Publications | World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43
43 A Profile of Recent Upsurge of Brucellosis of Veterinary Health Care Workers Engaged in Brucella Vaccination Program in West Bengal, India

Authors: Satadal Das, Parthasarathi Sengupta

Abstract:

With millions of livestock wealth in India including cattle, and buffaloes, the National Animal Disease Control Program targeted a massive Brucella vaccination program. As a part of it in the state of West Bengal Veterinary healthcare assistants participated in the program in 2021. The aim of this study was to elucidate the burden of brucellosis in those healthcare assistants and to pinpoint the main causes of such infection. We contacted the healthcare assistants to find out whether they were infected during the vaccination program. Our findings indicated many Veterinary healthcare assistants who participated in the program developed symptoms and signs suggestive of brucellosis. Laboratory tests indicated many confirmed Brucellosis cases. However, this may not include many asymptomatic cases. Detailed analysis revealed that in most of them there was a history of needle prick injury about a month back during the vaccination program, which was mainly due to ferocious or disturbed animals. Few also complained that they were not properly trained or proper personal protective types of equipment were not provided. All of them were treated in referral hospitals following a standard protocol of the Government Health Department and now they are followed up. Thus we conclude that proper care during the vaccination of animals should be followed, prophylactic treatment for needle prick injuries should be given, and training and supply of personal protective equipment should be monitored.

Keywords: Occupational brucellosis, needle prick injury, brucella vaccination, personal protective equipment.

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42 The Use of Fractional Brownian Motion in the Generation of Bed Topography for Bodies of Water Coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Elysia Barker, Jian Guo Zhou, Ling Qian, Steve Decent

Abstract:

A method of modelling topography used in the simulation of riverbeds is proposed in this paper which removes the need for datapoints and measurements of a physical terrain. While complex scans of the contours of a surface can be achieved with other methods, this requires specialised tools which the proposed method overcomes by using fractional Brownian motion (FBM) as a basis to estimate the real surface within a 15% margin of error while attempting to optimise algorithmic efficiency. This removes the need for complex, expensive equipment and reduces resources spent modelling bed topography. This method also accounts for the change in topography over time due to erosion, sediment transport, and other external factors which could affect the topography of the ground by updating its parameters and generating a new bed. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate both stationary and steady flow cases in a side-by-side comparison over the generated bed topography using the proposed method, and a test case taken from an external source. The method, if successful, will be incorporated into the current LBM program used in the testing phase, which will allow an automatic generation of topography for the given situation in future research, removing the need for bed data to be specified.

Keywords: Bed topography, FBM, LBM, shallow water, simulations.

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41 Architecture for Smart Cities’ Sustainable Modular Houses

Authors: Khaled Elbehiery, Hussam Elbehiery

Abstract:

Smart cities are a framework of technologies along with sustainable infrastructure to provide their citizens an improved quality of life, safer environment, affordability, and more, which in turn helps with the society's economic growth. The proposed research will focus on the primary building block of the smart city; the infrastructure of the house itself. The traditional method of building houses has been, for a long time, nothing but a costly manufacturing process, and consequently, buying a house becomes not an option for everyone anymore. The smart cities' Modular Houses are not using traditional building construction materials; the design reduces the common lengthy construction times and associated high costs. The Modular Houses are technological homes, low-cost and customizable based on a family's requirements. In addition, the Modular Houses are environmentally friendly and healthy enough to assist with the pandemic situation.

Keywords: Smart cities, modular houses, single-unit property, multi-unit property, mobility features, chain-supply, livable environment, carbon footprint.

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40 Improvement of the Q-System Using the Rock Engineering System: A Case Study of Water Conveyor Tunnel of Azad Dam

Authors: S. Golmohammadi, M. Noorian Bidgoli

Abstract:

Because the status and mechanical parameters of discontinuities in the rock mass are included in the calculations, various methods of rock engineering classification are often used as a starting point for the design of different types of structures. The Q-system is one of the most frequently used methods for stability analysis and determination of support systems of underground structures in rock, including tunnel. In this method, six main parameters of the rock mass, namely, the Rock Quality Designation (RQD), joint set number (Jn), joint roughness number (Jr), joint alteration number (Ja), joint water parameter (Jw) and Stress Reduction Factor (SRF) are required. In this regard, in order to achieve a reasonable and optimal design, identifying the effective parameters for the stability of the mentioned structures is one of the most important goals and the most necessary actions in rock engineering. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationships between the parameters of a system and how they interact with each other and, ultimately, the whole system. In this research, it has been attempted to determine the most effective parameters (key parameters) from the six parameters of rock mass in the Q-system using the Rock Engineering System (RES) method to improve the relationships between the parameters in the calculation of the Q value. The RES system is, in fact, a method by which one can determine the degree of cause and effect of a system's parameters by making an interaction matrix. In this research, the geomechanical data collected from the water conveyor tunnel of Azad Dam were used to make the interaction matrix of the Q-system. For this purpose, instead of using the conventional methods that are always accompanied by defects such as uncertainty, the Q-system interaction matrix is coded using a technique that is actually a statistical analysis of the data and determining the correlation coefficient between them. So, the effect of each parameter on the system is evaluated with greater certainty. The results of this study show that the formed interaction matrix provides a reasonable estimate of the effective parameters in the Q-system. Among the six parameters of the Q-system, the SRF and Jr parameters have the maximum and minimum impact on the system, respectively, and also the RQD and Jw parameters have the maximum and minimum impact on the system, respectively. Therefore, by developing this method, we can obtain a more accurate relation to the rock mass classification by weighting the required parameters in the Q-system.

Keywords: Q-system, Rock Engineering System, statistical analysis, rock mass, tunnel.

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39 Design and Implementation of a Software Platform Based on Artificial Intelligence for Product Recommendation

Authors: G. Settanni, A. Panarese, R. Vaira, A. Galiano

Abstract:

Nowadays, artificial intelligence is used successfully in the field of e-commerce for its ability to learn from a large amount of data. In this research study, a prototype software platform was designed and implemented in order to suggest to users the most suitable products for their needs. The platform includes a recommender system based on artificial intelligence algorithms that provide suggestions and decision support to the customer. Specifically, support vector machine algorithms have been implemented combined with natural language processing techniques that allow the user to interact with the system, express their requests and receive suggestions. The interested user can access the web platform on the internet using a computer, tablet or mobile phone, register, provide the necessary information and view the products that the system deems them the most appropriate. The platform also integrates a dashboard that allows the use of the various functions, which the platform is equipped with, in an intuitive and simple way. Also, Long Short-Term Memory algorithms have been implemented and trained on historical data in order to predict customer scores of the different items. Items with the highest scores are recommended to customers.

Keywords: Deep Learning, Long Short-Term Memory, Machine Learning, Recommender Systems, Support Vector Machine.

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38 Strategic Redesign of Public Spaces with a Sustainable Approach: Case Study of Parque Huancavilca, Guayaquil

Authors: Juan Carlos Briones Macias

Abstract:

Currently, the Huancavilca City Park in Guayaquil is an abandoned public space that is discovering a growing problem of insecurity, where various problems have been perceived, such as the lack of green areas, deteriorating furniture, insufficient lighting, the use of inadequate cladding materials and very sunny areas due to the lack of planning in the design of green areas. The objective of this scientific article is to redesign Huancavilca Park through public space design strategies for more attractive and comfortable areas, becoming a point of interaction in a safe and accessible way. A mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative) was applied, obtaining information based on surveys, interviews, field observations, and systematizing the data in the traditional weighting of the structuring aspects of the park. The results were obtained from the methodological design scheme of iterative analysis of public spaces by Jan Güell. It is concluded that the use of urban strategies in the structuring elements of the park, such as vegetation, furniture, generating new activities, and security interventions, will specifically solve all the problems of the Huancavilca Park tested in a Pareto 80/20 Diagram.

Keywords: Public space, green areas, vegetation, street furniture, urban analysis.

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37 Cultural Practices as a Coping Measure for Women who Terminated a Pregnancy in Adolescence: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Botshelo R. Sebola

Abstract:

Unintended pregnancy often results in pregnancy termination. Most countries have legalised the termination of a pregnancy and pregnant adolescents can visit designated clinics without their parents’ consent. In most African and Asian countries, certain cultural practices are performed following any form of childbirth, including abortion, and such practices are ingrained in societies. The aim of this paper was to understand how women who terminated a pregnancy during adolescence coped by embracing cultural practices. A descriptive multiple case study design was adopted for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and reflective diaries were used for data collection. Participants were 13 women aged 20 to 35 years who had terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. Three women kept their soiled sanitary pads, burned them to ash and waited for the rainy season to scatter the ash in a flowing stream. This ritual was performed to appease the ancestors, ask them for forgiveness and as a send-off for the aborted foetus. Five women secretly consulted Sangoma (traditional healers) to perform certain rituals. Three women isolated themselves to perform herbal cleansings, and the last two chose not to engage in any sexual activity for one year, which led to the loss of their partners. This study offers a unique contribution to understanding the solitary journey of women who terminate a pregnancy. The study challenges healthcare professionals who work in clinics that offer pregnancy termination services to look beyond releasing the foetus to advocating and providing women with the necessary care and support in performing cultural practices.

Keywords: Adolescence, case study, cultural rituals, pregnancy.

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36 Reflective Thinking and Experiential Learning: A Quasi-Experimental Quanti-Quali Response to Greater Diversification of Activities and Greater Integration of Student Profiles

Authors: P. Bogas

Abstract:

As a scientific contribution to this discussion, a pedagogical intervention of a quasi-experimental nature was developed, with a mixed methodology, evaluating the intervention within a single curricular unit of Marketing, using cases based on real challenges of brands, business simulation and customer projects. Primary and secondary experiences were incorporated in the intervention: the primary experiences are the experiential activities themselves; the secondary experiences resulted from the primary experience, such as reflection and discussion in work teams. A diversified learning relationship was encouraged through the various connections between the different members of the learning community. The present study concludes that in the same context, the students' response can be described as: students who reinforce the initial deep approach, students who maintain the initial deep approach level and others who change from an emphasis on the deep approach to one closer to superficial. This typology did not always confirm studies reported in the literature, namely, whether the initial level of deep processing would influence the superficial and the opposite. The result of this investigation points to the inclusion of pedagogical and didactic activities that integrate different motivations and initial strategies, leading to a possible adoption of deep approaches to learning, since it revealed statistically significant differences in the difference in the scores of the deep/superficial approach and the experiential level. In the case of real challenges, the categories of “attribution of meaning and meaning of studied” and the possibility of “contact with an aspirational context” for their future professional stand out. In this category, the dimensions of autonomy that will be required of them were also revealed when comparing the classroom context of real cases and the future professional context and the impact they may have on the world. Regarding to the simulated practice, two categories of response stand out: on the one hand, the motivation associated with the possibility of measuring the results of the decisions taken, an awareness of oneself and, on the other hand, the additional effort that this practice required for some of the students.

Keywords: Experiential learning, higher education, marketing, mixed methods, reflective thinking.

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35 Electroencephalography-Based Intention Recognition and Consensus Assessment during Emergency Response

Authors: Siyao Zhu, Yifang Xu

Abstract:

After natural and man-made disasters, robots can bypass the danger, expedite the search, and acquire unprecedented situational awareness to design rescue plans. Brain-computer interface is a promising option to overcome the limitations of tedious manual control and operation of robots in the urgent search-and-rescue tasks. This study aims to test the feasibility of using electroencephalography (EEG) signals to decode human intentions and detect the level of consensus on robot-provided information. EEG signals were classified using machine-learning and deep-learning methods to discriminate search intentions and agreement perceptions. The results show that the average classification accuracy for intention recognition and consensus assessment is 67% and 72%, respectively, proving the potential of incorporating recognizable users’ bioelectrical responses into advanced robot-assisted systems for emergency response.

Keywords: Consensus assessment, electroencephalogram, EEG, emergency response, human-robot collaboration, intention recognition, search and rescue.

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34 Reliable Damping Measurements of Solid Beams with Special Focus on the Boundary Conditions and Non-Contact Test Set-Ups

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Ahmet Reha Gunay

Abstract:

Correct measurement of a structural damping value is an important issue for the reliable design of the components exposed to vibratory and noise conditions. As far as a vibrating beam technique is concerned, the specimens under the test somehow are interacted with measuring and exciting devices and also with boundary conditions of the test set-up. The aim of this study is to propose a vibrating beam method that offers a non-contact dynamic measurement of solid beam specimens. To evaluate possible effects of the clamped portion of the specimens with clamped-free ends on the dynamic values (damping and the elastic modulus), the same measuring devices were used, and the results were compared to those with the free-free ends. To get clear idea about the sensitivity of the boundary conditions to the damping values at low, medium and high levels, representative materials were subjected to the tests. The results show that the specimens with low damping values are especially sensitive to the boundary conditions and the most reliable structural damping values are obtained for the specimens with free-free ends. For the damping values at the low levels, a deviation of about 368% was obtained between the specimens with free-free and clamped-free ends, yet, for those having high inherent damping values, comparable results were obtained.

Keywords: Vibrating beam technique, dynamic values, damping, boundary conditions, non-contact measuring systems.

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33 Designing a Model for Preparing Reports on the Automatic Earned Value Management Progress by the Integration of Primavera P6, SQL Database, and Power BI: A Case Study of a Six-Storey Concrete Building in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Hamed Zolfaghari, Mojtaba Kord

Abstract:

Project planners and controllers are frequently faced with the challenge of inadequate software for the preparation of automatic project progress reports based on actual project information updates. They usually make dashboards in Microsoft Excel, which is local and not applicable online. Another shortcoming is that Microsoft project does not store the data in database, so the data cannot automatically be imported from Microsoft Project into Microsoft Excel. This study aimed to propose a model for the preparation of reports on automatic online project progress based on actual project information updates by the integration of Primavera P6, SQL database, and Power BI (Business Intelligence) for a construction project. The designed model could be applicable to project planners and controller agents by enabling them to prepare project reports automatically and immediately after updating the project schedule using actual information. To develop the model, the data were entered into P6, and the information was stored on the SQL database. The proposed model could prepare a wide range of reports, such as earned value management, Human Resource (HR) reports, and financial, physical, and risk reports automatically on the Power BI application. Furthermore, the reports could be published and shared online.

Keywords: Primavera P6, SQL, Power BI, Earned Value Management, Integration Management.

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32 An Introduction to E-Content Producing Algorithm for Screen-Recorded Videos

Authors: J. Darsareh, M. Nikafrooz

Abstract:

Some teachers and e-content producers, based on their experiences, try to produce educational videos using screen recording software. There are many challenges they may encounter while producing screen-recorded videos. These are in the domains of technical and pedagogical challenges like; designing the production roadmap, preparing the screen, setting the recording software, recording the screen, editing, etc. This article presents some procedures for producing acceptable and well-made videos. These procedures are presented in the form of an algorithm for producing screen-recorded video. This algorithm presents the main producing phases, including design, pre-production, production, post-production, and distribution. These phases consist of some steps which are supported by several technical and pedagogical considerations. Following these phases and steps according to the suggested order helps the producers to produce their intended and desired video by saving time and also facing fewer technical problems. It is expected that by using this algorithm, e-content producers and teachers gain better performance in producing educational videos.

Keywords: E-content, educational video production, screen recording software, screen-recorded videos, e-content producing algorithm.

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31 The Transfer of Low-Cost Housing in South Africa: Problems and Impediments

Authors: Gert Van Schalkwyk, Chris Cloete

Abstract:

South Africa is experiencing a massive housing backlog in urban low-cost housing. A backlog in the transfer of low-cost housing units is exacerbated by various impediments and delays that exist in the current legal framework. Structured interviews were conducted with 45 practicing conveyancers and 15 deeds office examiners at the Deeds Office in Pretoria, South Africa. One of the largest, the Deeds Office in Pretoria implements a uniform registration process and can be regarded as representative of other deeds offices in South Africa. It was established that a low percentage of low-cost properties are freely transferable. The main economic impediments are the absence of financing and the affordability or payment of rates and taxes to local government. Encroachment of buildings on neighbouring stands caused by enlargement of existing small units on small stands also cause long-term unresolved legal disputes. In addition, as transfer of properties is dependent on the proper functioning of administrative functions of various government departments, the adverse service delivery of government departments hampers transfer. Addressing the identified problems will contribute to a more sustainable process for the transfer of low-cost housing units in South Africa.

Keywords: Conveyancing, low-cost housing, South Africa, tenure, transfer, titling.

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30 Inventing a Method of Problem Solving: The Natural Movement of the Mind to Solve a Problem

Authors: Amir Farkhonde

Abstract:

The major objective of this study was to devise a method for solving mathematical problems. Three concepts including faculty of understanding, faculty of guess, and free mind or beginner's mind provided the foundation for this method. An explanatory approach along with a hermeneutic process was taken in this study to support the assumption that mathematical knowledge is constantly developing and it seems essential for students to solve math problems on their own using their faculty of understanding (interpretive dialogue) and faculty of guess. For doing so, a kind of movement from the mathematical problem to mathematical knowledge should be adopted for teaching students a new math topic. The research method of this paper is review, descriptive and conception development. This paper first reviews the research findings on the NRICH’S project (NRICH is part of the family of activities in the Millennium Mathematics Project) with the aim that these findings form the theoretical basis of the problem-solving method. Then, the curriculum, the conceptual structure of the new method, how to design the problem and an example of it are discussed. In this way, students are immersed in the story of discovering and understanding the problem formula, and interpretive dialogue with the text continues by following the questions posed by the problem and constantly reconstructing the answer to find a formula or solution to solve the problem.

Keywords: Interpretive dialogue, NRICH, inventing, a method of problem solving.

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29 Drivers of Land Degradation in Trays Ecosystem as Modulated under a Changing Climate: Case Study of Côte d'Ivoire

Authors: Kadio Valere R. Angaman, Birahim Bouna Niang

Abstract:

Land degradation is a serious problem in developing countries including Cote d’Ivoire, which has its economy focused on agriculture. It occurs in all kinds of ecosystems over the world. However, the drivers of land degradation vary from one region to another, and from one ecosystem to another. Thus, identifying these drivers is an essential prerequisite to develop and implement appropriate policies to reverse the trend of land degradation in the country, especially in the trays ecosystem. Using the binary logistic model with primary data obtained through 780 farmers surveyed, we analyze and identify the drivers of land degradation in the trays ecosystem. The descriptive statistics show that 52% of farmers interviewed have stated facing land degradation in their farmland. This high rate shows the extent of land degradation in this ecosystem. Also, the results obtained from the binary logit regression reveal that land degradation is significantly influenced by a set of variables such as sex, education, slope, erosion, pesticide, agricultural activity, deforestation, and temperature. The drivers identified are mostly local, as a result, the government must implement some policies and strategies that facilitate and incentive the adoption of sustainable land management practices by farmers to reverse the negative trend of land degradation.

Keywords: Drivers, land degradation, trays ecosystem, sustainable land management.

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28 A Comprehensive Key Performance Indicators Dashboard for Emergency Medical Services

Authors: G. Feletti, D. Tedesco, P. Trucco

Abstract:

The present study aims to develop a dashboard of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) to enhance information and predictive capabilities in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, supporting both operational and strategic decisions of different actors. The employed research methodology consists of a first phase of revision of the technical-scientific literature concerning the indicators currently in use for the performance measurement of EMS. It emerges that current studies focus on two distinct areas and independent objectives: the ambulance service, a fundamental component of pre-hospital health treatment, and the patient care in the Emergency Department (ED). Conversely, the perspective proposed by this study is to consider an integrated view of the ambulance service process and the ED process, both essential to ensure high quality of care and patient safety. Thus, the proposal covers the end-to-end healthcare service process and, as such, allows considering the interconnection between the two EMS processes, the pre-hospital and hospital ones, connected by the assignment of the patient to a specific ED. In this way, it is possible to optimize the entire patient management. Therefore, attention is paid even to EMS aspects that in current literature tend to be neglected or underestimated. In particular, the integration of the two processes enables to evaluate the advantage of an ED selection decision having visibility on EDs’ saturation status and therefore considering, besides the distance, the available resources and the expected waiting times. Starting from a critical review of the KPIs proposed in extant literature, the design of the dashboard was carried out: the high number of analyzed KPIs was reduced by eliminating firstly the ones not in line with the aim of the study and then the ones supporting a similar functionality. The KPIs finally selected were tested on a realistic dataset, which draw us to exclude additional indicators due to unavailability of data required for their computation. The final dashboard, that was discussed and validated by experts in the field, includes a variety of KPIs able to support operational and planning decisions, early warning, and citizens’ awareness on EDs accessibility in real time. The association of each KPI to the EMS phase it refers to enabled the design of a well-balanced dashboard, covering both efficiency and effectiveness performance objectives of the entire EMS process. Indeed, just the initial phases related to the interconnection between ambulance service and patient care are covered by traditional KPIs. Future developments could be directed to building a hierarchical dashboard, composed by a high-level minimal set of KPIs for measuring the basic performance of the EMS system, at an aggregate level, and lower levels of KPIs that bring additional and more detailed information on specific performance dimensions or EMS phases.

Keywords: Emergency Medical Services, Key Performance Indicators, Dashboard, Decision Support.

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27 Supervisory Controller with Three-State Energy Saving Mode for Induction Motor in Fluid Transportation

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, K. O. Shawky, M. O. Ebrahim, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

Induction Motor (IM) driving pump is the main consumer of electricity in a typical fluid transportation system (FTS). Changing the connection of the stator windings from delta to star at no load can achieve noticeable active and reactive energy savings. This paper proposes a supervisory hysteresis liquid-level control with three-state energy saving mode (ESM) for IM in FTS including storage tank. The IM pump drive comprises modified star/delta switch and hydromantic coupler. Three-state ESM is defined, along with the normal running, and named analog to computer ESMs as follows: Sleeping mode in which the motor runs at no load with delta stator connection, hibernate mode in which the motor runs at no load with a star connection, and motor shutdown is the third energy saver mode. A logic flow-chart is synthesized to select the motor state at no-load for best energetic cost reduction, considering the motor thermal capacity used. An artificial neural network (ANN) state estimator, based on the recurrent architecture, is constructed and learned in order to provide fault-tolerant capability for the supervisory controller. Sequential test of Wald is used for sensor fault detection. Theoretical analysis, preliminary experimental testing and, computer simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed control in terms of reliability, power quality and energy/coenergy cost reduction with the suggestion of power factor correction.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, ANN, Energy Saving Mode, ESM, Induction Motor, IM, star/delta switch, supervisory control, fluid transportation, reliability, power quality.

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26 Recognition of Gene Names from Gene Pathway Figures Using Siamese Network

Authors: Muhammad Azam, Micheal Olaolu Arowolo, Fei He, Mihail Popescu, Dong Xu

Abstract:

The number of biological papers is growing quickly, which means that the number of biological pathway figures in those papers is also increasing quickly. Each pathway figure shows extensive biological information, like the names of genes and how the genes are related. However, manually annotating pathway figures takes a lot of time and work. Even though using advanced image understanding models could speed up the process of curation, these models still need to be made more accurate. To improve gene name recognition from pathway figures, we applied a Siamese network to map image segments to a library of pictures containing known genes in a similar way to person recognition from photos in many photo applications. We used a triple loss function and a triplet spatial pyramid pooling network by combining the triplet convolution neural network and the spatial pyramid pooling (TSPP-Net). We compared VGG19 and VGG16 as the Siamese network model. VGG16 achieved better performance with an accuracy of 93%, which is much higher than Optical Character Recognition (OCR) results.

Keywords: Biological pathway, image understanding, gene name recognition, object detection, Siamese network, Visual Geometry Group.

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25 Maximizing the Efficiency of Knowledge Management Systems

Authors: Tori R. Dodla, Laura A. Jones

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to propose strategies to improve the efficiency of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS). This study highlights best practices from various industries to create an overall summary of Knowledge Management (KM) and efficiency in organizational performance. Results indicated 11 best practices for maximizing the efficiency of organizational KMS that can be divided into four categories: Designing the KMS, identifying case studies, implementing the KMS, and promoting adoption and usage. Our findings can be used as a foundation for scholars to conduct further research on KMS efficiency.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, knowledge management efficiency, knowledge management systems, organizational performance.

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24 Basic Study of Mammographic Image Magnification System with Eye-Detector and Simple EEG Scanner

Authors: A. Umemuro, M. Sato, M. Narita, S. Hori, S. Sakurai, T. Nakayama, A. Nakazawa, T. Ogura

Abstract:

Mammography requires the detection of very small calcifications, and physicians search for microcalcifications by magnifying the images as they read them. The mouse is necessary to zoom in on the images, but this can be tiring and distracting when many images are read in a single day. Therefore, an image magnification system combining an eye-detector and a simple electroencephalograph (EEG) scanner was devised, and its operability was evaluated. Two experiments were conducted in this study: the measurement of eye-detection error using an eye-detector and the measurement of the time required for image magnification using a simple EEG scanner. Eye-detector validation showed that the mean distance of eye-detection error ranged from 0.64 cm to 2.17 cm, with an overall mean of 1.24 ± 0.81 cm for the observers. The results showed that the eye detection error was small enough for the magnified area of the mammographic image. The average time required for point magnification in the verification of the simple EEG scanner ranged from 5.85 to 16.73 seconds, and individual differences were observed. The reason for this may be that the size of the simple EEG scanner used was not adjustable, so it did not fit well for some subjects. The use of a simple EEG scanner with size adjustment would solve this problem. Therefore, the image magnification system using the eye-detector and the simple EEG scanner is useful.

Keywords: EEG scanner, eye-detector, mammography, observers.

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23 An E-Coaching Methodology for Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Essam Almuhsin, Ben Soh, Alice Li, Azmat Ullah

Abstract:

It is widely accepted that university students must acquire new knowledge, skills, awareness, and understanding to increase opportunities for professional and personal growth. The study reveals a significant increase in users engaging in e-coaching activities and a growing need for it during the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper proposes an e-coaching methodology for higher education in Saudi Arabia to address the need for effective coaching in the current online learning environment.

Keywords: Role of e-coaching, e-coaching in higher education, Saudi higher education environment, e-coaching methodology, importance of e-coaching.

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22 Experimental Investigation on the Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Management System Based on U-Shaped Micro Heat Pipe Array in High Temperature Environment

Authors: Ruyang Ren, Yaohua Zhao, Yanhua Diao

Abstract:

In this study, a type of active air cooling thermal management system (TMS) based on U-shaped micro heat pipe array (MHPA) is established for the battery energy storage box which operates in high ambient temperature all the year round. The thermal management performance of the active air cooling TMS based on U-shaped MHPA under different ambient temperatures and different cooling conditions is analyzed by the method of experimental research. Results show that even if the battery energy storage box operates at a high ambient temperature of 45 °C, the active air cooling TMS based on U-shaped MHPA controls not only the maximum temperature of the battery in the battery energy storage box below 55 °C, but also the maximum temperature difference in the battery energy storage box below 5 °C during the whole charge-discharge process. The experimental results provide guidance for the application of the battery energy storage box TMS that operates in high temperature areas.

Keywords: Active air cooling, lithium-ion battery, micro heat pipe array, thermal management system.

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21 An Investigation on Climate Responsive Design Strategies of Apartment Buildings in Athens of the Period 1920-1960s

Authors: E. Alexandrou, A. Chronopoulou

Abstract:

This paper thoroughly investigates residential buildings of the period 1920-1960 in Athens and evaluates their bioclimatic response and energy performance. A methodology adapted to the specific context of the city is proposed and applied in order to assess and extract results related to the climate analysis of the city of Athens, the general/architectural design and construction characteristics of the apartment buildings constructed during the period 1920-1960, the bioclimatic strategies applied on them, and the achieved thermal comfort based on questionnaires answered by their users. The results of the current study indicate that the residential architecture of that period in the city of Athens is adapted to an extent to the local climate with various climate responsive strategies. As an outcome of the analysis, the most frequently applied strategies depending on the period of construction are presented. For this reason, the examined period is divided into 3 sub – periods: 1st period, 1920s-1930s (late neoclassicism & eclecticism), 2nd period, 1930s-1940s (modernism), 3rd period, 1940s-1960s (postwar modernism).

Keywords: Athens, climatic design strategies, residential buildings, middle war and post war architecture, thermal comfort.

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20 Contactless and Multiple Space Debris Removal by Micro to Nano Satellites

Authors: Junichiro Kawaguchi

Abstract:

Space debris problems have emerged and threatened the use of low earth orbit around the Earth owing to a large number of spacecrafts.. The robots should be sophisticated enough to access automatically the debris articulating the attitude and the translation motion with respect to the debris. This paper presents the idea of using the torpedo-like third unsophisticated and disposable body, in addition to the first body of the servicing robot and the second body of the target debris. The third body is launched from the first body from a distance further than the size of the second body. This paper presents the method and the system, so that the third body is launched from the first body. The third body carries both a net and an inflatable or extendible drag deceleration device and is built small and light. This method enables even micro to nano satellites to perform contactless and multiple debris removal even via a single flight.

Keywords: Ballute, Debris Removal, Echo satellite, Gossamer, Gun-Net, Inflatable Space Structure, Small Satellite, Un-cooperated Target.

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19 Coding Structures for Seated Row Simulation of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho

Abstract:

Simulation for seated row exercise was a continued task to assist NASA in analyzing a one-dimensional vibration isolation and stabilization system for astronaut’s exercise platform. Feedback delay and signal noise were added to the simulation model. Simulation runs for this study were conducted in two software simulation tools, Trick and MBDyn, software simulation environments developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The exciter force in the simulation was calculated from motion capture of an exerciser during a seated aerobic row exercise. The simulation runs include passive control, active control using a Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) controller, and active control using a Piecewise Linear Integral Derivative (PWLID) controller. Output parameters include displacements of the exercise platform, the exerciser, and the counterweight; transmitted force to the wall of spacecraft; and actuator force to the platform. The simulation results showed excellent force reduction in the active controlled system compared to the passive controlled system, which showed less force reduction.

Keywords: Simulation, counterweight, exercise, vibration.

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18 Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Mobile Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control Method

Authors: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo

Abstract:

In this paper, we are investigating sliding mode control approach for trajectory tracking of a two-link-manipulator with wheeled mobile robot in its base. The main challenge of this work is dynamic interaction between mobile base and manipulator which makes trajectory tracking more difficult than n-link manipulators with fixed base. Another challenging part of this work is to avoid chattering phenomenon of sliding mode control that makes lots of damages for actuators in real industrial cases. The results show the effectiveness of sliding mode control approach for desired trajectory.

Keywords: Mobile manipulator, sliding mode control, dynamic interaction, mobile robotics.

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17 Enhancement of Visual Comfort Using Parametric Double Skin Façades

Authors: Ahmed Ashraf Khamis, Sherif A. Ibrahim, Mahmoud ElKhatieb, Mohamed A. Barakat

Abstract:

Parametric design deemed to be one of icons of the modern architectural trends that facilitates taking complex design decisions counting on altering various design parameters. Double skin façades are one of the parametric applications that are used in parametric designs. This paper opts to enhance different daylight parameters of a selected case study office building in Cairo using a parametric double skin façade. First, the design and optimization process was executed utilizing Grasshopper parametric design software package, in which the daylighting performance of the base case building model was compared with the one used in the double façade showing an enhancement in task plane illuminance by 180%. Second, execution drawings are made for the optimized design using Revit software. Finally, computerized digital fabrication stages of the designed model with various scales are demonstrated to reach the final design decisions using Simplify 3D for mock-up digital fabrication.

Keywords: Parametric design, Double skin façades, Digital Fabrication, Grasshopper, Simplify 3D.

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16 Research on a Forest Fire Spread Simulation Driven by the Wind Field in Complex Terrain

Authors: Ying Shang, Chencheng Wang

Abstract:

The wind field is the main driving factor for the spread of forest fires. For the simulation results of forest fire spread to be more accurate, it is necessary to obtain more detailed wind field data. Therefore, this paper studied the mountainous fine wind field simulation method coupled with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) to realize the numerical simulation of the wind field in a mountainous area with a scale of 30 m and a small measurement error. Local topographical changes have an important impact on the wind field. Based on the Rothermel fire spread model, a forest fire in Idaho in the western United States was simulated. The historical data proved that the simulation results had a good accuracy. They showed that the fire spread rate will decrease rapidly with time and then reach a steady state. After reaching a steady state, the fire spread growth area will not only be affected by the slope, but will also show a significant quadratic linear positive correlation with the wind speed change.

Keywords: Wind field, numerical simulation, forest fire spread, fire behavior model, complex terrain.

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15 Material Properties Evolution Affecting Demisability for Space Debris Mitigation

Authors: Chetan Mahawar, Sarath Chandran, Sridhar Panigrahi, V. P. Shaji

Abstract:

The ever-growing advancement in space exploration has led to an alarming concern for space debris removal as it restricts further launch operations and adventurous space missions; hence various technologies and methods are explored for re-entry predictions and material selection processes for mitigating space debris. The selection of material and operating conditions is determined with the objective of lightweight structure and ability to demise faster subject to spacecraft survivability during its mission. The various evolving thermal material properties such as emissivity, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, radiation intensity, etc. affect demisability of spacecraft. Thus, this paper presents the analysis of evolving thermal material properties of spacecraft, which affect the demisability process and thus estimate demise time using the demisability model by incorporating evolving thermal properties for sensible heating followed by the complete or partial break-up of spacecraft. The demisability analysis thus concludes that the best suitable spacecraft material is based on the least estimated demise time, which fulfills the criteria of design-for-survivability and as well as of design-for-demisability.

Keywords: Demisability, emissivity, lightweight, re-entry, survivability.

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14 A Value-Oriented Metamodel for Small and Medium Enterprises’ Decision Making

Authors: Romain Ben Taleb, Aurélie Montarnal, Matthieu Lauras, Mathieu Dahan, Romain Miclo

Abstract:

To be competitive and sustainable, any company has to maximize its value. However, unlike listed companies that can assess their values based on market shares, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which are non-listed cannot have direct and live access to this critical information. Traditional accounting reports only give limited insights to SME decision-makers about the real impact of their day-to-day decisions on the company’s performance and value. Most of the time, an SME’s financial valuation is made one time a year as the associated process is time and resource-consuming, requiring several months and external expertise to be completed. To solve this issue, we propose in this paper a value-oriented metamodel that enables real-time and dynamic assessment of the SME’s value based on the large definition of their assets. These assets cover a wider scope of resources of the company and better account for immaterial assets. The proposal, which is illustrated in a case study, discusses the benefits of incorporating assets in the SME valuation.

Keywords: SME, metamodel, decision support system, financial valuation.

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13 Validation of Automotive Centrals Using Hardware in the Loop-Body Control Unit and Lights

Authors: Marley Rosa Luciano, Rodney Rezende Saldanha

Abstract:

The race for electrification and the need for innovation to attract customers has led the automotive industry to do something different with vehicles. New emissions control challenges and efficient technological availability are the pillars of creation. The growing demand to upgrade industrial manufacturing systems creates actions that directly impact vehicle production. With this comes the search for new prototyping methods and virtual tools for component testing and validation, and vehicle systems have established themselves. The demand for Electronic Control Units (ECU) is increasing due to the availability of intelligence and safety in today's vehicles, directly affecting their development, performance, and functional testing. In order to keep up with global changes, the automotive industry uses different virtual environments to produce, verify and validate their vehicles and test prototypes used during development. Therefore, in this paper, integration and validation were performed using the Hardware in the Loop (HIL) test platform, focusing on the ECU Body Control Module (BCM). Then, a brief commentary reviews other test medium platforms, such as the Plywood Buck (PWB), and examines the reliability, flexibility, installation time, and cost of the three test platforms, software in the loop (SIL), Model in the loop (MIL), and HIL, to review their benefits, challenges, and issues in use and information to optimize the use of each platform and test medium.

Keywords: Automotive, Electronic Central Unit, xIL, Hardware in the loop.

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12 Optimal Efficiency Control of Pulse Width Modulation - Inverter Fed Motor Pump Drive Using Neural Network

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, M. A. Badr, A. S. Elgendy, K. O. Shawky, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates an improved Loss Model Control (LMC) for a 3-phase induction motor (IM) driving pump load. Compared with other power loss reduction algorithms for IM, the presented one has the advantages of fast and smooth flux adaptation, high accuracy, and versatile implementation. The performance of LMC depends mainly on the accuracy of modeling the motor drive and losses. A loss-model for IM drive that considers the surplus power loss caused by inverter voltage harmonics using closed-form equations and also includes the magnetic saturation has been developed. Further, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller is synthesized and trained offline to determine the optimal flux level that achieves maximum drive efficiency. The drive’s voltage and speed control loops are connecting via the stator frequency to avoid the possibility of excessive magnetization. Besides, the resistance change due to temperature is considered by a first-order thermal model. The obtained thermal information enhances motor protection and control. These together have the potential of making the proposed algorithm reliable. Simulation and experimental studies are performed on 5.5 kW test motor using the proposed control method. The test results are provided and compared with the fixed flux operation to validate the effectiveness.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, efficiency optimization, induction motor, IM, Pulse Width Modulated, PWM, harmonic losses.

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11 Experimental Study of the Fan Electric Drive Based on Two-Speed Motor with Pole-Changing Winding

Authors: M. Bobojanov, D. Rismukhamedov, F. Tuychiev, Kh. Shamsutdinov

Abstract:

The article presents the results of experimental study of a two-speed asynchronous motor 4A80B6/4U3 with pole-changing winding on a fan drive VSUN 160x74-0.55-4 in static and dynamic modes. A prototype of a pole-changing Motor was made based on the results of the calculation and the performance and mechanical characteristics of the Motor were removed at the experimental stand, and useful capacities and other parameters from both poles were determined. In dynamic mode, the curves of changes of torque and current of the stator were removed by direct start, constant speed operation, by switching of speeds and stopping.

Keywords: Pole-changing winding, two speed asynchronous machine, basic scheme, winding factor, differential leakage factor.

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10 Evaluation of the Analytic for Hemodynamic Instability as A Prediction Tool for Early Identification of Patient Deterioration

Authors: Bryce Benson, Sooin Lee, Ashwin Belle

Abstract:

Unrecognized or delayed identification of patient deterioration is a key cause of in-hospitals adverse events. Clinicians rely on vital signs monitoring to recognize patient deterioration. However, due to ever increasing nursing workloads and the manual effort required, vital signs tend to be measured and recorded intermittently, and inconsistently causing large gaps during patient monitoring. Additionally, during deterioration, the body’s autonomic nervous system activates compensatory mechanisms causing the vital signs to be lagging indicators of underlying hemodynamic decline. This study analyzes the predictive efficacy of the Analytic for Hemodynamic Instability (AHI) system, an automated tool that was designed to help clinicians in early identification of deteriorating patients. The lead time analysis in this retrospective observational study assesses how far in advance AHI predicted deterioration prior to the start of an episode of hemodynamic instability (HI) becoming evident through vital signs? Results indicate that of the 362 episodes of HI in this study, 308 episodes (85%) were correctly predicted by the AHI system with a median lead time of 57 minutes and an average of 4 hours (240.5 minutes). Of the 54 episodes not predicted, AHI detected 45 of them while the episode of HI was ongoing. Of the 9 undetected, 5 were not detected by AHI due to either missing or noisy input ECG data during the episode of HI. In total, AHI was able to either predict or detect 98.9% of all episodes of HI in this study. These results suggest that AHI could provide an additional ‘pair of eyes’ on patients, continuously filling the monitoring gaps and consequently giving the patient care team the ability to be far more proactive in patient monitoring and adverse event management.

Keywords: Clinical deterioration prediction, decision support system, early warning system, hemodynamic status, physiologic monitoring.

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9 Flow Discharge Determination in Meandering Compound Channels Using Experimental Methods

Authors: Mehdi Kheradmand, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam, Abdolreza Zahiri, Mohadeseh Kheradmand

Abstract:

Determining the flow discharge in meandering channels with a compound cross section is associated with problems due to the complex hydraulic structure of the flow in the meander belt, which can be attributed to different and ever-changing geometric shapes of the meander. This research paper intends to study the accuracy of several one-dimensional experimental methods in determining the flow discharge. To this end, the results of laboratory data related to four meandering compound channels have been used, and the accuracy of three important methods to determine the flow discharge have been checked in these channels.

Keywords: Flow discharge determination, meandering compound channel, compound section, meandering rivers.

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8 Empirical Study from Final Exams of Computer Science Courses Demystifying the Notion of 'an Average Software Engineer'

Authors: Alex Elentukh

Abstract:

The paper is based on data collected from final exams administered during five years teaching the graduate course in software engineering. The visualization instrument with four distinct personas has been used to improve effectiveness of each class. The study offers a plethora of clues toward students' behavioral preferences. Diversity among students (professional background, physical proximity) is too significant to assume a single face of a learner. This is particularly true for a body of on-line graduate students in computer science. Conclusions of the study (each learner is unique and each class is unique) are extrapolated to demystify the notion of an 'average software engineer'. An immediate direction for an educator is to assure a course applies to a wide audience of very different individuals. On another hand, a student should be clear about his/her abilities and preferences - to follow the most effective learning path.

Keywords: K.3.2 computer & information science education, learner profiling, adaptive learning, software engineering.

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7 An Ontology for Smart Learning Environments in Music Education

Authors: Konstantinos Sofianos, Michail Stefanidakis

Abstract:

Nowadays, despite the great advances in technology, most educational frameworks lack a strong educational design basis. E-learning has become prevalent, but it faces various challenges such as student isolation and lack of quality in the learning process. An intelligent learning system provides a student with educational material according to their learning background and learning preferences. It records full information about the student, such as demographic information, learning styles, and academic performance. This information allows the system to be fully adapted to the student’s needs. In this paper, we propose a framework and an ontology for music education, consisting of the learner model and all elements of the learning process (learning objects, teaching methods, learning activities, assessment). This framework can be integrated into an intelligent learning system and used for music education in schools for the development of professional skills and beyond.

Keywords: Intelligent learning systems, e-learning, music education, ontology, semantic web.

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6 Master in Maritime Logistics: An Industry-Driven Design

Authors: Marco Sernaglia, Augusto M. P. Carreira, Helena M. L. Carvalho, Pedro B. Água, Armindo Frias, Manuel Carrasqueira

Abstract:

The existence of mismatches between the qualification requirements of professionals in the maritime industry and existing higher education offers was verified within the scope of the European project MarLEM (Maritime Logistics Engineering and Management). Professionals in the maritime industry today and in the future face additional obstacles as a result of the sector's global nature as well as the sector's rapid technological and social evolution. As a result, they feel the need to update their skills and knowledge. A professional-oriented master's program was developed to fill this gap. The NOVA School of Science and Technology and the Portuguese Naval School co-developed this Master's program with the active participation of MarLEM project partners from academia and industry. In this work, the principles and approach used to design the master's program are presented. Its design and a concise synopsis of the courses' content are shown. In addition, other international courses covering the same topic are compared. As a result of this work, the teaching materials related to maritime logistics are improved and the assumptions and methodology that guided the creation of an international master's program in maritime logistics are disseminated.

Keywords: Education, maritime logistics, shipping, industrial engineering, management, soft skills.

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5 Electromagnetic Interference Radiation Prediction and Final Measurement Process Optimization by Neural Network

Authors: Hussam Elias, Ninovic Perez, Holger Hirsch

Abstract:

The completion of the EMC regulations worldwide is growing steadily as the usage of electronics in our daily lives is increasing more than ever. In this paper, we present a method to perform the final phase of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) measurement and to reduce the required test time according to the norm EN 55032 by using a developed tool and the Conventional Neural Network (CNN). The neural network was trained using real EMC measurements which were performed in the Semi Anechoic Chamber (SAC) by CETECOM GmbH in Essen Germany. To implement our proposed method, we wrote software to perform the radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements and use the CNN to predict and determine the position of the turntable that meet the maximum radiation value.

Keywords: Conventional neural network, electromagnetic compatibility measurement, mean absolute error, position error.

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4 Photocatalytic Degradation of Produced Water Hydrocarbon of an Oil Field by Using Ag-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Hamed Bazrafshan, Saeideh Dabirnia, Zahra Alipour Tesieh, Samaneh Alavi, Bahram Dabir

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In this study, the removal of pollutants of a real produced water sample from an oil reservoir (a light oil reservoir), using a photocatalytic degradation process in a cylindrical glass reactor, was investigated. Using TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 in slurry form, the photocatalytic degradation was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) parameter, qualitative analysis, and GC-MS. At first, optimization of the parameters on photocatalytic degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in real produced water, using TiO2 nanoparticles as photocatalysts under UV light, was carried out applying response surface methodology. The results of the design of the experiment showed that the optimum conditions were at a catalyst concentration of 1.14 g/lit and pH of 2.67, and the percentage of COD removal was 72.65%.

Keywords: Photocatalyst, Ag-doped, TiO2, produced water, nanoparticles.

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3 Validation of the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and Vocational College Teachers

Authors: Wei Zhang, Lifen Zhao

Abstract:

The present study aims to translate and validate the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and vocational college teachers. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure that was consistent with the original structure of career motivation: career insight, career identity, and career resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a second-order three-factor model with correlated measurement errors best fit the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested, demonstrating that the Chinese version of the Career Motivation Scale did not differ across groups of school type, educational level, and working years in current institutions. The concurrent validity of the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was confirmed by its significant correlations with work engagement, career adaptability, career satisfaction, job crafting, and intention to quit. The results of the study indicated that the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was a valid and reliable measure of career motivation among university and vocational college teachers in China.

Keywords: Career motivation scale, Chinese university and vocational college teachers, measurement invariance, validation.

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2 Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring Using LoRa

Authors: Shathya Duobiene, Gediminas Račiukaitis

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an emerging technology that opens up a new field of research. The significant advance in WSN leads to an increasing prevalence of various monitoring applications and real-time assistance in labs and factories. Selective surface activation induced by laser (SSAIL) is a promising technology that adapts to the WSN design freedom of shape, dimensions, and material. This article proposes and implements a WSN-based temperature and humidity monitoring system, and its deployed architectures made for the monitoring task are discussed. Experimental results of developed sensor nodes implemented in university campus laboratories are shown. Then, the simulation and the implementation results obtained through monitoring scenarios are displayed. At last, a convenient solution to keep the WSN alive and functional as long as possible is proposed. Unlike other existing models, on success, the node is self-powered and can utilize minimal power consumption for sensing and data transmission to the base station.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, network formation, sensor nodes, SSAIL technology.

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1 Efficacy of Recovery Tech Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System for Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, Nazanin Vahed, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, S. Hossein Hosseini

Abstract:

The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons become trapped under the bony area in the shoulder. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of Virtual Reality based rehabilitation of shoulder impingement syndrome in athletes. Three consecutive patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were enrolled. The participants were rehabilitated for 5 times a week for 4 weeks, 20 sessions in total (with duration of each session being 60 minutes). In addition to the conventional rehabilitation program, a 10-minute game-based virtual reality exercise was administered. Primary outcome measures were range of motion evaluated with goniometer, pain sensation, disability intensity using ‘The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire’, muscle strength using ‘dynamometer’; pain threshold with 'algometer' and level of satisfaction. There were significant improvements in the range of motion, pain sensation, disability, pain threshold and muscle strength compared to basis (P < 0.05). There were no major adverse effects. This study showed the usefulness of VR therapy as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy in improving function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

Keywords: Shoulder impingement syndrome, VR therapy, feasibility, rehabilitation.

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