Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 543

Search results for: visual illusion

543 The Influence of Directionality on the Giovanelli Illusion

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

In the Giovanelli illusion, some collinear dots appear misaligned, when each dot lies within a circle and the circles are not collinear. In this illusion, the role of the frame of reference, determined by the circles, is considered a crucial factor. Three experiments were carried out to study the influence of directionality of the circles on the misalignment. The adjustment method was used. Participants changed the orthogonal position of each dot, from the left to the right of the sequence, until a collinear sequence of dots was achieved. The first experiment verified the illusory effect of the misalignment. In the second experiment, the influence of two different directionalities of the circles (-0.58° and +0.58°) on the misalignment was tested. The results show an over-normalization on the sequences of the dots. The third experiment tested the misalignment of the dots without any inclination of the sequence of circles (0°). Only a local illusory effect was found. These results demonstrate that the directionality of the circles, as a global factor, can increase the misalignment. The findings also indicate that directionality and the frame of reference are independent factors in explaining the Giovanelli illusion.

Keywords: Giovanelli illusion, visual illusion, directionality, misalignment, frame of reference.

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542 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle — Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: Visual culture, contemporary, visual spectacle.

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541 Testing Visual Abilities of Machines - Visual Intelligence Tests

Authors: Zbigniew Les, Magdalena Les

Abstract:

Intelligence tests are series of tasks designed to measure the capacity to make abstractions, to learn, and to deal with novel situations. Testing of the visual abilities of the shape understanding system (SUS) is performed based on the visual intelligence tests. In this paper the progressive matrices tests are formulated as tasks given to SUS. These tests require good visual problem solving abilities of the human subject. SUS solves these tests by performing complex visual reasoning transforming the visual forms (tests) into the string forms. The experiment proved that the proposed method, which is part of the SUS visual understanding abilities, can solve a test that is very difficult for human subject.

Keywords: Shape understanding, intelligence test, visual concept, visual reasoning.

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540 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: Components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity.

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539 Niksic in the Context of Visual Urban Culture

Authors: Svetlana Perović

Abstract:

Out of all visual arts including: painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, architecture, and others, architecture is by far the most complex one, because the art category is only one of its determinants. Architecture, to some extent includes other arts which can significantly influence the shaping of an urban space (artistic interventions). These arts largely shape the visual culture in combination with other categories: film, TV, Internet, information technologies that are "changing the world" etc. In the area of architecture and urbanism, visual culture is achieved through the aspects of visual spatial effects. In this context, a complex visual deliberation about designing urban areas in order to contribute to the urban visual culture, and with it restore the cultural identity of the city, is becoming almost the primary concept of contemporary urban and architectural practice. Research in this paper relate to the city of Niksic and its place in the visual urban culture. We are looking at the city’s existing visual effects and determining the directions of transformability of its physical structure in order to achieve the visual realization of an urban area and the renewal of cultural identity of a modern city.

Keywords: Nikšić, transformability, visual culture, visual realization.

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538 Artificial Visual Percepts for Image Understanding

Authors: Jeewanee Bamunusinghe, Damminda Alahakoon

Abstract:

Visual inputs are one of the key sources from which humans perceive the environment and 'understand' what is happening. Artificial systems perceive the visual inputs as digital images. The images need to be processed and analysed. Within the human brain, processing of visual inputs and subsequent development of perception is one of its major functionalities. In this paper we present part of our research project, which aims at the development of an artificial model for visual perception (or 'understanding') based on the human perceptive and cognitive systems. We propose a new model for perception from visual inputs and a way of understaning or interpreting images using the model. We demonstrate the implementation and use of the model with a real image data set.

Keywords: Image understanding, percept, visual perception.

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537 Appreciating, Interpreting and Understanding Posters via Levels of Visual Literacy

Authors: Mona Masood, Zakiah Zain

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Malaysia to discover how meaning and appreciation were construed among 35 Form Five students. Panofsky-s theory was employed to discover the levels of reasoning among students when various types of posters were displayed. The independent variables used were posters that carried explicit and implicit meanings; the moderating variable was students- visual literacy levels while the dependent variable was the implicit interpretation level. One-way ANOVA was applied for the data analysis. The data showed that before students were exposed to Panofsky-s theory, there were differences in thinking between boys, who did not think abstractly or implicit in comparison to girls. The study showed that students- visual literacy in posters depended on the use of visual texts and illustration. This paper discuss further on posters with text only have a tendency to be too abstract as opposed to posters with visuals plus text.

Keywords: explicit visual, implicit visual, visual interpretation, visual literacy

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536 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audio Visual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Due to inform the masses, give direction to opinions, and establish public opinion, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorization of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: Audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, Radio and Television Supreme Council.

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535 Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

Authors: Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

Abstract:

Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

Keywords: Cortona Control, Interpolator, Route, Sensor, VisualBasic, VRML

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534 Comparative Study of View Point Types on Landscape Evaluation

Authors: Yoon Jung Sik, Bur-Deul Yoon, Ki Hun Kim, Chang Hoon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the viewpoints in terms of changing distances and levels and thereby, comparatively analyze the visual sensitivity to the elements of the natural views. The questionnaire survey was conducted separately for experts and non-experts. Summing up, it was confirmed that the visual sensitivity to the elements of the same natural views differed significantly depending on subjects' professionalism, changes of the viewpoint levels and distances, while the visual sensitivity to 'openness of visual/view axes' did not differ significantly when only the distances of the viewpoints were varied. In addition, the visual sensitivity to visual/view axes differed between experts and ordinary people when the levels of the viewpoints were varied, while the visual sensitivity to 'damaged natural view resources' differed between two groups when the distances of the viewpoints were varied.

Keywords: Landscape Evaluation, Visual Sensitivity, Viewpoint.

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533 Model Transformation with a Visual Control Flow Language

Authors: László Lengyel, Tihamér Levendovszky, Gergely Mezei, Hassan Charaf

Abstract:

Graph rewriting-based visual model processing is a widely used technique for model transformation. Visual model transformations often need to follow an algorithm that requires a strict control over the execution sequence of the transformation steps. Therefore, in Visual Model Processors (VMPs) the execution order of the transformation steps is crucial. This paper presents the visual control flow support of Visual Modeling and Transformation System (VMTS), which facilitates composing complex model transformations of simple transformation steps and executing them. The VMTS Visual Control Flow Language (VCFL) uses stereotyped activity diagrams to specify control flow structures and OCL constraints to choose between different control flow branches. This paper introduces VCFL, discusses its termination properties and provides an algorithm to support the termination analysis of VCFL transformations.

Keywords: Control Flow, Metamodel-Based Visual ModelTransformation, OCL, Termination Properties, UML.

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532 The Feasibility of Augmenting an Augmented Reality Image Card on a Quick Response Code

Authors: Alfred Chen, Shr Yu Lu, Cong Seng Hong, Yur-June Wang

Abstract:

This research attempts to study the feasibility of augmenting an augmented reality (AR) image card on a Quick Response (QR) code. The authors have developed a new visual tag, which contains a QR code and an augmented AR image card. The new visual tag has features of reading both of the revealed data of the QR code and the instant data from the AR image card. Furthermore, a handheld communicating device is used to read and decode the new visual tag, and then the concealed data of the new visual tag can be revealed and read through its visual display. In general, the QR code is designed to store the corresponding data or, as a key, to access the corresponding data from the server through internet. Those reveled data from the QR code are represented in text. Normally, the AR image card is designed to store the corresponding data in 3-Dimensional or animation/video forms. By using QR code's property of high fault tolerant rate, the new visual tag can access those two different types of data by using a handheld communicating device. The new visual tag has an advantage of carrying much more data than independent QR code or AR image card. The major findings of this research are: 1) the most efficient area for the designed augmented AR card augmenting on the QR code is 9% coverage area out of the total new visual tag-s area, and 2) the best location for the augmented AR image card augmenting on the QR code is located in the bottom-right corner of the new visual tag.

Keywords: Augmented reality, QR code, Visual tag, Handheldcommunicating device

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531 Landscape Visual Classification Using Land use and Contour Data for Tourism and Planning Decision Making in Cameron Highlands District

Authors: Hosni, N., Shinozaki, M.

Abstract:

Cameron Highlands is known for upland tourism area with vast natural wealth, mountainous landscape endowed with rich diverse species as well as people traditions and cultures. With these various resources, CH possesses an interesting visual and panorama that can be offered to the tourist. However this benefit may not be utilized without obtaining the understanding of existing landscape structure and visual. Given a limited data, this paper attempts to classify landscape visual of Cameron Highlands using land use and contour data. Visual points of view were determined from the given tourist attraction points in the CH Local Plan 2003-2015. The result shows landscape visual and structure categories offered in the study area. The result can be used for further analysis to determine the best alternative tourist trails for tourism planning and decision making using readily available data.

Keywords: Visibility, landscape visual, urban planning, GIS

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530 Visual Hull with Imprecise Input

Authors: Peng He

Abstract:

Imprecision is a long-standing problem in CAD design and high accuracy image-based reconstruction applications. The visual hull which is the closed silhouette equivalent shape of the objects of interest is an important concept in image-based reconstruction. We extend the domain-theoretic framework, which is a robust and imprecision capturing geometric model, to analyze the imprecision in the output shape when the input vertices are given with imprecision. Under this framework, we show an efficient algorithm to generate the 2D partial visual hull which represents the exact information of the visual hull with only basic imprecision assumptions. We also show how the visual hull from polyhedra problem can be efficiently solved in the context of imprecise input.

Keywords: Geometric Domain, Computer Vision, Computational Geometry, Visual Hull, Image-Based reconstruction, Imprecise Input, CAD object

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529 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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528 Effect of Visual Speech in Sign Speech Synthesis

Authors: Zdenek Krnoul

Abstract:

This article investigates a contribution of synthesized visual speech. Synthesis of visual speech expressed by a computer consists in an animation in particular movements of lips. Visual speech is also necessary part of the non-manual component of a sign language. Appropriate methodology is proposed to determine the quality and the accuracy of synthesized visual speech. Proposed methodology is inspected on Czech speech. Hence, this article presents a procedure of recording of speech data in order to set a synthesis system as well as to evaluate synthesized speech. Furthermore, one option of the evaluation process is elaborated in the form of a perceptual test. This test procedure is verified on the measured data with two settings of the synthesis system. The results of the perceptual test are presented as a statistically significant increase of intelligibility evoked by real and synthesized visual speech. Now, the aim is to show one part of evaluation process which leads to more comprehensive evaluation of the sign speech synthesis system.

Keywords: Perception test, Sign speech synthesis, Talking head, Visual speech.

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527 A Visual Control Flow Language and Its Termination Properties

Authors: László Lengyel, Tihamér Levendovszky, Hassan Charaf

Abstract:

This paper presents the visual control flow support of Visual Modeling and Transformation System (VMTS), which facilitates composing complex model transformations out of simple transformation steps and executing them. The VMTS Visual Control Flow Language (VCFL) uses stereotyped activity diagrams to specify control flow structures and OCL constraints to choose between different control flow branches. This work discusses the termination properties of VCFL and provides an algorithm to support the termination analysis of VCFL transformations.

Keywords: Control Flow, Metamodel-Based Visual Model Transformation, OCL, Termination Properties, UML.

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526 Video Quality Assessment using Visual Attention Approach for Sign Language

Authors: Julia Kucerova, Jaroslav Polec, Darina Tarcsiova

Abstract:

Visual information is very important in human perception of surrounding world. Video is one of the most common ways to capture visual information. The video capability has many benefits and can be used in various applications. For the most part, the video information is used to bring entertainment and help to relax, moreover, it can improve the quality of life of deaf people. Visual information is crucial for hearing impaired people, it allows them to communicate personally, using the sign language; some parts of the person being spoken to, are more important than others (e.g. hands, face). Therefore, the information about visually relevant parts of the image, allows us to design objective metric for this specific case. In this paper, we present an example of an objective metric based on human visual attention and detection of salient object in the observed scene.

Keywords: sign language, objective video quality, visual attention, saliency

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525 Consistent Modeling of Functional Dependencies along with World Knowledge

Authors: Sven Rebhan, Nils Einecke, Julian Eggert

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a method for vision systems to consistently represent functional dependencies between different visual routines along with relational short- and long-term knowledge about the world. Here the visual routines are bound to visual properties of objects stored in the memory of the system. Furthermore, the functional dependencies between the visual routines are seen as a graph also belonging to the object-s structure. This graph is parsed in the course of acquiring a visual property of an object to automatically resolve the dependencies of the bound visual routines. Using this representation, the system is able to dynamically rearrange the processing order while keeping its functionality. Additionally, the system is able to estimate the overall computational costs of a certain action. We will also show that the system can efficiently use that structure to incorporate already acquired knowledge and thus reduce the computational demand.

Keywords: Adaptive systems, Knowledge representation, Machinevision, Systems engineering

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524 Visual Analytics in K 12 Education - Emerging Dimensions of Complexity

Authors: Linnea Stenliden

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to understand emerging learning conditions, when a visual analytics is implemented and used in K 12 (education). To date, little attention has been paid to the role visual analytics (digital media and technology that highlight visual data communication in order to support analytical tasks) can play in education, and to the extent to which these tools can process actionable data for young students. This study was conducted in three public K 12 schools, in four social science classes with students aged 10 to 13 years, over a period of two to four weeks at each school. Empirical data were generated using video observations and analyzed with help of metaphors within Actor-network theory (ANT). The learning conditions are found to be distinguished by broad complexity, characterized by four dimensions. These emerge from the actors’ deeply intertwined relations in the activities. The paper argues in relation to the found dimensions that novel approaches to teaching and learning could benefit students’ knowledge building as they work with visual analytics, analyzing visualized data.

Keywords: Analytical reasoning, complexity, data use, problem space, visual analytics, visual storytelling, translation.

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523 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: Visual evoked potential, OpenViBe, BioMEMS, Neuro prosthesis.

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522 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, digital watermarking, histogram, visual cryptography.

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521 The Effects of Visual Elements and Cognitive Styles on Students Learning in Hypermedia Environment

Authors: Rishi Ruttun

Abstract:

One of the major features of hypermedia learning is its non-linear structure, allowing learners, the opportunity of flexible navigation to accommodate their own needs. Nevertheless, such flexibility can also cause problems such as insufficient navigation and disorientation for some learners, especially those with Field Dependent cognitive styles. As a result students learning performance can be deteriorated and in turn, they can have negative attitudes with hypermedia learning systems. It was suggested that visual elements can be used to compensate dilemmas. However, it is unclear whether these visual elements improve their learning or whether problems still exist. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of students cognitive styles and visual elements on students learning performance and attitudes in hypermedia learning environment. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Learning outcome in terms of pre and post-test, practical task, and Attitude Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to a sample of 60 university students. The findings revealed that FD students preformed equally to those of FI. Also, FD students experienced more disorientation in the hypermedia learning system where they depend a lot on the visual elements for navigation and orientation purposes. Furthermore, they had more positive attitudes towards the visual elements which escape them from experiencing navigation and disorientation dilemmas. In contrast, FI students were more comfortable, did not get disturbed or did not need some of the visual elements in the hypermedia learning system.

Keywords: Hypermedia learning, cognitive styles, visual elements, support, learning performance, attitudes and perceptions

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520 A Case of Study for 3D Stereoscopic Conversion in Visual Effects Industry

Authors: Jin Zhi

Abstract:

This paper covered a series of key points in terms of 2D to 3D stereoscopic conversion. A successfully applied stereoscopic conversion approach in current visual effects industry was presented. The purpose of this paper is to cover a detailed workflow and concept, which has been successfully used in 3D stereoscopic conversion for feature films in visual effects industry, and therefore to clarify the process in stereoscopic conversion production and provide a clear idea for those entry-level artists to improve an overall understanding of 3D stereoscopic in digital compositing field as well as to the higher education factor of visual effects and hopefully inspire further collaboration and participants particularly between academia and industry.

Keywords: Clean plates, Mattes, Stereoscopic conversion, 3Dprojection, Z-depth.

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519 Laser Welded Ni-Cr Dental Alloys Inspection

Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.

Abstract:

Minor problems arising from optimizations by welding of fixed prostheses frameworks can be identified by macroscopic and microscopic visual inspection. The purpose of this study was to highlight the visible discontinuities present in the laser welds of dental Ni-Cr alloys. Ni-Cr base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using cast plates, preliminary tests were conducted by laser welding. Macroscopic visual inspection was done carefully to assess the defects of the welding rib. Electron microscopy images allowed visualization of small discontinuities, which escapes visual inspection. Making comparison to Ni-Cr alloys taken in the experiment and laser welded, after visual analysis, the best welds appear for Heraenium NA alloy.

Keywords: macroscopic visual inspection, electron microscopyimages, Ni-Cr dental alloys, laser welding.

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518 An Improved Algorithm of SPIHT based on the Human Visual Characteristics

Authors: Meng Wang, Qi-rui Han

Abstract:

Because of excellent properties, people has paid more attention to SPIHI algorithm, which is based on the traditional wavelet transformation theory, but it also has its shortcomings. Combined the progress in the present wavelet domain and the human's visual characteristics, we propose an improved algorithm based on human visual characteristics of SPIHT in the base of analysis of SPIHI algorithm. The experiment indicated that the coding speed and quality has been enhanced well compared to the original SPIHT algorithm, moreover improved the quality of the transmission cut off.

Keywords: Lifted wavelet transform, SPIHT, Human Visual Characteristics.

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517 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma

Abstract:

In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: Cornea, laceration, visual outcome, wound repair.

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516 A Collaborative Framework for Visual Modeling on Web 2.0

Authors: Song Meng, Dianfu Ma, Yongwang Zhao, Jianxin Li

Abstract:

Cooperative visual modeling is more and more necessary in our complicated world. A collaborative environment which supports interactive operation and communication is required to increase work efficiency. We present a collaborative visual modeling framework which collaborative platform could be built on. On this platform, cooperation and communication is available for designers from different regions. This framework, which is different from other collaborative frameworks, contains a uniform message format, a message handling mechanism and other functions such as message pretreatment and Role-Communication-Token Access Control (RCTAC). We also show our implementation of this framework called Orchestra Designer, which support BPLE workflow modeling cooperatively online.

Keywords: colllaborative framework; visual modeling; message handling mechanism

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515 Event Related Potentials in Terms of Visual and Auditory Stimuli

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, KyeongSeok Sim, DaKyeong Shin, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Event-related potential (ERP) is one of the useful tools for investigating cognitive reactions. In this study, the potential of ERP components detected after auditory and visual stimuli was examined. Subjects were asked to respond upon stimuli that were of three categories; Target, Non-Target and Standard stimuli. The ERP after stimulus was measured. In the experiment of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), the subjects were asked to gaze at a center point on the monitor screen where the stimuli were provided by the reversal pattern of the checkerboard. In consequence of the VEP experiments, we observed consistent reactions. Each peak voltage could be measured when the ensemble average was applied. Visual stimuli had smaller amplitude and a longer latency compared to that of auditory stimuli. The amplitude was the highest with Target and the smallest with Standard in both stimuli.

Keywords: Auditory stimulus, EEG, event related potential, oddball task, visual stimulus.

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514 HSV Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography

Authors: Rawan I. Zaghloul, Enas F. Al-Rawashdeh

Abstract:

In this paper a simple watermarking method for color images is proposed. The proposed method is based on watermark embedding for the histograms of the HSV planes using visual cryptography watermarking. The method has been proved to be robust for various image processing operations such as filtering, compression, additive noise, and various geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping, flipping, and shearing.

Keywords: Histogram, HSV image, Visual Cryptography, Watermark.

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