Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1296

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1296 Argument Representation in Non-Spatial Motion Bahasa Melayu Based Conceptual Structure Theory

Authors: Nurul Jamilah Binti Rosly

Abstract:

The typology of motion must be understood as a change from one location to another. But from a conceptual point of view, motion can also occur in non-spatial contexts associated with human and social factors. Therefore, from the conceptual point of view, the concept of non-spatial motion involves the movement of time, ownership, identity, state, and existence. Accordingly, this study will focus on the lexical as shared, accept, be, store, and exist as the study material. The data in this study were extracted from the Database of Languages and Literature Corpus Database, Malaysia, which was analyzed using semantics and syntax concepts using Conceptual Structure Theory - Ray Jackendoff (2002). Semantic representations are represented in the form of conceptual structures in argument functions that include functions [events], [situations], [objects], [paths] and [places]. The findings show that the mapping of these arguments comprises three main stages, namely mapping the argument structure, mapping the tree, and mapping the role of thematic items. Accordingly, this study will show the representation of non- spatial Malay language areas.

Keywords: arguments, concepts, constituencies, events, situations, thematics

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1295 Actresses as Eunuchs: The Versatility of Cross-Gendered Roles in Eighteenth-Century Orientalist Theatre

Authors: Anne Greenfield

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: During the eighteenth century in London, there were over two dozen theatrical productions that featured eunuchoid characters, most of which were set in 'Eastern' locales, including the Ottoman Empire, Persia, India, and China. These characters have gone largely overlooked by recent scholars, and more analysis is needed in order to illustrate the contemporary values and anxieties reflected in these popular and recurring figures at the time. Methodology: This paper adopts a New Historical and Cultural Studies approach to the subject of theatrical depictions of eunuchs, drawing insights from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century literary works, travel narratives, medical treatises, and histories of the age. Major Findings: As this paper demonstrates, there was a high degree of complexity, variety, and -at times- respect underlying orientalist theatrical depictions of eunuchs. Not only were eunuchoid characters represented in strikingly diverse ways in scripts, but these roles were also played by a heterogeneous group of actors and even actresses. More specifically, this paper looks closely at three actresses who took roles as eunuchs in tragedies: Mrs. Verbruggen (aka Mrs. Mountfort), Mrs. Rogers, and Mrs. Bicknell—all of whom were otherwise best known as comediennes. These casting choices provided an entertaining twist on the breeches roles these actresses often played. In fact, the staging and scripting of these roles, when analyzed through the lens of these cross-gendered roles, becomes ironic and comical in several scenes that are usually assumed (by recent scholars) to be thoroughly tragic. Conclusion: Ultimately, a careful look at the staging of eunuchoid characters sheds light on not only how these productions were performed and understood, but also on how writers and theatre managers navigated the Other, whether in gender identity or culture, during this era.

Keywords: eunuch, actress, literature, drama

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1294 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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1293 Blended Learning and English Language Teaching: Instructors' Perceptions and Aspirations

Authors: Rasha Alshaye

Abstract:

Blended learning has become an innovative model that combines face-to-face with e-learning approaches. The Saudi Electronic University (SEU) has adopted blended learning as a flexible approach that provides instructors and learners with a motivating learning environment to stimulate the teaching and learning process. This study investigates the perceptions of English language instructors, teaching the four English language skills at Saudi Electronic University. Four main domains were examined in this study; challenges that the instructors encounter while implementing the blended learning approach, enhancing student-instructor interaction, flexibility in teaching, and the lack of technical skills. Furthermore, the study identifies and represents the instructors’ aspirations and plans to utilize this approach in enhancing the teaching and learning experience. Main findings indicate that instructors at Saudi Electronic University experience some challenges while teaching the four language skills. However, they find the blended learning approach motivating and flexible for them and their students. This study offers some important understandings into how instructors are applying the blended learning approach and how this process can be enriched.

Keywords: blended learning, English language skills, English teaching, instructors' perceptions

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1292 Academic Literacy: Semantic-Discursive Resource and the Relationship with the Constitution of Genre for the Development of Writing

Authors: Lucia Rottava

Abstract:

The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.

Keywords: academic writing, portuguese mother tongue, semantic-discursive resources, sistemic funcional linguistic

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1291 Modelling Consistency and Change of Social Attitudes in 7 Years of Longitudinal Data

Authors: Paul Campbell, Nicholas Biddle

Abstract:

There is a complex, endogenous relationship between individual circumstances, attitudes, and behaviour. This study uses longitudinal panel data to assess changes in social and political attitudes over a 7-year period. Attitudes are captured with the question 'what is the most important issue facing Australia today', collected at multiple time points in a longitudinal survey of 2200 Australians. Consistency of attitudes, and factors predicting change over time, are assessed. The consistency of responses has methodological implications for data collection, specifically how often such questions ought to be asked of a population. When change in attitude is observed, this study assesses the extent to which individual demographic characteristics, personality traits, and broader societal events predict change.

Keywords: attitudes, longitudinal survey analysis, personality, social values

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1290 Project Marayum: Creating a Community Built Mobile Phone-Based, Online Web-Dictionary for Endangered Philippine Languages

Authors: Samantha Jade Sadural, Kathleen Gay Figueroa, Noel Nicanor Sison II, Francis Miguel Quilab, Samuel Edric Solis, Kiel Gonzales, Alain Andrew Boquiren, Janelle Tan, Mario Carreon

Abstract:

Of the 185 languages in the Philippines, 28 are endangered, 11 are dying off, and 4 are extinct. Language documentation, as a prerequisite to language education, can be one of the ways languages can be preserved. Project Marayum is envisioned to be a collaboratively built, mobile phone-based, online dictionary platform for Philippine languages. Although there are many online language dictionaries available on the Internet, Project Marayum aims to give a sense of ownership to the language community's dictionary as it is built and maintained by the community for the community. From a seed dictionary, members of a language community can suggest changes, add new entries, and provide language examples. Going beyond word definitions, the platform can be used to gather sample sentences and even audio samples of word usage. These changes are reviewed by language experts of the community, sourced from the local state universities or local government units. Approved changes are then added to the dictionary and can be viewed instantly through the Marayum website. A companion mobile phone application allows users to browse the dictionary in remote areas where Internet connectivity is nonexistent. The dictionary will automatically be updated once the user regains Internet access. Project Marayum is still a work in progress. At the time of this abstract's writing, the Project has just entered its second year. Prototypes are currently being tested with the Asi language of Romblon island as its initial language testbed. In October 2020, Project Marayum will have both a webpage and mobile application with Asi, Ilocano, and Cebuano language dictionaries available for use online or for download. In addition, the Marayum platform would be then easily expandable for use of the more endangered language communities. Project Marayum is funded by the Philippines Department of Science and Technology.

Keywords: collaborative language dictionary, community-centered lexicography, content management system, software engineering

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1289 Effects of the Visual and Auditory Stimuli with Emotional Content on Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: İrem Bulut, Mustafa Z. Söyük, Ertuğrul Yalçın, Simge Şişman-Bal

Abstract:

Eyewitness testimony is one of the most frequently used methods in criminal cases for the determination of crime and perpetrator. In the literature, the number of studies about the reliability of eyewitness testimony is increasing. The study aims to reveal the factors that affect the short-term and long-term visual memory performance of the participants in the event of an accident. In this context, the effect of the emotional content of the accident and the sounds during the accident on visual memory performance was investigated with eye-tracking. According to the results, the presence of visual and auditory stimuli with emotional content during the accident decreases the participants' both short-term and long-term recall performance. Moreover, the data obtained from the eye monitoring device showed that the participants had difficulty in answering even the questions they focused on at the time of the accident.

Keywords: eye tracking, eyewitness testimony, long-term recall, short-term recall, visual memory

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1288 Variability of the Speaker's Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviour in the Process of Changing Social Roles in the English Marketing Discourse

Authors: Yuliia Skrynnik

Abstract:

This research focuses on the interaction of verbal, non-verbal, and super-verbal communicative components used by the speaker changing social roles in the marketing discourse. The changing/performing of social roles is implemented through communicative strategies and tactics, the structural, semantic, and linguo-pragmatic means of which are characterized by specific features and differ for the performance of either a role of a supplier or a customer. Communication within the marketing discourse is characterized by symmetrical roles’ relation between communicative opponents. The strategy of a supplier’s social role realization and the strategy of a customer’s role realization influence the discursive personality's linguistic repertoire in the marketing discourse. This study takes into account that one person can be both a supplier and a customer under different circumstances, thus, exploring the one individual who can be both a supplier and a customer. Cooperative and non-cooperative tactics are the instruments for the implementation of these strategies. In the marketing discourse, verbal and non-verbal behaviour of the speaker performing a customer’s social role is highly informative for speakers who perform the role of a supplier. The research methods include discourse, context-situational, pragmalinguistic, pragmasemantic analyses, the method of non-verbal components analysis. The methodology of the study includes 5 steps: 1) defining the configurations of speakers’ social roles on the selected material; 2) establishing the type of the discourse (marketing discourse); 3) describing the specific features of a discursive personality as a subject of the communication in the process of social roles realization; 4) selecting the strategies and tactics which direct the interaction in different roles configurations; 5) characterizing the structural, semantic and pragmatic features of the strategies and tactics realization, including the analysis of interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of communication. In the marketing discourse, non-verbal behaviour is usually spontaneous but not purposeful. Thus, the adequate decoding of a partner’s non-verbal behavior provides more opportunities both for the supplier and the customer. Super-verbal characteristics in the marketing discourse are crucial in defining the opponent's social status and social role at the initial stage of interaction. The research provides the scenario of stereotypical situations of the play of a supplier and a customer. The performed analysis has perspectives for further research connected with the study of discursive variativity of speakers' verbal and non-verbal behaviour considering the intercultural factor influencing the process of performing the social roles in the marketing discourse; and the formation of the methods for the scenario construction of non-stereotypical situations of social roles realization/change in the marketing discourse.

Keywords: discursive personality, marketing discourse, non-verbal component of communication, social role, strategy, super-verbal component of communication, tactic, verbal component of communication

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1287 Perception and Control in the Age of Surrealism: A Critical History and a Survey of Pita Amor’s Poetic Ontology

Authors: Oliver Arana

Abstract:

Within the common vein of social understanding, surrealism is often understood to rely on disconcerting images and fragmented collage, both in its visual representation and literary manifestations. By tracing the history and literature of surrealism, the author makes the argument that there were certain factions within Latin America that employed characteristics of surrealism in order to reach some sense of understanding, and not to further complicate or disorient -an aim that most closely aligns to Freudian psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis should, however, be a comparable practice only to understand how Latin American surrealism had more of a concrete goal than its European counterpart. The primary subject of the paper is the Mexican poet, Pita Amor, who has retroactively been associated with the movement; and therefore, it should be duly noted that the adjective, surrealism, only applies to her as something that describes traits within the literary lexicon.

Keywords: Latin America, Pita Amor, poetry, surrealism

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1286 The Contribution of Blended Learning in Phonological Awareness Skills Enhancement: A Review of Literature

Authors: Mohammad Husam Alhumsi

Abstract:

The current paper relies on second language acquisition through blended learning language courses in phonology. It explores the current literature pertaining to the importance of blended learning teaching courses in the development of phonological awareness skills. This study focuses on how to improve oral and intercultural skills through the engagement of learners and cultivating intercultural awareness and authentic social interaction in virtual environments. It also sheds more light on the role of the theory of the technology acceptance model (TAM) theory plays in the blending learning process. The literature revealed that a blended learning approach can be effective in enhancing learners’ reading skills. Recommendations and further studies will be provided in advance.

Keywords: blended learning, phonological awareness, second language acquisition, technology acceptance model

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1285 The Semiosis of 'We' Narrative: Examining Collectivity in Tahrir Memoir

Authors: May Al Sahib

Abstract:

This paper draws together an analysis of two autobiographical writings; Ahdaf Soueif’s Cairo: My City, Our Revolution (2012), Radwa Ashour’s Heavier than Radwa (2013), and Revolution is My Name: An Egyptian Woman’s Diary from Eighteen Days in Tahrir (2015). Soueif, Ashour, and Prince are Egyptian authors, activists, and cultural commentators who are fully aware that being a ‘third world’ citizen constrains the writer into taking a specific pattern in writing. However, this paper will analyze the choice of literary form in writing the 2011 January revolution. All texts give factual accounts of the revolution with all its contesting powers lingering with mixed references of anxiety and merriment that accentuates their sense of communal solidarity against social corruption and political positioning. Through shifting between the pronouns ‘I’ and ‘we’, these narratives do not solely engage with the personal life of the memorialist; but rather give an account of the collective. Both writers take us to the heart of high-spirited Tahrir Square in 2011 while millions are ranting to oust Hosni Mubarak, the 30 years ruling dictator. By utilizing the instrumentality of collective memory for expressing textual collectivity in their non-fictional writings, these writers are depicting the people power of Egyptians and the historical civil-resistance against governmental unfairness and establishing a certain type of patriotism that elevates and priorities itself from minor conflicts. Their de-individualizing type of life narrative represents the Arabic nation through vital socio-political situations that perpetuate the politics of resistance and collectivity with a constant fear of betraying it and erupts historical moments aiming for an improved future. The texts incorporate an explicit set of reported political series of thought that shape an overall public argument and representational ideas.

Keywords: resistance narrative, life-writing, Tahrir memoir, Middle Eastern literature

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1284 English Writing Anxiety in Debate Writing among Japanese Senior High School EFL Learners: Sources, Effects and Implication

Authors: Maria Lita Sudo

Abstract:

The debate is an effective tool in cultivating critical thinking skills in English classes. It involves writing evidence-based arguments about a resolution in a form of constructive speech and oral discussion using constructive speech, which will then be attacked and defended. In the process of writing, EFL learners may experience anxiety, an emotional problem that affects writing achievement and cognitive processing. Thus, this study explored the sources and effect of English writing anxiety in the context of debate writing with a view to providing EFL teachers pedagogical suggestions in alleviating English writing anxiety in debate writing. The participants of this study are 95 Japanese senior high school EFL learners and 3 Japanese senior high school English teachers. In selecting the participants, opportunity sampling was employed and consent from Japanese English teachers was sought. Data were collected thru (1) observation (2) open-ended questionnaire and (3) semi-structured interview. This study revealed that not all teachers of English in the context of this study recognize the existence of English writing anxiety among their students and that the very nature of the debate, in general, may also be a source of English writing anxiety in the context of debate writing. The interview revealed that English writing anxiety affects students’ ability to retrieve L2 vocabulary. Further, this study revealed different sources of writing anxiety in debate writing, which can be categorized into four main categories: (1) L2 linguistic ability-related factors (2) instructional –related factors, (3) interpersonal-related factors, and (4) debate- related factors. Based on the findings, recommendations for EFL teachers and EFL learners in managing writing anxiety in debate writing are provided.

Keywords: debate, EFL learners, English writing anxiety, sources

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1283 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu

Abstract:

Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

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1282 Questioning the Predominant Feminism in Ahalya, a Short Film by Sujoy Ghosh

Authors: Somya Sharma

Abstract:

Ahalya, the critically acclaimed short film, is known to demolish the gender constructs of the age old myth of Ahalya. The paper tries to crack the overt meaning of the short film by reading between the dialogues and deconstructing the idea of the pseudo feminism in the short film Ahalya by Sujoy Ghosh. The film, by subverting the role of male character by making it seem submissive as compared to the female character's role seems to be just a surface level reading of the text. It seems that Sujoy Ghosh has played not just with changing the paradigm, but also trying to alter the history by doing so. The age old myth of putting Ahalya as a part of the five virgins (panchkanya) of Hindu mythology is explored in the paper. God's manoeuvre cannot be questioned and the two male characters tend to again shape the deed and the life of the female character, Ahalya. It is of importance to note that even in the 21st century, progressive actors like Radhika Apte fail to acknowledge the politics of altering history, not in a progressive way. The film blinds the viewer in the first watch to fall for the female strength and ownership of her sexuality, which is reflected in the opening scene itself where she opens the gate for the police man Indra Sen (representing God Indra who seduced her) who is charmed by her white dress. White, in Hindu mythology, stands for mourning, and this can be a hint towards the prophecy of what is about to come. Ahalya, bold, strong, and confident in this scene seems to be in total ownership of her sexual identity. Further, as the film progresses, control of Ahalya over her acts becomes even more dominant. In the myth of Ahalya, Gautama Maharishi, her husband, who wins her by Brahma's courtesy, curses her for her infidelity. She is then turned into a stone because of the curse and is redeemed when Lord Rama's foot brushes the stone. In the film, it is with the help of Ahalya that Goutam Sadhu turns Indra Sen into a stone doll. Ahalya is seen as a seductress who bewitches Indra Sen, and because the latter falls for the trap laid by the husband wife duo, he is turned into a doll. The attempt made by the paper is to read Ahalya as a character of the stand in wife who is yet again a pawn in the play of Goutama's revenge from Indra (who in the myth is able to escape from any curse or punishment for the act). The paper, therefore, reverts the idea which has till now been signified by the film and attempts to study the feminism this film appropriates. It is essential to break down the structure formed by such overt transgressing films in order to provide a real outlook of how feminism is twisted and moulded according to a man’s wishes.

Keywords: deconstructing, Hindu mythology, Panchkanya, predominant feminism, seductress, stone doll

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1281 Language Development and Growing Spanning Trees in Children Semantic Network

Authors: Somayeh Sadat Hashemi Kamangar, Fatemeh Bakouie, Shahriar Gharibzadeh

Abstract:

In this study, we target to exploit Maximum Spanning Trees (MST) of children's semantic networks to investigate their language development. To do so, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of word-embedding networks. The networks are made of words children learn prior to the age of 30 months as the nodes and the links which are built from the cosine vector similarity of words normatively acquired by children prior to two and a half years of age. These networks are weighted graphs and the strength of each link is determined by the numerical similarities of the two words (nodes) on the sides of the link. To avoid changing the weighted networks to the binaries by setting a threshold, constructing MSTs might present a solution. MST is a unique sub-graph that connects all the nodes in such a way that the sum of all the link weights is maximized without forming cycles. MSTs as the backbone of the semantic networks are suitable to examine developmental changes in semantic network topology in children. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize the developmental change in network organization. We showed that MSTs provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in semantic network organization.

Keywords: maximum spanning trees, word-embedding, semantic networks, language development

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1280 Turning Points in the Development of Translator Training in the West from the 1980s to the Present

Authors: B. Sayaheen

Abstract:

The translator’s competence is one of the topics that has received a great deal of research in the field of translation studies because such competencies are still debatable and not yet agreed upon. Besides, scholars tackle this topic from different points of view. Approaches to teaching these competencies have gone through some developments. This paper aims at investigating these developments, exploring the major turning points and shifts in the developments of teaching methods in translator training. The significance of these turning points and the external or internal causes will also be discussed. Based on the past and present status of teaching approaches in translator training, this paper tries to predict the future of these approaches. This paper is mainly concerned with developments of teaching approaches in the West since the 1980s to the present. The reason behind choosing this specific period is not because translator training started in the 1980s but because most criticism of the teacher-centered approach started at that time. The implications of this research stem from the fact that it identifies the turning points and the causes that led teachers to adopt student-centered approaches rather than teacher-centered approaches and then to incorporate technology and the Internet in translator training. These reasons were classified as external or internal reasons. Translation programs in the West and in other cultures can benefit from this study. Translation programs in the West can notice that teaching translation is geared toward incorporating more technologies. If these programs already use technology and the Internet to teach translation, they might benefit from the assumed future direction of teaching translation. On the other hand, some non-Western countries, and to be specific some professors, are still applying the teacher-centered approach. Moreover, these programs should include technology and the Internet in their teaching approaches to meet the drastic changes in the translation process, which seems to rely more on software and technologies to accomplish the translator’s tasks. Finally, translator training has borrowed many of its approaches from other disciplines, mainly language teaching. The teaching approaches in translator training have gone through some developments, from teacher-centered to student-centered and then toward the integration of technologies and the Internet. Both internal and external causes have played a crucial role in these developments. These borrowed approaches should be comprehensively evaluated in order to see if they achieve the goals of translator training. Such evaluation may lead us to come up with new teaching approaches developed specifically for translator training. While considering these methods and designing new approaches, we need to keep an eye on the future needs of the market.

Keywords: turning points, developments, translator training, market, The West

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1279 Multilingual Females and Linguistic Change: A Quantitative and Qualitative Sociolinguistic Case Study of Minority Speaker in Southeast Asia

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Men and women use minority and majority languages differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors of minority language speakers in Southeast Asia. Language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender. Potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes will be given. Moreover, it is analyzed whether women in multilingual minority speakers’ society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It is asked whether the societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal speaking preferences and suggest predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism. The study further exhibits differences between male and females identity-forming processes and shows why females are the leaders of (socio-) linguistic change.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, multilingual minorities, linguistic change, social networks

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1278 The Impact of Greek Achilles in the Indian Epic

Authors: Pugazhendhi D.D.

Abstract:

Achilles is one of the characters in the ancient Greek Epic called the Iliad, written by Homer. The unique important characterizations related to Achilles are weak portion in the leg of Achilles, strong upper part of the body of the child by dipping in water or fire, killing of siblings of Achilles by their own mother, father trying to stop the killing of the seventh child and hence his mother going away from Achilles to water. His mother was the daughter of the water god. These identical characterizations are also seen in the Indian epic called the Mahabharatha. Like the Greek epic, Iliad, the Mahabharath is also a very ancient epic both in Sanskrit, written by Veda Vyasa, and in Tamil, Villibharatham written by Villiputhurar. Here, the Greek characterization of Achilles is split in between the two characters, Bheeshma and Duryodhana. In Mahabharatha, Duryodhana had a weak spot in his leg, and the body of the child was strengthened by dipping in water. Beeshma’s elder brothers were killed by their own mother, and while his father is trying to stop the killing of the seventh child, his mother went away from the child to water. His mother is the Ganges, the River Goddess. These resemblances in the characters of Achilles and Bheeshma and Duryodhana between these two epics of the far off places clearly show the ancient connections between these two societies. Apart from diversities in language, culture, and nation, this research would be a stepping stone towards the world's comparative literature.

Keywords: achilles, beeshma, iliad, Indian epic

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1277 Socioeconomic Status and Gender Influence on Linguistic Change: A Case Study on Language Competence and Confidence of Multilingual Minority Language Speakers

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Male and female speakers use language differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors. It specifically examines how Kui minority language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender and discusses potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes. Moreover, it discusses whether women in Kui society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It discusses whether societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal current Kui speaking preferences and give predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism because the current Kui speakers will socialize and teach the prospective Kui speakers in the near future. It further confirms that Lao is losing importance in Kui speaker’s (female’s) daily life.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, language change, minority language, multilingualism, sociolinguistics, social Networks

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1276 Russia's War Memory: How Tolstoy Uses Homeric Epic to Reconstruct History

Authors: Svetlana Yefimenko

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Situated within the fields of Russian literature, Russian history, and classics, this paper investigates the early writing of Leo Tolstoy in terms of his reception and appropriation of Homeric epic for the purposes of reconstructing early 19th-century Russian history. The epic mode, specifically its Homeric variation, was deployed in Tolstoy’s writing on his military experience in the Crimean War to legitimize a version of historical events which positioned Russian soldiers as the inheritors of ancient Greek heroism. With reference to Tolstoy’s oft-neglected Sevastopol’ Sketches, and the short stories The Raid, The Wood-Felling, and Two Hussars, this paper examines how such narratives pass from communicative memory into collective memory both in the Homeric epics and in Tolstoy’s reworking of them, particularly on the literary effects produced when the distance between communicative and collective memory collapses. Within a song culture, epic song functions as memory, and this paper shows how, by modeling his early work on epic, Tolstoy produced texts which act as memory itself, thereby becoming the authoritative version of Russia’s past in the Crimea, often contradicting historical facts.

Keywords: classical reception, collective memory, Russian history, Russian literature

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1275 Plurilinguals Learning L2 Italian: (Il)literacy Matters

Authors: Castrenze Nigrelli

Abstract:

In order to investigate the role of illiteracy in L2 Italian acquisition, the paper aims at analyzing the oral productions of L2 Italian learners with equal L1 but a different level of education, i.e. low educated vs. non-educated. The learners’ productions are collected through semi-structured video interviews. From the perspective of the conversational analysis, the interviews are transcribed and studied taking into account also non-verbal aspects of the oral interactions in order to grasp the data as a whole. The learners belong to the specific category of the “unaccompanied foreign minorsˮ, i.e. minors who are not Italian citizens, nor asylum seekers, and are in Italy without adults who have legal responsibility. These minors are characterized by a particular sociolinguistic profile as they are often plurilinguals with a low, very low, or zero level of education. The lack of the previous schooling limits the competence in languages (including L1) to oral competence alone, and this has repercussions on second-language acquisition and, therefore, on social inclusion. In fact, a certain competence in writing and reading has an important impact on mental processes. The low or zero familiarity with written texts has inevitable consequences in the second-language acquisition process, in terms of lack of meta-textual and meta-linguistic reflection. From the comparison of the interviews, the characteristics of the learners’ interlanguages show that the learners deal with the non-inflectional initial phase of the second-language acquisition process: their linguistic varieties are certainly basic varieties. Actually, data show significant differences in the learners’ performance depending on (Il)literacy, which is the only parameter differentiating the learners’ profile. In particular, literacy, namely a certain, albeit low, level of education and proficiency in writing skills, has positive repercussions on the performance in terms of a greater awareness of verb and verbal categories, greater skill in oral interaction, a greater communicative efficacy, greater accuracy, and fluency.

Keywords: Il literacy, L2 Italian, plurilingualism, second-language acquisition

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1274 Learner's Difficulties Acquiring English: The Case of Native Speakers of Rio de La Plata Spanish Towards Justifying the Need for Corpora

Authors: Maria Zinnia Bardas Hoffmann

Abstract:

Contrastive Analysis (CA) is the systematic comparison between two languages. It stems from the notion that errors are caused by interference of the L1 system in the acquisition process of an L2. CA represents a useful tool to understand the nature of learning and acquisition. Also, this particular method promises a path to un-derstand the nature of underlying cognitive processes, even when other factors such as intrinsic motivation and teaching strategies were found to best explain student’s problems in acquisition. CA study is justified not only from the need to get a deeper understanding of the nature of SLA, but as an invaluable source to provide clues, at a cognitive level, for those general processes involved in rule formation and abstract thought. It is relevant for cross disciplinary studies and the fields of Computational Thought, Natural Language processing, Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Linguistics and Math Theory. That being said, this paper intends to address here as well its own set of constraints and limitations. Finally, this paper: (a) aims at identifying some of the difficulties students may find in their learning process due to the nature of their specific variety of L1, Rio de la Plata Spanish (RPS), (b) represents an attempt to discuss the necessity for specific models to approach CA.

Keywords: second language acquisition, applied linguistics, contrastive analysis, applied contrastive analysis English language department, meta-linguistic rules, cross-linguistics studies, computational thought, natural language processing

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1273 Investigating Self-Confidence Influence on English as a Foreign Language Student English Language Proficiency Level

Authors: Ali A. Alshahrani

Abstract:

This study aims to identify Saudi English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' perspectives towards using the English language in their studies. The study explores students' self-confident and its association with students' actual performance in English courses in their different academic programs. A multimodal methodology was used to fulfill the research purpose and answer the research questions. A 25-item survey questionnaire and final examination grades were used to collect data. Two hundred forty-one students agreed to participate in the study. They completed the questionnaire and agreed to release their final grades to be a part of the collected data. The data were coded and analyzed by SPSS software. The findings indicated a significant difference in students' performance in English courses between participants' academic programs on the one hand. Students' self-confidence in their English language skills, on the other hand, was not significantly different between participants' academic programs. Data analysis also revealed no correlational relationship between students' self-confidence level and their language skills and their performance. The study raises more questions about other vital factors such as course instructors' views of the materials, faculty members of the target department, family belief in the usefulness of the program, potential employers. These views and beliefs shape the student's preparation process and, therefore, should be explored further.

Keywords: English language intensive program, language proficiency, performance, self-confidence

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1272 Implementing Action Research in EFL/ESL Classrooms: A Systematic Review of Literature 2010-2019

Authors: Amira D. Ali

Abstract:

Action research studies in education often address learners’ needs and empower practitioner-researcher to effectively change instructional practices and school communities. A systematic review of action research (AR) studies undertaken in EFL/ESL settings was conducted in this paper to systematically analyze empirical studies on action research published within a ten-year period (between 2010 and 2019). The review also aimed at investigating the focal strategies in teaching the language skills at school level and evaluating the overall quality of AR studies concerning focus, purpose, methodology and contribution. Inclusion criteria were established and 41 studies that fit were finally selected for the systematic review. Garrard’s (2007) Matrix Method was used to structure and synthesize the literature. Results showed a significant diversity in teaching strategies and implementation of the AR model. Almost a quarter of the studies focused on improving writing skills at elementary school level. In addition, findings revealed that (44%) of the studies used a mixed approach followed by qualitative method approach (41%), whereas only (15%) employed quantitative methodology. Research gaps for future action research in developing language skills were pointed out, and recommendations were offered.

Keywords: action research, EFL/ESL context, language skills, systematic review

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1271 Investigating the Associative Network of Color Terms among Turkish University Students: A Cognitive-Based Study

Authors: R. Güçlü, E. Küçüksakarya

Abstract:

Word association (WA) gives the broadest information on how knowledge is structured in the human mind. Cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and applied linguistics are the disciplines that consider WA tests as substantial in gaining insights into the very nature of the human cognitive system and semantic knowledge. In this study, Berlin and Kay’s basic 11 color terms (1969) are presented as the stimuli words to a total number of 300 Turkish university students. The responses are analyzed according to Fitzpatrick’s model (2007), including four categories, namely meaning-based responses, position-based responses, form-based responses, and erratic responses. In line with the findings, the responses to free association tests are expected to give much information about Turkish university students’ psychological structuring of vocabulary, especially morpho-syntactic and semantic relationships among words. To conclude, theoretical and practical implications are discussed to make an in-depth evaluation of how associations of basic color terms are represented in the mental lexicon of Turkish university students.

Keywords: color term, gender, mental lexicon, word association task

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1270 The Use of Mobile Applications for Language Learning in 21st-Century Teacher Education for Sustainable Development in Africa

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The need for ICT in Teacher Education due to the nature of 21st-century learners who are computer citizens is essential. The recent increase in the use of Mobile phones has equally revealed the importance of Mobile Applications for learning purposes. However, teacher-trainees and the trainers need to be well-grounded in basic ICT skills for an appropriate outcome. This study seeks to assess the use of Mobile Applications for language learning in Teacher Education teaching-learning process. A 22-item e-questionnaire was used to elicit information from teacher-trainers and teachers-trainees from Faculties of Education in Nigerian Universities. Major findings of this study include: That teacher-education sector is not adequately prepared for manipulative use of ICT and Mobile Applications for teaching and learning process; etc. It was recommended among others that, teacher-trainers should be trained and re-trained on the manipulative use of Mobile devices and the several applications for teaching-learning purpose, especially language education.

Keywords: information and communications technology, ICT, language learning, mobile application, sustainable development, teacher education

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1269 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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1268 Comparison of Classical Computer Vision vs. Convolutional Neural Networks Approaches for Weed Mapping in Aerial Images

Authors: Paulo Cesar Pereira Junior, Alexandre Monteiro, Rafael da Luz Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Sobieranski, Aldo von Wangenheim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparison between convolutional neural networks and classical computer vision approaches, for the specific precision agriculture problem of weed mapping on sugarcane fields aerial images. A systematic literature review was conducted to find which computer vision methods are being used on this specific problem. The most cited methods were implemented, as well as four models of convolutional neural networks. All implemented approaches were tested using the same dataset, and their results were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The obtained results were compared to a human expert made ground truth for validation. The results indicate that the convolutional neural networks present better precision and generalize better than the classical models.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, digital image processing, precision agriculture, semantic segmentation, unmanned aerial vehicles

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1267 Language Learning Motivation in Mozambique: A Quantitative Study of University Students

Authors: Simao E. Luis

Abstract:

From the 1960s to the 1990s, the social-psychological framework of language attitudes that emerged from the Canadian research tradition was very influential. Integrativeness was one of the main variables in Gardner’s theory because refugees and immigrants were motivated to learn English and French to integrate into the Canadian community. Second language (L2) scholars have expressed concerns over integrativeness because it cannot explain the motivation of L2 learners in global contexts. This study aims to investigate student motivation to learn English as a foreign language in Mozambique, and to contribute to the ongoing validation of the L2 Motivational Self System theory in an under-researched country. One hundred thirty-seven (N=137) university students completed a well-established motivation questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS, and descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and MANOVA were conducted. Results show that many variables contribute to motivated learning behavior, particularly the L2 learning experience and attitudes towards the English language. Statistically significant differences were found between males and females, with males expressing more motivation to learn the English language for personal interests. Statistically significant differences were found between older and younger students, with older students reporting more vivid images of themselves as future English language users. These findings have pedagogical implications because motivational strategies are positively correlated with student motivated learning behavior. Therefore, teachers should design L2 tasks that can help students to develop their future L2 selves.

Keywords: English as a foreign language, L2 motivational self system, Mozambique, university students

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