Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 830

Search results for: Mandarin Chinese

830 Topic Prominence and Temporal Encoding in Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Tzu-I Chiang

Abstract:

A central question for finite-nonfinite distinction in Mandarin Chinese is how does Mandarin encode temporal information without the grammatical contrast between past and present tense. Moreover, how do L2 learners of Mandarin whose native language is English and whose L1 system has tense morphology, acquire the temporal encoding system in L2 Mandarin? The current study reports preliminary findings on the relationship between topic prominence and the temporal encoding in L1 and L2 Chinese. Oral narratives data from 30 natives and learners of Mandarin Chinese were collected via a film-retell task. In terms of coding, predicates collected from the narratives were transcribed and then coded based on four major verb types: n-degree Statives (quality-STA), point-scale Statives (status-STA), n-atom EVENT (ACT), and point EVENT (resultative-ACT). How native speakers and non-native speakers started retelling the story was calculated. Results of the study show that native speakers of Chinese tend to express Topic Time (TT) syntactically at the topic position; whereas L2 learners of Chinese across levels rely mainly on the default time encoded in the event types. Moreover, as the proficiency level of the learner increases, learners’ appropriate use of the event predicates increased, which supports the argument that L2 development of temporal encoding is affected by lexical aspect.

Keywords: topic prominence, temporal encoding, lexical aspect, L2 acquisition

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829 Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets

Authors: Si Chen, Caroline Wiltshire, Bin Li

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This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.

Keywords: growth curve analysis, Mandarin Chinese, tone sandhi, underlying pitch target

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828 L2 Acquisition of Tense and Aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL Learners of Different Proficiency Levels

Authors: Mable Chan

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The present study about the acquisition of tense and aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners aims to investigate the relationship between knowledge, the role that classroom input plays in the development of that knowledge, and learners' use of the L2 knowledge they acquire (i.e. their performance). Chinese has been argued as a tenseless language and Chinese ESL learners have to acquire the property from scratch. The study of acquisition of tense and aspect is a very fruitful research area in second language acquisition for a number of reasons. First, tense and aspect are notorious for being difficult for Chinese ESL learners. Second, to our knowledge, no studies have been done to compare Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners and age effects in one single study. Data are now being collected and the findings from this comparison study of tense-aspect acquisition will shed light on both theoretical and pedagogical issues in second language acquisition, and contribute to a better understanding of both theoretical aspect concerning L2 acquisition of tense and aspect, and pedagogy of tense for L2 Chinese ESL learners.

Keywords: aspect, second language acquisition, tense, universal grammar

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827 A Study on Bilingual Semantic Processing: Category Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present study addressed the nature of bilingual semantic processing in Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min and examined category effects and age effects. Nineteen bilingual adults of Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min, nine monolingual seniors of Mandarin Chinese, and ten monolingual seniors of Southern Min in Taiwan individually completed two semantic tasks: Picture naming and category fluency tasks. The instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures, including thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. The category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). The reaction time for each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese and in Southern Min were compared and discussed to examine the category effects and age effects. The results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information of these seniors was comparatively deteriorated, and thus they produced a smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group differences were also found in the reaction time results. Category effects were significant for both adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. The findings of the present study will help characterize the nature of the bilingual semantic processing of adults and seniors, and contribute to the fields of contrastive and corpus linguistics.

Keywords: bilingual semantic processing, aging, Mandarin Chinese, Southern Min

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826 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

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The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition

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825 A Corpus-Based Analysis on Code-Mixing Features in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children in Singapore

Authors: Xunan Huang, Caicai Zhang

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This paper investigated the code-mixing features in Mandarin-English bilingual children in Singapore. First, it examined whether the code-mixing rate was different in Mandarin Chinese and English contexts. Second, it explored the syntactic categories of code-mixing in Singapore bilingual children. Moreover, this study investigated whether morphological information was preserved when inserting syntactic components into the matrix language. Data are derived from the Singapore Bilingual Corpus, in which the recordings and transcriptions of sixty English-Mandarin 5-to-6-year-old children were preserved for analysis. Results indicated that the rate of code-mixing was asymmetrical in the two language contexts, with the rate being significantly higher in the Mandarin context than that in the English context. The asymmetry is related to language dominance in that children are more likely to code-mix when using their nondominant language. Concerning the syntactic categories of code-mixing words in the Singaporean bilingual children, we found that noun-mixing, verb-mixing, and adjective-mixing are the three most frequently used categories in code-mixing in the Mandarin context. This pattern mirrors the syntactic categories of code-mixing in the Cantonese context in Cantonese-English bilingual children, and the general trend observed in lexical borrowing. Third, our results also indicated that English vocabularies that carry morphological information are embedded in bare forms in the Mandarin context. These findings shed light upon how bilingual children take advantage of the two languages in mixed utterances in a bilingual environment.

Keywords: bilingual children, code-mixing, English, Mandarin Chinese

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824 Language Developmental Trends of Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers in Beijing

Authors: Nga Yui Tong

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Mandarin, the official language of China, is based on the Beijing dialect and is spoken by more than one billion people from all over the world. To investigate the trends of Mandarin acquisition, 192 preschoolers are recruited by stratified random sampling. They are from 4 different districts in Beijing, 2 schools in each district, with 4 age groups, both genders, and 3 children in each stratum. The children are paired up to conduct semi-structured free play for 30 minutes. Their language output is videotaped, transcribed, and coded for the calculation of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Two-way ANOVA showed that the variation of MLU is significantly contributed by age, which is coherent to previous findings of other languages. This first large-scale study to investigate the developmental trend of Mandarin in young children in Beijing provides empirical evidence to the development of standards and curriculum planning for early Mandarin education. Interestingly, the gender effect in the study is insignificant, with boys showing a slightly higher MLU than girls across all age groups and settings, except the 4.5 years same-gender dyads. The societal factors in the Chinese context on parenting and gender bias are worth looking into.

Keywords: Beijing, language development, Mandarin, preschoolers

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823 Duration Patterns of English by Native British Speakers and Mandarin ESL Speakers

Authors: Chen Bingru

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This study is intended to describe and analyze the effects of polysyllabic shortening and word or phrase boundary on the duration patterns of spoken utterances by Mandarin learners of English in comparison with native speakers of English. To investigate the relative contribution of these effects, two production experiments were conducted. The study included 11 native British English speakers and 20 Mandarin learners of English who were asked to produce four sets of tokens consisting of a mono-syllabic base form, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words derived from the base by the addition of suffixes, and a set of short sentences with a particular combination of phrase size, stress pattern, and boundary location. The duration of words and segments was measured, and results from the data analysis suggest that the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of word or phrase position are likely to affect a Chinese accent for Mandarin ESL speakers. This study sheds light on research on the duration patterns of language by demonstrating the effect of duration-related factors on the foreign accent of Mandarin ESL speakers. It can also benefit both L2 learners and language teachers by increasing their sensitivity to the duration differences and difficulties experienced by L2 learners of English. An understanding of the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of position in words and phrase on syllable duration can also facilitate L2 teachers to establish priorities for teaching pronunciation to ESL learners.

Keywords: duration patterns, Chinese accent, Mandarin ESL speakers, polysyllabic shortening

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822 The Impact of Grammatical Differences on English-Mandarin Chinese Simultaneous Interpreting

Authors: Miao Sabrina Wang

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This paper examines the impact of grammatical differences on simultaneous interpreting from English into Mandarin Chinese by drawing upon an empirical study of professional and student interpreters. The research focuses on the effects of three grammatical categories including passives, adverbial components and noun phrases on simultaneous interpreting. For each category, interpretations of instances in which the grammatical structures are the same across the two languages are compared with interpretations of instances in which the grammatical structures differ across the two languages in terms of content accuracy and delivery appropriateness. The results indicate that grammatical differences have a significant impact on the interpreting performance of both professionals and students.

Keywords: content accuracy, delivery appropriateness, grammatical differences, simultaneous interpreting

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821 Language Processing of Seniors with Alzheimer’s Disease: From the Perspective of Temporal Parameters

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present paper aims to examine the language processing of Chinese-speaking seniors with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from the perspective of temporal cues. Twenty healthy adults, 17 healthy seniors, and 13 seniors with AD in Taiwan participated in this study to tell stories based on two sets of pictures. Nine temporal cues were fetched and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese were compared and discussed to examine to what extent and in what way these three groups of participants performed with significant differences. Results indicated that the age effects were significant in filled pauses. The dementia effects were significant in mean duration of pauses, empty pauses, filled pauses, lexical pauses, normalized mean duration of filled pauses and lexical pauses. The findings reported in the current paper help characterize the nature of language processing in seniors with or without AD, and contribute to the interactions between the AD neural mechanism and their temporal parameters.

Keywords: language processing, Alzheimer’s disease, Mandarin Chinese, temporal cues

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820 Experimental Research and Analyses of Yoruba Native Speakers’ Chinese Phonetic Errors

Authors: Obasa Joshua Ifeoluwa

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Phonetics is the foundation and most important part of language learning. This article, through an acoustic experiment as well as using Praat software, uses Yoruba students’ Chinese consonants, vowels, and tones pronunciation to carry out a visual comparison with that of native Chinese speakers. This article is aimed at Yoruba native speakers learning Chinese phonetics; therefore, Yoruba students are selected. The students surveyed are required to be at an elementary level and have learned Chinese for less than six months. The students selected are all undergraduates majoring in Chinese Studies at the University of Lagos. These students have already learned Chinese Pinyin and are all familiar with the pinyin used in the provided questionnaire. The Chinese students selected are those that have passed the level two Mandarin proficiency examination, which serves as an assurance that their pronunciation is standard. It is discovered in this work that in terms of Mandarin’s consonants pronunciation, Yoruba students cannot distinguish between the voiced and voiceless as well as the aspirated and non-aspirated phonetics features. For instance, while pronouncing [ph] it is clearly shown in the spectrogram that the Voice Onset Time (VOT) of a Chinese speaker is higher than that of a Yoruba native speaker, which means that the Yoruba speaker is pronouncing the unaspirated counterpart [p]. Another difficulty is to pronounce some affricates like [tʂ]、[tʂʰ]、[ʂ]、[ʐ]、 [tɕ]、[tɕʰ]、[ɕ]. This is because these sounds are not in the phonetic system of the Yoruba language. In terms of vowels, some students find it difficult to pronounce some allophonic high vowels such as [ɿ] and [ʅ], therefore pronouncing them as their phoneme [i]; another pronunciation error is pronouncing [y] as [u], also as shown in the spectrogram, a student pronounced [y] as [iu]. In terms of tone, it is most difficult for students to differentiate between the second (rising) and third (falling and rising) tones because these tones’ emphasis is on the rising pitch. This work concludes that the major error made by Yoruba students while pronouncing Chinese sounds is caused by the interference of their first language (LI) and sometimes by their lingua franca.

Keywords: Chinese, Yoruba, error analysis, experimental phonetics, consonant, vowel, tone

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819 A Study on the Acquisition of Chinese Classifiers by Vietnamese Learners

Authors: Quoc Hung Le Pham

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In the field of language study, classifier is an interesting research feature. In the world’s languages, some languages have classifier system, some do not. Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese languages are a rich classifier system, however, because of the language system, the cognitive, cultural differences, so that the syntactic structure of classifier of them also dissimilar. When using Mandarin Chinese classifiers must collocate with nouns or verbs, in the lexical category it is not like nouns or verbs, belong to the open class. But some scholars believe that Mandarin Chinese measure words are similar to English and other Indo European languages. The word hanging on the structure and word formation (suffix), is a closed class. Compared to other languages, such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai and other Asian languages are still belonging to the classifier language’s second type, this type of language is classifier, it is in the majority of quantity must exist, and following deictic, anaphoric or quantity appearing together, not separation between its modified noun, also known as numeral classifier language. Main syntactic structure of Chinese classifiers are as follows: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+quantity+measure+noun’, ‘prefix+quantity+measure +noun’, ‘quantity +adjective + measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (above 10 whole number), + duo (多)measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (around 10) + measure + duo (多) +noun’. Main syntactic structure of Vietnamese classifiers are: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘ measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘measure+noun+prefix+ quantity’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+adjective', ‘duo (多) +quanlity+measure+noun’, ‘quantity+measure+adjective+pronoun (quantity word could not be 1)’, ‘measure+adjective+pronoun’, ‘measure+pronoun’. In daily life, classifiers are commonly used, if Chinese learners failed to standardize this using catergory, because the negative impact might occur on their verbal communication. The richness of the Chinese classifier system contributes to the complexity in the study of the system by foreign learners, especially in the inter language of Vietnamese learners. As above mentioned, Vietnamese language also has a rich system of classifiers, however, the basic structure order of two languages are similar but both still have differences. These similarities and dissimilarities between Chinese and Vietnamese classifier systems contribute significantly to the common errors made by Vietnamese students while they acquire Chinese, which are distinct from the errors made by students from the other language background. This article from a comparative perspective of language, has an orientation towards Chinese and Vietnamese languages commonly used in classifiers semantics and structural form two aspects. This comparative study aims to identity Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers may face some negative transference of mother language, beside that through the analysis of the classifiers questionnaire, find out the causes and patterns of the errors they made. As the preliminary analysis shows, Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers made some errors such as: overuse classifier ‘ge’(个); misuse the other classifiers ‘*yi zhang ri ji’(yi pian ri ji), ‘*yi zuo fang zi’(yi jian fang zi), ‘*si zhang jin pai’(si mei jin pai); homonym words ‘dui, shuang, fu, tao’ (对、双、副、套), ‘ke, li’ (颗、粒).

Keywords: acquisition, classifiers, negative transfer, Vietnamse learners

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818 Refusal Speech Acts in French Learners of Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Jui-Hsueh Hu

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This study investigated various models of refusal speech acts among three target groups: French learners of Mandarin Chinese (FM), Taiwanese native Mandarin speakers (TM), and native French speakers (NF). The refusal responses were analyzed in terms of their options, frequencies, and sequences and the contents of their semantic formulas. This study also examined differences in refusal strategies, as determined by social status and social distance, among the three groups. The difficulties of refusal speech acts encountered by FM were then generalized. The results indicated that Mandarin instructors of NF should focus on the different reasons for the pragmatic failure of French learners and should assist these learners in mastering refusal speech acts that rely on abundant cultural information. In this study, refusal policies were mainly classified according to the research of Beebe et al. (1990). Discourse completion questionnaires were collected from TM, FM, and NF, and their responses were compared to determine how refusal policies differed among the groups. This study not only emphasized the dissimilarities of refusal strategies between native Mandarin speakers and second-language Mandarin learners but also used NF as a control group. The results of this study demonstrated that regarding overall strategies, FM were biased toward NF in terms of strategy choice, order, and content, resulting in pragmatic transfer under the influence of social factors such as 'social status' and 'social distance,' strategy choices of FM were still closer to those of NF, and the phenomenon of pragmatic transfer of FM was revealed. Regarding the refusal difficulties among the three groups, the F-test in the analysis of variance revealed statistical significance was achieved for Role Playing Items 13 and 14 (P < 0.05). A difference was observed in the average number of refusal difficulties between the participants. However, after multiple comparisons, it was found that item 13 (unrecognized heterosexual junior colleague requesting contacts) was significantly more difficult for NF than for TM and FM; item 14 (contacts requested by an unrecognized classmate of the opposite sex) was significantly more difficult to refuse for NF than for TM. This study summarized the pragmatic language errors that most FM often perform, including the misuse or absence of modal words, hedging expressions, and empty words at the end of sentences, as the reasons for pragmatic failures. The common social pragmatic failures of FM include inaccurately applying the level of directness and formality.

Keywords: French Mandarin, interlanguage refusal, pragmatic transfer, speech acts

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817 Verb Bias in Mandarin: The Corpus Based Study of Children

Authors: Jou-An Chung

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the verb bias of the Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials and provide the criteria for categorization. Verb bias varies cross-linguistically. As Mandarin and English are typological different, this study hopes to shed light on Mandarin verb bias with the use of corpus and provide thorough and detailed criteria for analysis. Moreover, this study focuses on children’s reading materials since it is a significant issue in understanding children’s sentence processing. Therefore, investigating verb bias of Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials is also an important issue and can provide further insights into children’s sentence processing. The small corpus is built up for this study. The corpus consists of the collection of school textbooks and Mandarin Daily News for children. The files are then segmented and POS tagged by JiebaR (Chinese segmentation with R). For the ease of analysis, the one-word character verbs and intransitive verbs are excluded beforehand. The total of 20 high frequency verbs are hand-coded and are further categorized into one of the three types, namely DO type, SC type and other category. If the frequency of taking Other Type exceeds the threshold of 25%, the verb is excluded from the study. The results show that 10 verbs are direct object bias verbs, and six verbs are sentential complement bias verbs. The paired T-test was done to assure the statistical significance (p = 0.0001062 for DO bias verb, p=0.001149 for SC bias verb). The result has shown that in children’s reading materials, the DO biased verbs are used more than the SC bias verbs since the simplest structure of sentences is easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child's reading materials but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context. Sentences are easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child corpus, but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, verb bias, child language, psycholinguistics

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816 Third Language Perception of English Initial Plosives by Mandarin-Japanese Bilinguals

Authors: Rika Aoki

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The aim of this paper is to investigate whether being bilinguals facilitates or impedes the perception of a third language. The present study conducted a perception experiment in which Mandarin-Japanese bilinguals categorized a Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) continuum into English /b/ or /p/. The results show that early bilinguals were influenced by both Mandarin and Japanese, while late bilinguals behaved in a similar manner to Mandarin monolinguals Thus, it can be concluded that in the present study having two languages did not help bilinguals to perceive L3 stop contrast native-likely.

Keywords: bilinguals, perception, third language acquisition, voice-onset-time

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815 The Development of Chinese-English Homophonic Word Pairs Databases for English Teaching and Learning

Authors: Yuh-Jen Wu, Chun-Min Lin

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Homophonic words are common in Mandarin Chinese which belongs to the tonal language family. Using homophonic cues to study foreign languages is one of the learning techniques of mnemonics that can aid the retention and retrieval of information in the human memory. When learning difficult foreign words, some learners transpose them with words in a language they are familiar with to build an association and strengthen working memory. These phonological clues are beneficial means for novice language learners. In the classroom, if mnemonic skills are used at the appropriate time in the instructional sequence, it may achieve their maximum effectiveness. For Chinese-speaking students, proper use of Chinese-English homophonic word pairs may help them learn difficult vocabulary. In this study, a database program is developed by employing Visual Basic. The database contains two corpora, one with Chinese lexical items and the other with English ones. The Chinese corpus contains 59,053 Chinese words that were collected by a web crawler. The pronunciations of this group of words are compared with words in an English corpus based on WordNet, a lexical database for the English language. Words in both databases with similar pronunciation chunks and batches are detected. A total of approximately 1,000 Chinese lexical items are located in the preliminary comparison. These homophonic word pairs can serve as a valuable tool to assist Chinese-speaking students in learning and memorizing new English vocabulary.

Keywords: Chinese, corpus, English, homophonic words, vocabulary

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814 The Priming Effect of Morphology, Phonology, Semantics, and Orthography in Mandarin Chinese: A Prime Paradigm Study

Authors: Bingqing Xu, Wenxing Shuai

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This study investigates the priming effects of different Chinese compound words by native Mandarin speakers. There are lots of homonym, polysemy, and synonym in Chinese. However, it is unclear which kind of words have the biggest priming effect. Native Mandarin speakers were tested in a visual-word lexical decision experiment. The stimuli, which are all two-character compound words, consisted of two parts: primes and targets. Five types of relationships were used in all stimuli: morphologically related condition, in which the prime and the target contain the same morpheme; orthographically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same form; phonologically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same phonology; semantically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with similar meanings; totally unrelated condition. The time since participants saw the target to respond was recorded. Analyses on reaction time showed that the average reaction time of morphologically related targets was much shorter than others, suggesting the morphological priming effect is the biggest. However, the reaction time of the phonologically related conditions was the longest, even longer than unrelated conditions. According to scatter plots analyses, 86.7% of participants had priming effects in morphologically related conditions, only 20% of participants had priming effects in phonologically related conditions. These results suggested that morphologically related conditions had the biggest priming effect. The orthographically and semantically related conditions also had priming effects, whereas the phonologically related conditions had few priming effects.

Keywords: priming effect, morphology, phonology, semantics, orthography

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813 Lexical-Semantic Processing by Chinese as a Second Language Learners

Authors: Yi-Hsiu Lai

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The present study aimed to elucidate the lexical-semantic processing for Chinese as second language (CSL) learners. Twenty L1 speakers of Chinese and twenty CSL learners in Taiwan participated in a picture naming task and a category fluency task. Based on their Chinese proficiency levels, these CSL learners were further divided into two sub-groups: ten CSL learners of elementary Chinese proficiency level and ten CSL learners of intermediate Chinese proficiency level. Instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures: thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. Object pictures were divided into two categories: living objects and non-living objects. Action pictures were composed of two categories: action verbs and process verbs. As in the naming task, the category fluency task consisted of two semantic categories – objects (i.e., living and non-living objects) and actions (i.e., action and process verbs). Participants were asked to report as many items within a category as possible in one minute. Oral productions were tape-recorded and transcribed for further analysis. Both error types and error frequency were calculated. Statistical analysis was further conducted to examine these error types and frequency made by CSL learners. Additionally, category effects, pictorial effects and L2 proficiency were discussed. Findings in the present study helped characterize the lexical-semantic process of Chinese naming in CSL learners of different Chinese proficiency levels and made contributions to Chinese vocabulary teaching and learning in the future.

Keywords: lexical-semantic processing, Mandarin Chinese, naming, category effects

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812 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

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This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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811 Microwave and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Mandarin and Lemon Peel: Comparisons between Sources and Methods

Authors: Pınar Karbuz, A. Seyhun Kıpcak, Mehmet B. Piskin, Emek Derun, Nurcan Tugrul

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Pectin is a complex colloidal polysaccharide, found on the cell walls of all young plants such as fruit and vegetables. It acts as a thickening, stabilizing and gelling agent in foods. Pectin was extracted from mandarin and lemon peels using ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction methods to compare with these two different sources and methods of pectin production. In this work, the effect of microwave power (360, 600 W) and irradiation time (1, 2, 3 min) on the yield of extracted pectin from mandarin and lemon peels for microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were investigated. For ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), parameters were determined as temperature (60, 75 °C) and sonication time (15, 30, 45 min) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as an extracting agent for both extraction methods. The highest yields of extracted pectin from lemon peels were found to be 8.16 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 8.58 % (w/w) for 360 W, 1 min by MAE. Additionally, the highest yields of extracted pectin from mandarin peels were found to be 11.29 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 16.44 % (w/w) for 600 W, 1 min by MAE. The results showed that the use of microwave assisted extraction promoted a better yield when compared to the two extraction methods. On the other hand, according to the results of experiments, mandarin peels contain more pectin than lemon peels when the compared to the pectin product values of two sources. Therefore, these results suggested that MAE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extraction of pectin and mandarin peels should be preferred as sources of pectin production compared to lemon peels.

Keywords: mandarin peel, lemon peel, pectin, ultrasound, microwave, extraction

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810 On Early Verb Acquisition in Chinese-Speaking Children

Authors: Yating Mu

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Young children acquire native language with amazing rapidity. After noticing this interesting phenomenon, lots of linguistics, as well as psychologists, devote themselves to exploring the best explanations. Thus researches on first language acquisition emerged. Early lexical development is an important branch of children’s FLA (first language acquisition). Verb, the most significant class of lexicon, the most grammatically complex syntactic category or word type, is not only the core of exploring syntactic structures of language but also plays a key role in analyzing semantic features. Obviously, early verb development must have great impacts on children’s early lexical acquisition. Most scholars conclude that verbs, in general, are very difficult to learn because the problem in verb learning might be more about mapping a specific verb onto an action or event than about learning the underlying relational concepts that the verb or relational term encodes. However, the previous researches on early verb development mainly focus on the argument about whether there is a noun-bias or verb-bias in children’s early productive vocabulary. There are few researches on general characteristics of children’s early verbs concerning both semantic and syntactic aspects, not mentioning a general survey on Chinese-speaking children’s verb acquisition. Therefore, the author attempts to examine the general conditions and characteristics of Chinese-speaking children’s early productive verbs, based on data from a longitudinal study on three Chinese-speaking children. In order to present an overall picture of Chinese verb development, both semantic and syntactic aspects will be focused in the present study. As for semantic analysis, a classification method is adopted first. Verb category is a sophisticated class in Mandarin, so it is quite necessary to divide it into small sub-types, thus making the research much easier. By making a reasonable classification of eight verb classes on basis of semantic features, the research aims at finding out whether there exist any universal rules in Chinese-speaking children’s verb development. With regard to the syntactic aspect of verb category, a debate between nativist account and usage-based approach has lasted for quite a long time. By analyzing the longitudinal Mandarin data, the author attempts to find out whether the usage-based theory can fully explain characteristics in Chinese verb development. To sum up, this thesis attempts to apply the descriptive research method to investigate the acquisition and the usage of Chinese-speaking children’s early verbs, on purpose of providing a new perspective in investigating semantic and syntactic features of early verb acquisition.

Keywords: Chinese-speaking children, early verb acquisition, verb classes, verb grammatical structures

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809 (Re)Calibrating Language Capital among Malay Youths in Singapore

Authors: Mukhlis Abu Bakar

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Certain languages are held in higher regard than others given their respective socio-economic and political value, perceived or real. The different positioning of languages manifests in a state’s language-in-education policy, such as Singapore’s which places a premium on English in relation to the mother tongue (MT) languages (Mandarin Chinese, Malay, and Tamil). Among the latter, Mandarin Chinese, as the language of the majority ethnic group, has a more privileged status. The relative positioning of the four official languages shapes Singaporeans’ attitude towards their bilingualism. This paper offers an overview of the attitudes towards English-Malay (EM) bilingualism among Malay youths in Singapore, those who are in school and those already working. It examines how 200 respondents perceive the benefits of their EM bilingualism and their EM bilingual identity. The sample is stratified along gender, socio-economic status, dominant home language and self-rated language proficiency. The online survey comprises questions on the cognitive, communicative, pragmatic and religious benefits of bilingualism, and on language identity. The paper highlight significant trends relating to respondents' positive attitudes towards their EM bilingualism and their bilingual identity. Positive ratings are lowest among young working adults. EM bilinguals also perceive their bilingualism as less useful than English-Chinese bilingualism. These findings are framed within Bourdieu’s metaphor of field and habitus in order to understand why Malay youths make their language choices and why they recalibrate their linguistic capital upon entering the workforce, and in so doing understand the impact a state’s language-in-education policy has on its citizens’ attitude towards their respective English-MT bilingualism.

Keywords: English-Malay bilingualism, language attitude, language identity, recalibrating capital

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808 Chinese Remainder Theorem and Decidability

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

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The Chinese remainder theorem deals with systems of modular equations. It has many applications. The Chinese remainder theorem requires that modules be pairwise coprime. In this paper, we discuss the general Chinese remainder theorem, which does not require this restriction on modules. We also show interesting applications of the general Chinese remainder theorem in proving decidability.

Keywords: Chinese remainder theorem, decidability, general Chinese remainder theorem, quantifier-elimination

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807 English Vowel Duration Affected by Voicing Contrast: A Cross Linguistic Examination of L2 English Production and Perception by Asian Learners of English

Authors: Nguyen Van Anh Le, Mafuyu Kitahara

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In several languages, it is widely acknowledged that vowels are longer before voiced consonants than before voiceless ones such as English. However, in Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, and Korean, the distribution of voiced-voiceless stop contrasts and long-short vowel differences are vastly different from English. The purpose of this study is to determine whether these targeted learners' L2 English production and perception change in terms of vowel duration as a function of stop voicing. The production measurements in the database of Asian learners revealed a distinct effect than the one observed in native speakers. There was no evident vowel lengthening patterns. The results of the perceptual experiment with 24 participants indicated that individuals tended to prefer voiceless stops when preceding vowels were shortened, but there was no statistically significant difference between intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced-level learners. However, learners demonstrated distinct perceptual patterns for various vowels and stops. The findings have valuable implications for L2 English speech acquisition. Keywords: voiced/voiceless stops, preceding vowel duration, voiced/voiceless perception, L2 English, L1 Mandarin Chinese, L1 Vietnamese, L1 Japanese, L1 Korean

Keywords: voiced/voiceless stops, preceding vowel duration, voiced/voiceless perception, L2 english

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806 Cultural Understanding in Chinese Language Education for Foreigners: A Quest for Better Integration

Authors: Linhan Sun

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With the gradual strengthening of China's economic development, more and more people around the world are learning Chinese due to economic and trade needs, which has also promoted the research related to Chinese language education for foreigners. Because the Chinese language system is different from the Western language system, learning Chinese is not easy for many learners. In addition, language learning cannot be separated from the learning and understanding of culture. How to integrate cultural learning into the curriculum of Chinese language education for foreigners is the focus of this study. Through a semi-structured in-depth interview method, 15 foreigners who have studied or are studying Chinese participated in this study. This study found that cultural learning and Chinese as a foreign language are relatively disconnected. In other words, learners were able to acquire a certain degree of knowledge of the Chinese language through textbooks or courses but did not gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

Keywords: Chinese language education, Chinese culture, qualitative methods, intercultural communication

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805 Competition between Verb-Based Implicit Causality and Theme Structure's Influence on Anaphora Bias in Mandarin Chinese Sentences: Evidence from Corpus

Authors: Linnan Zhang

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Linguists, as well as psychologists, have shown great interests in implicit causality in reference processing. However, most frequently-used approaches to this issue are psychological experiments (such as eye tracking or self-paced reading, etc.). This research is a corpus-based one and is assisted with statistical tool – software R. The main focus of the present study is about the competition between verb-based implicit causality and theme structure’s influence on anaphora bias in Mandarin Chinese sentences. In Accessibility Theory, it is believed that salience, which is also known as accessibility, and relevance are two important factors in reference processing. Theme structure, which is a special syntactic structure in Chinese, determines the salience of an antecedent on the syntactic level while verb-based implicit causality is a key factor to the relevance between antecedent and anaphora. Therefore, it is a study about anaphora, combining psychology with linguistics. With analysis of the sentences from corpus as well as the statistical analysis of Multinomial Logistic Regression, major findings of the present study are as follows: 1. When the sentence is stated in a ‘cause-effect’ structure, the theme structure will always be the antecedent no matter forward biased verbs or backward biased verbs co-occur; in non-theme structure, the anaphora bias will tend to be the opposite of the verb bias; 2. When the sentence is stated in a ‘effect-cause’ structure, theme structure will not always be the antecedent and the influence of verb-based implicit causality will outweigh that of theme structure; moreover, the anaphora bias will be the same with the bias of verbs. All the results indicate that implicit causality functions conditionally and the noun in theme structure will not be the high-salience antecedent under any circumstances.

Keywords: accessibility theory, anaphora, theme strcture, verb-based implicit causality

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804 A Comparison between Bèi Passives and Yóu Passives in Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Rui-heng Ray Huang

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This study compares the syntax and semantics of two kinds of passives in Mandarin Chinese: bèi passives and yóu passives. To express a Chinese equivalent for ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ either bèi or yóu can be used, as in Xiǎotōu bèi/yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le. It is shown in this study that bèi passives and yóu passives differ semantically and syntactically. The semantic observations are based on the theta theory, dealing with thematic roles. On the other hand, the syntactic analysis draws heavily upon the generative grammar, looking into thematic structures. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the core semantics of bèi passives is centered on the Patient NP in the subject position. This Patient NP is essentially an Affectee, undergoing the outcome or consequence brought up by the action represented by the predicate. This may explain why in the sentence Wǒde huà bèi/*yóu tā niǔqū le ‘My words have been twisted by him/her,’ only bèi is allowed. This is because the subject NP wǒde huà ‘my words’ suffers a negative consequence. Yóu passives, in contrast, place the semantic focus on the post-yóu NP, which is not an Affectee though. Instead, it plays a role which has to take certain responsibility without being affected in a way like an Affectee. For example, in the sentence Zhèbù diànyǐng yóu/*bèi tā dānrèn dǎoyǎn ‘This film is directed by him/her,’ only the use of yóu is possible because the post-yóu NP tā ‘s/he’ refers to someone in charge, who is not an Affectee, nor is the sentence-initial NP zhèbù diànyǐng ‘this film’. When it comes to the second finding, the syntactic structures of bèi passives and yóu passives differ in that the former involve a two-place predicate while the latter a three-place predicate. The passive morpheme bèi in a case like Xiǎotōu bèi jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police’ has been argued by some Chinese syntacticians to be a two-place predicate which selects an Experiencer subject and an Event complement. Under this analysis, the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ in the above example is a base-generated subject. This study, however, proposes that yóu passives fall into a three-place unergative structure. In the sentence Xiǎotōu yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ is a topic which serves as a Patient taken by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ The subject of the sentence is assumed to be an Agent, which is in a null form and may find its reference from the discourse or world knowledge. Regarding the post-yóu NP jǐngchá ‘the police,’ its status is dual. On the one hand, it is a Patient introduced by the light verb yóu; on the other, it is an Agent assigned by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ It is concluded that the findings in this study contribute to better understanding of what makes the distinction between the two kinds of Chinese passives.

Keywords: affectee, passive, patient, unergative

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803 Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual: The Effect of Language Learning on the Working Memory in Emerging Miao-Mandarin Juveniles in Rural Regions of China

Authors: Peien Ma

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Bilingual effect/advantage theorized the positive effect of being bilingual on general cognitive abilities, but it was unknown which factors tend to modulate these bilingualism effects on working memory capacity. This study imposed empirical field research on a group of low-SES emerging bilinguals, Miao people, in the hill tribes of rural China to investigate whether bilingualism affected their verbal working memory performance. 20 Miao-Chinese bilinguals (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.45, SD=1.67) and 20 Chinese monolingual peers (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.6, SD=0.68) were recruited. These bilingual and monolingual juveniles, matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational status, completed a language background questionnaire and a standard forward and backward digit span test adapted from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The results showed that bilinguals earned a significantly higher overall mean score of the task, suggesting the superiority of working memory ability over the monolinguals. And bilingual cognitive benefits were independent of proficiency levels in learners’ two languages. The results suggested that bilingualism enhances working memory in sequential bilinguals from low SES backgrounds and shed light on our understanding of the bilingual advantage from a psychological and social perspective.

Keywords: bilingual effects, heritage language, Miao/Hmong language Mandarin, working memory

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802 Auditory Perception of Frequency-Modulated Sweeps and Reading Difficulties in Chinese

Authors: Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chun-Han Chiang, I-Chen Chen

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In Chinese Mandarin, lexical tones play an important role to provide contrasts in word meaning. They are pitch patterns and can be quantified as the fundamental frequency (F0), expressed in Hertz (Hz). In this study, we aim to investigate the influence of frequency discrimination on Chinese children’s performance of reading abilities. Fifty participants from 3rd to 4th grades, including 24 children with reading difficulties and 26 age-matched children, were examined. A serial of cognitive, language, reading and psychoacoustic tests were administrated. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was also employed to study children’s auditory sensitivity. In the present study, auditory frequency was measured through slide-up pitch, slide-down pitch and frequency-modulated tone. The results showed that children with Chinese reading difficulties were significantly poor at phonological awareness and auditory discrimination for the identification of frequency-modulated tone. Chinese children’s character reading performance was significantly related to lexical tone awareness and auditory perception of frequency-modulated tone. In our MEG measure, we compared the mismatch negativity (MMNm), from 100 to 200 ms, in two groups. There were no significant differences between groups during the perceptual discrimination of standard sounds, fast-up and fast-down frequencies. However, the data revealed significant cluster differences between groups in the slow-up and slow-down frequencies discrimination. In the slow-up stimulus, the cluster demonstrated an upward field map at 106-151 ms (p < .001) with a strong peak time at 127ms. The source analyses of two dipole model and localization resolution model (CLARA) from 100 to 200 ms both indicated a strong source from the left temporal area with 45.845% residual variance. Similar results were found in the slow-down stimulus with a larger upward current at 110-142 ms (p < 0.05) and a peak time at 117 ms in the left temporal area (47.857% residual variance). In short, we found a significant group difference in the MMNm while children processed frequency-modulated tones with slow temporal changes. The findings may imply that perception of sound frequency signals with slower temporal modulations was related to reading and language development in Chinese. Our study may also support the recent hypothesis of underlying non-verbal auditory temporal deficits accounting for the difficulties in literacy development seen developmental dyslexia.

Keywords: Chinese Mandarin, frequency modulation sweeps, magnetoencephalography, mismatch negativity, reading difficulties

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801 The Repetition of New Words and Information in Mandarin-Speaking Children: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Jian-Jun Gao

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Repetition is used for a variety of functions in conversation. When young children first learn to speak, they often repeat words from the adult’s recent utterance with the learning and social function. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether the repetitions are equivalent in indicating attention to new words and the initial repeat of information in conversation. Based on the observation of naturally occurring language use in Taiwan Corpus of Child Mandarin (TCCM), the results in this study provided empirical support to the previous findings that children are more likely to repeat new words they are offered than to repeat new information. When children get older, there would be a drop in the repetition of both new words and new information.

Keywords: acquisition, corpus, mandarin, new words, new information, repetition

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