick. With pronunciation problems, we applied two techniques of speech parameterization based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Perceptual Linear Prediction and concatenated them with JITTER and SHIMMER coefficients in order to increase the recognition rate of a dysarthria speech. For our tests, we used the NEMOURS database that represents speakers with dysarthria and normal speakers.


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