Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: irony

22 Social Anxiety Connection with Individual Characteristics: Theory of Mind, Verbal Irony Comprehension and Personal Traits

Authors: Anano Tenieshvili, Teona Lodia


Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental health problems not only in adults but also in adolescents. Individuals with SAD exhibit difficulties in interpersonal relationships, understanding emotions, and regulating them as well. For social and emotional adaptation, it is crucial to identify, understand, accept and manage emotions correctly. Researchers actively learn those factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of this condition. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to acquire knowledge about the association between social anxiety and individual characteristics, such as theory of mind (ToM), verbal irony comprehension, and personal traits. 112 adolescents aged from 12 to 18 were selected for this research. 15 of them are diagnosed with Social anxiety disorder. Statistical analysis was performed on the entire sample, and furthermore, two groups, adolescents with and without social anxiety disorder, were compared separately. Social anxiety and personal traits were assessed by questionnaires. Theory of mind and comprehension of verbal irony were measured using tests. Statistical analysis indicated a positive relationship between social anxiety and comprehension of ironic criticism. Moreover, social anxiety was significantly positively correlated with neuroticism and isolation tendency, whereas it was negatively related to extraversion and frustration tolerance. On top of that, statistical analysis revealed a positive relationship between ToM and verbal irony comprehension. However, the relationship between social anxiety and ToM was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the current research expands knowledge about social anxiety and supports the results of some previous studies.

Keywords: personal traits, social anxiety, theory of mind, verbal irony comprehension

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21 Social Anxiety Connection with Individual Characteristics: Theory of Mind, Verbal Irony Comprehension and Personal Traits

Authors: Anano Tenieshvili, Teona Lodia


Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental health problems not only in adults but also in adolescents. Individuals with SAD exhibit difficulties in interpersonal relationships, understanding emotions and regulating them as well. For social and emotional adaptation, it is crucial to identify, understand, accept and manage emotions correctly. Researchers actively learn those factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of this condition. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to acquire knowledge about the association between social anxiety and individual characteristics, such as the theory of mind (ToM), verbal irony comprehension and personal traits. 112 adolescents aged from 12 to 18 were selected for this research. 15 of them are diagnosed with Social anxiety disorder. Statistical analysis was performed on the entire sample and furthermore, two groups, adolescents with and without a social anxiety disorder, were compared separately. Social anxiety and personal traits were assessed by questionnaires. Theory of mind and comprehension of verbal irony was measured using tests. Statistical analysis indicated a positive relationship between social anxiety and comprehension of ironic criticism. Moreover, social anxiety was significantly positively correlated with neuroticism and isolation tendency, whereas it was negatively related to extraversion and frustration tolerance. On top of that, statistical analysis revealed a positive relationship between ToM and verbal irony comprehension. However, the relationship between social anxiety and ToM was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the current research expands knowledge about social anxiety and supports the results of some previous studies.

Keywords: personal traits, social anxiety, theory of mind, verbal irony comprehension

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20 The Process of Irony Comprehension in Young Children: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers

Authors: Natalia Banasik


Comprehension of verbal irony is an example of pragmatic competence in understanding figurative language. The knowledge of how it develops may shed new light on the understanding of social and communicative competence that is crucial for one's effective functioning in the society. Researchers agree it is a competence that develops late in a child’s development. One of the abilities that seems crucial for irony comprehension is theory of mind (ToM), that is the ability to understand that others may have beliefs, desires and intentions different from one’s own. Although both theory of mind and irony comprehension require the ability to understand the figurative use of the false description of the reality, the exact relationship between them is still unknown. Also, even though irony comprehension in children has been studied for over thirty years, the results of the studies are inconsistent as to the age when this competence are acquired. The presented study aimed to answer questions about the developmental trajectories of irony comprehension and ascribing function to ironic utterances by preschool children. Specifically, we were interested in how it is related to the development of ToM and how comprehension of the function of irony changes with age. Data was collected from over 150 monolingual, Polish-speaking children and (so far) thirty bilingual children speaking Polish and English who live in the US. Four-, five- and six-year-olds were presented with a story comprehension task in the form of audio and visual stimuli programmed in the E-prime software (pre-recorded narrated stories, some of which included ironic utterances, and pictures accompanying the stories displayed on a touch screen). Following the presentation, the children were then asked to answer a series of questions. The questions checked the children’s understanding of the intended utterance meaning, evaluation of the degree to which it was funny and evaluation of how nice the speaker was. The children responded by touching the screen, which made it possible to measure reaction times. Additionally, the children were asked to explain why the speaker had uttered the ironic statement. Both quantitive and qualitative analyses were applied. The results of our study indicate that for irony recognition there is a significant difference among the three age groups, but what is new is that children as young as four do understand the real meaning behind the ironic statement as long as the utterance is not grammtically or lexically complex also, there is a clear correlation of ToM and irony comprehension. Although four-year olds and six-year olds understand the real meaning of the ironic utterance, it is not earlier than at the age of six when children start to explain the reason of using this marked form of expression. They talk about the speaker's intention to tell a joke, be funny, or to protect the listener's emotions. There are also some metalinguistic references, such as "mommy sometimes says things that don't make sense and this is called a metaphor".

Keywords: child's pragmatics, figurative speech, irony comprehension in children, theory of mind and irony

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19 Ironic Historiography: On Art, Nationality and In-Between Identities

Authors: Sigal Barkai


'Ironic Historiography' is a hybrid notion combining criticism of historical narratives concerning the Israeli state with ironic artistic expression. The paper will deal with questions of identities of native Israeli visual artists who chose to live out of the country, or to move back and forth to and from it. It will examine the ways these wanderings are reflected in their work. The paper discusses the work of 4 contemporary artists who produce artworks in diverse techniques and media, such as video, performance and installation art. Yael Bartana, Erez Israeli and Tamir Zadok are artists who constantly deal with Israeli nationality and history in their artwork, using ironic components. In comparison, the paper will review the works of Mika Rottenberg, who is now a New York based artist. She is concerned with global social issues and neglected specific national identity altogether. All of them use visual irony as a means of reflecting and criticizing society. The analysis was done in awareness of the life stories of the artists, in an attempt to trace the ways they establish their identities through their art. It was pre-supposed that these identities will be shaped in the in-between space of being an Israeli citizen and a citizen of the world. The study asks how ironic expression appears in their work, what kind of irony do they use and in what ways does it serves them. The methodology combined visual analysis, interviews with the artists, and analyzation of secondary discourses in the media. As theoretical background various fields of knowledge were used, such as literature and language studies, Sociology, and Visual Culture studies. The findings point out that visual and artistic irony has many different goals in the use of historiographic fiction. It can bind an artist to his homeland and native society, or it can help her to detach. It helps healing breaches in the in-between space, or it can be used as a means to completely detach from any identification with a native origin.

Keywords: visual art, irony, identities, Israel

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18 Egyptian and Irish Female Protagonists: A Comparative Study of Al-Hakim's Song of Death and Synge's Riders to the Sea

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Ghaleb, Ehab Saleh Alnuzaili


This paper attempts to generally examine Tawfiq Al-Hakim's Song of Death (1950) and John Millington Synge's Riders to the Sea (1904) by comparatively bringing the two plays under focus. Strikingly, the similarities between the two plays appear in the plot, picturization of the characters, tragic intensity, structural perfection, and the economy of language. Plot structure, albeit a simple one in both plays, is enriched by the playwrights' effective use of language, symbols, imagery, and tragic irony. Neither of the two plays has the traditional five-act structure; they are one-act plays. From a feminist point of view, the domination of female characters is observed in both plays. The female protagonists are the main focus of the two plays. Their brave characters and struggle are highly depicted. While Al-Hakim's protagonist is presented as a victim of tribal customs, Synge's protagonist is shown as a victim of nature. Both plays can be described as 'feminine tragedies' using the words of Oona Frwaley. Although the two plays appeared in totally different historical periods of time, both share considerable similarities, thematic as well as linguistic, which result in a concern to investigate them. The paper, basically, aims at asserting the commonalities between human beings and creating awareness of intercultural negotiations and connections. It attempts to bridge the cultural, intellectual, and social gap between Arab and Irish drama by exploring the common elements of the two plays. Thus, the paper presents a critical and comparative study of both plays highlighting the portrayal of the female protagonists.

Keywords: economy of language, imagery, protagonist, symbols, tragic intensity, tragic irony

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17 An Anthropological Reading of the Italian Shockumentary Mondo Cane: Whiteness Made Visible and Racial Discourses

Authors: Claudia Pisano


The Italian shockumentary Mondo cane (1962), directed by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara, and Franco Prosperi, has often been criticized for its supposed racist and colonialist stances. Several critics consider it a film that proclaims, without explicitly mentioning it, the superiority of the white Euro-American individual over the people who do not belong to white-western societies. This paper proposes a different interpretation of the way in which Mondo cane engages with the discourse of race. Through an analysis of crucial scenes and of the relationship between images and voice-over, and through a comparison between the representation of non-white societies in Mondo cane and in some popular Italian newsreels of the 50s-60s, such as 'La Settimana Incom' and 'Mondo Libero,' the paper argues that Mondo cane debunks the western-white superiority that, according to some critics, the film would promote. The continuous and rapid alternance of scenes set in the western world, for example in Europe or in the United States, and scenes set in exotic countries inhabited by non-white peoples highlights the commonalities between these far-away realities, rather than pointing out the superiority of the white-western one. In addition, the subtle irony employed by the voice-over distances Mondo cane from the newsreels that it much resembles for its documentary style. Mondo cane’s treatment and representation of race is analyzed in the light of the work of Australian Aboriginal anthropologist Aileen Moreton-Robinson, which is based on key concepts such as whiteness and whiteness invisibility. Whiteness is defined as the invisible and omnipresent norm based on which everything that does not belong to the white world is labeled as an odd and inferior 'other.' To overcome racial discrimination, it is necessary to make whiteness visible; that is to say, to deprive it of that aura of normalcy and unquestionable righteousness that surrounds it. This essay argues that Mondo cane participates in the process of making whiteness visible through the confrontation of the white people with the visible 'other'. Because the film shows that the common features on which this confrontation is based are violence and bestiality, the paper suggests that the film does not support the idea of the white world being superior to the non-white; on the contrary, it underlines that the entire world is characterized by the same shocking savagery.

Keywords: irony, race, shockumentary, whiteness, whiteness invisibility

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16 The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry

Authors: Rich Murphy


‘The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry’ claims that since the death of philosophy and the end of art modern poetry has been upstaged by capitalist poetry using similar strategies and techniques; while both sublime moments use spectacle one is more effective. The essay also claims that capitalist poetry is open to racism and analyzes KFC advertising campaign to produce evidence of wide spread acceptance in an era of ‘micro-aggressions’ and confederate flag removals. The essay spends considerable time outlining the history of advertising and the weak literary counters to it that inevitably lent its assistance in education. The essay also suggests that the concept of ‘Enormous Irony’ may be the only way to counter. However, as long as capitalism is the method of the economy and governance, the essay suggests, there was little hope in spite of Obama’s election.

Keywords: modern poetry, advertising, Kentucky fried chicken, capitalism, poetry

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15 ‘Ethical Relativism’ in Offshore Business: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Biswanath Swain


Ethical relativism, as an ethical perspective, holds that moral worth of a course of action is dependent on a particular space and time. Moral rightness or wrongness of a course of action varies from space to space and from time to time. In short, ethical relativism holds that morality is relative to the context. If we reflect conscientiously on the scope of this perspective, we will find that it is wide-spread amongst the marketers involved in the offshore business. However, the irony is that most of the marketers gone along with ethical relativism in their offshore business have been found to be unsuccessful in terms of loss in market-share and bankruptcy. The upshot is purely self-defeating in nature for the marketers. GSK in China and Nestle Maggi in India are some of the burning examples of that sort. The paper argues and recommends that a marketer, as an alternative, should have recourse to Kantian ethical perspective to deliberate courses of action sensitive to offshore business as Kantian ethical perspective is logically and methodologically sound in nature.

Keywords: business, course of action, Kant, morality, offshore, relativism

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14 Vénus Noire: A (Post)Colonial Gaze

Authors: Hania Pasandi


Over his first three films, Abdellatif Kechiche established himself as one of the most celebrated directors at work in twenty-first-century French cinema. While his first three movies, La Faute à Voltaire (2000), L’Esquive (2003), and La Graine et le mulet (2007) tell stories about individuals of the Maghrebi origin or descent struggling to find their place in the contemporary French Republic, his 2010’s movie, Vénus noire (2010) recounts the true story of the so-called ‘Hottentot Venus’, Saartjie Baartman, who became famous after her stage appearances in London and Paris in the early eighteenth century. The movie shows the complex ways in which gender and ethnicity can combine in exclusionary discourse. This paper studies gender and racial identities, the irony of science theorisation about ethnicities through the male colonial gaze on a heavily exhibited woman. This paper explores how Vénus Noire engages the spectator’s own corporeal awareness of violence and calls attention to the othering practices of (post)colonial times.

Keywords: gender, (post)colonial gaze, other, violence

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13 Satire of Victorian Mores in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations

Authors: Nagwa Abouserie Soliman


The Victorian era, which started with the reign of Queen Victoria from June 1837 to January 1901, could be considered as one of the most significant eras that had a crucial impact which formed contemporary British life despite the fact that with the rise of the British empire many negative aspects surfaced, namelysocial inequalities such as class differences, child labor, population increase and poverty due to the industrial revolution. Charles Dickens was one of the most prominent writers of the Victorian era who perceived the hypocrisy of the Victorian mores. The appropriate researchstyle that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method in which the researcher used the conceptual approach to analyse theDickensian characterisation andwriting style through diction, narrative voice, and images. The aim of this paper is to argue that Charles Dickens inGreat Expectations (1861) was highly satirical of the Victorian mores, as he uses a lot of sharp irony-to satirize various Victorian traditions such as class divisions, the justice system, the poor working class, and the upper-class snobbery that he thought are inhumane and unjust.

Keywords: victorian, child labour, poverty, class division, snobbery

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12 A Hill Town in Nature to Urban Sprawl: Shimla (HP) India

Authors: Minakshi Jain, I. P. Singh


The mountain system makes the one fifth of the world’s landscape and is the home to the 600 million people. Though hills and mountains contain about 10 percent of the total population of the country, yet almost half of the country’s population living in or adjacent to the mountain areas depend directly or indirectly on the resources of the hills. Mountain environments are essential to the survival of the global ecosystems, as they sustain the economy of India through its perennial river system and precious forest wealth. Hill areas, with distinct climate, diverse vegetation and valuable flora & fauna are distinguished primarily by unique eco-system, rich both in bio-diversity and visual resources. These areas have special significance in terms of environment and economy. Still the irony is that these mountain ecosystems are fragile and highly susceptible to disturbance, with a low ability to rebound and heal after damage. Hills are home to endangered species, biological diversity and an essential part of the ecosystem. They are extremely sensitive to any human related development. Natural systems are the most ignored in the hills. The way the cities and towns have encroached them today has the serious repercussions on the climate. Amidst immense resources and constraints of nature, the town had a fantastic diversity of cultural and ethnic characteristics nurtured through ages along river basin and valley strung across the length and breadth of this Himalayan setting.

Keywords: eco-system, bio-diversity, urban sprawl, vernacular landscape

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11 The Colombian Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Commercial Signs

Authors: Francia Martinez


This study documents and demonstrates the profound impact of the high status of American English and culture in Colombian commercial landscape due to the globalization and commodification of English. It also documents and describes how Colombian advertisers make use of various language and visual mechanisms in the commercial linguistic landscape to convey messages, create an image with which the target audience can identify, and build a relationship with that target audience. The data (in the form of pictures) were collected in different cities in Colombia and were classified and organized into different categories for the reliability and validity of the analysis. The research questions were: do the ubiquity and high status of American English and culture play a major role in the Colombian commercial linguistic landscape? If so, how?, what roles do national and local culture and language (Spanish) play in the commercial linguistic landscape?, and what different linguistic and visual strategies do Colombian advertisers employ to reach their target audience? Based on data analysis and results, American and local culture and icons play a major role when Colombian advertisers create and design their commercial logos and ads to get consumers’ attention and establish a rapport with them in a successful way. In order to achieve their objectives, Colombian advertisers rely on creative linguistic and visual techniques in their ads, such as puns, humor, irony, comparisons, metaphors, mocking, exaggeration, parody, personification, sarcasm, satire, allusion, onomatopoeias, and imitation (copycat or cloning).

Keywords: Colombian ads, linguistic landscape, rhetorical devices, sociolinguistics

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10 A Pragmatic Approach of Memes Created in Relation to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Alexandra-Monica Toma


Internet memes are an element of computer mediated communication and an important part of online culture that combines text and image in order to generate meaning. This term coined by Richard Dawkings refers to more than a mere way to briefly communicate ideas or emotions, thus naming a complex and an intensely perpetuated phenomenon in the virtual environment. This paper approaches memes as a cultural artefact and a virtual trope that mirrors societal concerns and issues, and analyses the pragmatics of their use. Memes have to be analysed in series, usually relating to some image macros, which is proof of the interplay between imitation and creativity in the memes’ writing process. We believe that their potential to become viral relates to three key elements: adaptation to context, reference to a successful meme series, and humour (jokes, irony, sarcasm), with various pragmatic functions. The study also uses the concept of multimodality and stresses how the memes’ text interacts with the image, discussing three types of relations: symmetry, amplification, and contradiction. Moreover, the paper proves that memes could be employed as speech acts with illocutionary force, when the interaction between text and image is enriched through the connection to a specific situation. The features mentioned above are analysed in a corpus that consists of memes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This corpus shows them to be highly adaptable to context, which helps build the feeling of connection and belonging in an otherwise tremendously fragmented world. Some of them are created based on well-known image macros, and their humour results from an intricate dialogue between texts and contexts. Memes created in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic can be considered speech acts and are often used as such, as proven in the paper. Consequently, this paper tackles the key features of memes, makes a thorough analysis of the memes sociocultural, linguistic, and situational context, and emphasizes their intertextuality, with special accent on their illocutionary potential.

Keywords: context, memes, multimodality, speech acts

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9 Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot

Authors: Afia Shahid


The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.

Keywords: Différance, language, pause, poststructuralism, silence, text

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8 A Re-Evaluation of Green Architecture and Its Contributions to Environmental Sustainability

Authors: Po-Ching Wang


Considering the notable effects of natural resource consumption and impacts on fragile ecosystems, reflection on contemporary sustainable design is critical. Nevertheless, the idea of ‘green’ has been misapplied and even abused, and, in fact, much damage to the environment has been done in its name. In 1996’s popular science fiction film Independence Day, an alien species, having exhausted the natural resources of one planet, moves on to another —a fairly obvious irony on contemporary human beings’ irresponsible use of the Earth’s natural resources in modern times. In fact, the human ambition to master nature and freely access the world’s resources has long been inherent in manifestos evinced by productions of the environmental design professions. Ron Herron’s Walking City, an experimental architectural piece of 1964, is one example that comes to mind here. For this design concept, the architect imagined a gigantic nomadic urban aggregate that by way of an insect-like robotic carrier would move all over the world, on land and sea, to wherever its inhabitants want. Given the contemporary crisis regarding natural resources, recently ideas pertinent to structuring a sustainable environment have been attracting much interest in architecture, a field that has been accused of significantly contributing to ecosystem degradation. Great art, such as Fallingwater building, has been regarded as nature-friendly, but its notion of ‘green’ might be inadequate in the face of the resource demands made by human populations today. This research suggests a more conservative and scrupulous attitude to attempting to modify nature for architectural settings. Designs that pursue spiritual or metaphysical interconnections through anthropocentric aesthetics are not sufficient to benefit ecosystem integrity; though high-tech energy-saving processes may contribute to a fine-scale sustainability, they may ultimately cause catastrophe in the global scale. Design with frugality is proposed in order to actively reduce environmental load. The aesthetic taste and ecological sensibility of design professions and the public alike may have to be reshaped in order to make the goals of environmental sustainability viable.

Keywords: anthropocentric aesthetic, aquarium sustainability, biosphere 2, ecological aesthetic, ecological footprint, frugal design

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7 Tommy: Communication in Education about Disability

Authors: Karen V. Lee


The background and significance of this study involve communication in education by a faculty advisor exploring story and music that informs others about a disabled teacher. Social issues draw deep reflection about the emotional turmoil. As a musician becoming a teacher is a passionate yet complex endeavor, the faculty advisor shares a poetic but painful story about a disabled teacher being inducted into the teaching profession. The qualitative research method as theoretical framework draws on autoethnography of music and story where the faculty advisor approaches a professor for advice. His musicianship shifts her forward, backward, and sideways through feelings that evoke and provoke curriculum to remove communication barriers in education. They discover they do not transfer knowledge from educational method classes. Instead, the autoethnography embeds musical language as a metaphorical conduit for removing communication barriers in teacher education. Sub-themes involve communication barriers and educational technologies to ensure teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and intervention disability resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings of the study discover how autoethnography of music and story bring the authors to understand wider political issues of the practicum internship for teachers with disabilities. An epiphany reveals the irony of living in a culture of both uniformity and diversity. They explore the constructs of secrecy, ideology, abnormality, and marginalization by evoking visceral and emotional responses from the audience. As the voices harmonize plot, climax, characterization, and denouement, they dramatize meaning that is episodic yet incomplete to highlight the circumstances surrounding the disabled protagonist’s life. In conclusion, the qualitative research method argues for embracing storied experiences that depict communication in education. Scholarly significance embraces personal thoughts and feelings as a way of understanding social phenomena while highlighting the importance of removing communication barriers in education. The circumstance about a teacher with a disability is not uncommon in society. Thus, the authors resolve to removing barriers in education by using stories to transform the personal and cultural influences that provoke new ways of thinking about the curriculum for a disabled teacher.

Keywords: communication in education, communication barriers, autoethnography, teaching

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6 A Post-Colonial Reading of Maria Edgeworth's Anglo-Irish Novels: Castle Rackrent and the Absentee

Authors: Al. Harshan, Hazamah Ali Mahdi


The Big House literature embodies Irish history. It requires a special dimension of moral and social significance in relation to its owners. The Big House is a metaphor for the decline of the protestant Ascendancy that ruled in a catholic country and oppressed a native people. In the tradition of the Big House fiction, Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent and the Absentee explore the effect of the Anglo-Irish protestant Ascendancy as it governed and misgoverned Ireland. Edgeworth illustrates the tradition of the Big House as a symbol of both a personal and historical theme. This paper provides a reading of Castle Rackrent and The Absentee from a post-colonial perspective. The paper maintains that Edgeworth's novel contain elements of a radical critique of the colonialist enterprise. In our postcolonial reading of Maria Edgeworth's novels, one that goes beyond considering works as those of Sir Walter Scoot, regional evidence has been found of Edgeworth's colonial ideology. The significance of Castle Rackrent lies mainly in the fact that is the first English novel to speak in the voice of the colonized Irish. What is more important is that the irony and the comic aspect of the novel comes from its Irish narrator (Thady Quirk) and its Irish setting Ireland. Edgeworth reveals the geographical 'other' to her English reader, by placing her colonized Irish narrator and his son, Jason Quirk, in a position of inferiority to emphasize the gap between Englishness and Irishness. Furthermore, this satirical aspect is a political one. It works to create and protect the superiority of the domestic English reader over the Irish subject. In other words, the implication of the colonial system of the novel and of its structure of dominance and subordination is overlooked by its comic dimension. The matrimonial plot in the Absentee functions as an imperial plot, constructing Ireland as a complementary but ever unequal partner in the family of Great Britain. This imperial marriage works hegemonically to produce the domestic stability considered so crucial to national and colonial stability. Moreover, in order to achieve her proper imperial plot, Edgeworth reconciliation of England and Ireland is seen in the marriage of the Anglo-Irish (hero/Colambre) with the Irish (heroine/Grace Nugent), and the happy bourgeois family; consequently, it becomes the model for colonizer-colonized relationships. Edgeworth must establish modes of legitimate behavior for women and men. The Absentee explains more purposely how familial reorganization is dependent on the restitution of masculine authority and advantage, particularly for Irish community.

Keywords: Maria Edgeworth, post-colonial, reading, Irish

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5 Nascent Federalism in Nepal: An Observational Review in its Evolution

Authors: C. Shekhar Parajulee


Nepal practiced a centralized unitary governing system for a long and has gone through the federal system after the promulgation of the new constitution on 20 September 2015. There is a big paradigm shift in terms of governance after it. Now, there are three levels of governments, one federal government in the center, seven provincial governments and 753 local governments. Federalism refers to a political governing system with multiple tiers of government working together with coordination. It is preferred for self and shared rule. Though it has opened the door for rights of the people, political stability, state restructuring, and sustainable peace and development, there are many prospects and challenges for its proper implementation. This research analyzes the discourses of federalism implementation in Nepal with special reference to one of seven provinces, Gandaki. Federalism is a new phenomenon in Nepali politics and informed debates on it are required for its right evolution. This research will add value in this regard. Moreover, tracking its evolution and the exploration of the attitudes and behaviors of key actors and stakeholders in a new experiment of a new governing system is also important. The administrative and political system of Gandaki province in terms of service delivery and development will critically be examined. Besides demonstrating the performances of the provincial government and assembly, it will analyze the inter-governmental relation of Gandaki with the other two tiers of government. For this research, people from provincial and local governments (elected representatives and government employees), provincial assembly members, academicians, civil society leaders and journalists are being interviewed. The interview findings will be analyzed by supplementing with published documents. Just going into the federal structure is not the solution. As in the case of other provincial governments, Gandaki had also to start from scratch. It gradually took a shape of government and has been functioning sluggishly. The provincial government has many challenges ahead, which has badly hindered its plans and actions. Additionally, fundamental laws, infrastructures and human resources are found to be insufficient at the sub-national level. Lack of clarity in the jurisdiction is another main challenge. The Nepali Constitution assumes cooperation, coexistence and coordination as the fundamental principles of federalism which, unfortunately, appear to be lacking among the three tiers of government despite their efforts. Though the devolution of power to sub-national governments is essential for the successful implementation of federalism, it has apparently been delayed due to the centralized mentality of bureaucracy as well as a political leader. This research will highlight the reasons for the delay in the implementation of federalism. There might be multiple underlying reasons for the slow pace of implementation of federalism and identifying them is very tough. Moreover, the federal spirit is found to be absent in the main players of today's political system, which is a big irony. So, there are some doubts about whether the federal system in Nepal is just a keepsake or a substantive.

Keywords: federalism, inter-governmental relations, Nepal, provincial government

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4 The Confluence between Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Schizoid Personality

Authors: Murray David Schane


Though years of clinical encounters with patients with autism spectrum disorders and those with a schizoid personality the many defining diagnostic features shared between these conditions have been explored and current neurobiological differences have been reviewed; and, critical and different treatment strategies for each have been devised. The paper compares and contrasts the apparent similarities between autism spectrum disorders and the schizoid personality are found in these DSM descriptive categories: restricted range of social-emotional reciprocity; poor non-verbal communicative behavior in social interactions; difficulty developing and maintaining relationships; detachment from social relationships; lack of the desire for or enjoyment of close relationships; and preference for solitary activities. In this paper autism, fundamentally a communicative disorder, is revealed to present clinically as a pervasive aversive response to efforts to engage with or be engaged by others. Autists with the Asperger presentation typically have language but have difficulty understanding humor, irony, sarcasm, metaphoric speech, and even narratives about social relationships. They also tend to seek sameness, possibly to avoid problems of social interpretation. Repetitive behaviors engage many autists as a screen against ambient noise, social activity, and challenging interactions. Also in this paper, the schizoid personality is revealed as a pattern of social avoidance, self-sufficiency and apparent indifference to others as a complex psychological defense against a deep, long-abiding fear of appropriation and perverse manipulation. Neither genetic nor MRI studies have yet located the explanatory data that identifies the cause or the neurobiology of autism. Similarly, studies of the schizoid have yet to group that condition with those found in schizophrenia. Through presentations of clinical examples, the treatment of autists of the Asperger type is revealed to address the autist’s extreme social aversion which also precludes the experience of empathy. Autists will be revealed as forming social attachments but without the capacity to interact with mutual concern. Empathy will be shown be teachable and, as social avoidance relents, understanding of the meaning and signs of empathic needs that autists can recognize and acknowledge. Treatment of schizoids will be shown to revolve around joining empathically with the schizoid’s apprehensions about interpersonal, interactive proximity. Models of both autism and schizoid personality traits have yet to be replicated in animals, thereby eliminating the role of translational research in providing the kind of clues to behavioral patterns that can be related to genetic, epigenetic and neurobiological measures. But as these clinical examples will attest, treatment strategies have significant impact.

Keywords: autism spectrum, schizoid personality traits, neurobiological implications, critical diagnostic distinctions

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3 The Expression of the Social Experience in Film Narration: Cinematic ‘Free Indirect Discourse’ in the Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Krolikiewicz

Authors: Robert Birkholc


One of the basic issues related to the creation of characters in media, such as literature and film, is the representation of the characters' thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. This paper is devoted to the social perspective (or the focalization) expressed in film narration. The aim of the paper is to show how social point of view of the hero –conditioned by his origin and the environment from which he comes– can be created by using non-verbal, purely audiovisual means of expression. The issue will be considered on the example of the little-known polish movie The Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Królikiewicz, based on the novel by Julian Kawalec. The thesis of the paper is that the polish director uses a narrative figure, which is somewhat analogous to literary form of free indirect discourse. In literature, free indirect discourse is formally ‘spoken’ by the external narrator, but the narration is clearly filtered through the language and thoughts of the character. According to some scholars (such as Roy Pascal), the narrator in this form of speech does not cite the character's words, but uses his way of thinking and imitates his perspective – sometimes with a deep irony. Free indirect discourse is frequently used in Julian Kawalec’s novel. Through the linguistic stylization, the author tries to convey the socially determined perspective of a peasant who migrates to the big city after the Second World War. Grzegorz Królikiewicz expresses the same social experience by pure cinematic form in the adaptation of the book. Both Kawalec and Królikiewicz show the consequences of so-called ‘social advancement’ in Poland after 1945, when the communist party took over political power. On the example of the fate of the main character, Michał Toporny, the director presents the experience of peasants who left their villages and had to adapt to new, urban space. However, the paper is not focused on the historical topic itself, but on the audiovisual form of the movie. Although Królikiewicz doesn’t use frequently POV shots, the narration of The Dancing Hawk is filtered through the sensations of the main character, who feels uprooted and alienated in the new social space. The director captures the hero's feelings through very complex audiovisual procedures – high or low points of view (representing the ‘social position’), grotesque soundtrack, expressionist scenery, and associative editing. In this way, he manages to create the world from the perspective of a socially maladjusted and internally split subject. The Dancing Hawk is a successful attempt to adapt the subjective narration of the book to the ‘language’ of the cinema. Mieke Bal’s notion of focalization helps to describe ‘free indirect discourse’ as a transmedial figure of representing of the characters’ perceptions. However, the polysemiotic medium of the film also significantly transforms this figure of representation. The paper shows both the similarities and differences between literary and cinematic ‘free indirect discourse.’

Keywords: film and literature, free indirect discourse, social experience, subjective narration

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2 Teaching Linguistic Humour Research Theories: Egyptian Higher Education EFL Literature Classes

Authors: O. F. Elkommos


“Humour studies” is an interdisciplinary research area that is relatively recent. It interests researchers from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, medicine, nursing, in the work place, gender studies, among others, and certainly teaching, language learning, linguistics, and literature. Linguistic theories of humour research are numerous; some of which are of interest to the present study. In spite of the fact that humour courses are now taught in universities around the world in the Egyptian context it is not included. The purpose of the present study is two-fold: to review the state of arts and to show how linguistic theories of humour can be possibly used as an art and craft of teaching and of learning in EFL literature classes. In the present study linguistic theories of humour were applied to selected literary texts to interpret humour as an intrinsic artistic communicative competence challenge. Humour in the area of linguistics was seen as a fifth component of communicative competence of the second language leaner. In literature it was studied as satire, irony, wit, or comedy. Linguistic theories of humour now describe its linguistic structure, mechanism, function, and linguistic deviance. Semantic Script Theory of Verbal Humor (SSTH), General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH), Audience Based Theory of Humor (ABTH), and their extensions and subcategories as well as the pragmatic perspective were employed in the analyses. This research analysed the linguistic semantic structure of humour, its mechanism, and how the audience reader (teacher or learner) becomes an interactive interpreter of the humour. This promotes humour competence together with the linguistic, social, cultural, and discourse communicative competence. Studying humour as part of the literary texts and the perception of its function in the work also brings its positive association in class for educational purposes. Humour is by default a provoking/laughter-generated device. Incongruity recognition, perception and resolving it, is a cognitive mastery. This cognitive process involves a humour experience that lightens up the classroom and the mind. It establishes connections necessary for the learning process. In this context the study examined selected narratives to exemplify the application of the theories. It is, therefore, recommended that the theories would be taught and applied to literary texts for a better understanding of the language. Students will then develop their language competence. Teachers in EFL/ESL classes will teach the theories, assist students apply them and interpret text and in the process will also use humour. This is thus easing students' acquisition of the second language, making the classroom an enjoyable, cheerful, self-assuring, and self-illuminating experience for both themselves and their students. It is further recommended that courses of humour research studies should become an integral part of higher education curricula in Egypt.

Keywords: ABTH, deviance, disjuncture, episodic, GTVH, humour competence, humour comprehension, humour in the classroom, humour in the literary texts, humour research linguistic theories, incongruity-resolution, isotopy-disjunction, jab line, longer text joke, narrative story line (macro-micro), punch line, six knowledge resource, SSTH, stacks, strands, teaching linguistics, teaching literature, TEFL, TESL

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1 Mitigating Urban Flooding through Spatial Planning Interventions: A Case of Bhopal City

Authors: Rama Umesh Pandey, Jyoti Yadav


Flooding is one of the waterborne disasters that causes extensive destruction in urban areas. Developing countries are at a higher risk of such damage and more than half of the global flooding events take place in Asian countries including India. Urban flooding is more of a human-induced disaster rather than natural. This is highly influenced by the anthropogenic factors, besides metrological and hydrological causes. Unplanned urbanization and poor management of cities enhance the impact manifold and cause huge loss of life and property in urban areas. It is an irony that urban areas have been facing water scarcity in summers and flooding during monsoon. This paper is an attempt to highlight the factors responsible for flooding in a city especially from an urban planning perspective and to suggest mitigating measures through spatial planning interventions. Analysis has been done in two stages; first is to assess the impacts of previous flooding events and second to analyze the factors responsible for flooding at macro and micro level in cities. Bhopal, a city in Central India having nearly two million population, has been selected for the study. The city has been experiencing flooding during heavy rains in monsoon. The factors responsible for urban flooding were identified through literature review as well as various case studies from different cities across the world and India. The factors thus identified were analyzed for both macro and micro level influences. For macro level, the previous flooding events that have caused huge destructions were analyzed and the most affected areas in Bhopal city were identified. Since the identified area was falling within the catchment of a drain so the catchment area was delineated for the study. The factors analyzed were: rainfall pattern to calculate the return period using Weibull’s formula; imperviousness through mapping in ArcGIS; runoff discharge by using Rational method. The catchment was divided into micro watersheds and the micro watershed having maximum impervious surfaces was selected to analyze the coverage and effect of physical infrastructure such as: storm water management; sewerage system; solid waste management practices. The area was further analyzed to assess the extent of violation of ‘building byelaws’ and ‘development control regulations’ and encroachment over the natural water streams. Through analysis, the study has revealed that the main issues have been: lack of sewerage system; inadequate storm water drains; inefficient solid waste management in the study area; violation of building byelaws through extending building structures ether on to the drain or on the road; encroachments by slum dwellers along or on to the drain reducing the width and capacity of the drain. Other factors include faulty culvert’s design resulting in back water effect. Roads are at higher level than the plinth of houses which creates submersion of their ground floors. The study recommends spatial planning interventions for mitigating urban flooding and strategies for management of excess rain water during monsoon season. Recommendations have also been made for efficient land use management to mitigate water logging in areas vulnerable to flooding.

Keywords: mitigating strategies, spatial planning interventions, urban flooding, violation of development control regulations

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