Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1218

Search results for: minimum spanning tree.

1218 Spanning Tree Transformation of Connected Graphs into Single-Row Networks

Authors: S.L. Loh, S. Salleh, N.H. Sarmin

Abstract:

A spanning tree of a connected graph is a tree which consists the set of vertices and some or perhaps all of the edges from the connected graph. In this paper, a model for spanning tree transformation of connected graphs into single-row networks, namely Spanning Tree of Connected Graph Modeling (STCGM) will be introduced. Path-Growing Tree-Forming algorithm applied with Vertex-Prioritized is contained in the model to produce the spanning tree from the connected graph. Paths are produced by Path-Growing and they are combined into a spanning tree by Tree-Forming. The spanning tree that is produced from the connected graph is then transformed into single-row network using Tree Sequence Modeling (TSM). Finally, the single-row routing problem is solved using a method called Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Single-Row Routing (ESSR).

Keywords: Graph theory, simulated annealing, single-rowrouting and spanning tree.

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1217 Implementation of Heuristics for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem Using Nearest Neighbour and Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms

Authors: Fatma A. Karkory, Ali A. Abudalmola

Abstract:

The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem in which the goal is to find the shortest path between different cities that the salesman takes. In other words, the problem deals with finding a route covering all cities so that total distance and execution time is minimized. This paper adopts the nearest neighbor and minimum spanning tree algorithm to solve the well-known travelling salesman problem. The algorithms were implemented using java programming language. The approach is tested on three graphs that making a TSP tour instance of 5-city, 10 –city, and 229–city. The computation results validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Heuristics, minimum spanning tree algorithm, Nearest Neighbor, Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP).

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1216 A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: J. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Zhang

Abstract:

The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.

Keywords: Degree, initial cluster center, k-means, minimum spanning tree.

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1215 Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications

Authors: Miloš Šeda

Abstract:

Finding the shortest path between two positions is a fundamental problem in transportation, routing, and communications applications. In robot motion planning, the robot should pass around the obstacles touching none of them, i.e. the goal is to find a collision-free path from a starting to a target position. This task has many specific formulations depending on the shape of obstacles, allowable directions of movements, knowledge of the scene, etc. Research of path planning has yielded many fundamentally different approaches to its solution, mainly based on various decomposition and roadmap methods. In this paper, we show a possible use of visibility graphs in point-to-point motion planning in the Euclidean plane and an alternative approach using Voronoi diagrams that decreases the probability of collisions with obstacles. The second application area, investigated here, is focused on problems of finding minimal networks connecting a set of given points in the plane using either only straight connections between pairs of points (minimum spanning tree) or allowing the addition of auxiliary points to the set to obtain shorter spanning networks (minimum Steiner tree).

Keywords: motion planning, spanning tree, Steiner tree, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram.

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1214 Applying Spanning Tree Graph Theory for Automatic Database Normalization

Authors: Chetneti Srisa-an

Abstract:

In Knowledge and Data Engineering field, relational database is the best repository to store data in a real world. It has been using around the world more than eight decades. Normalization is the most important process for the analysis and design of relational databases. It aims at creating a set of relational tables with minimum data redundancy that preserve consistency and facilitate correct insertion, deletion, and modification. Normalization is a major task in the design of relational databases. Despite its importance, very few algorithms have been developed to be used in the design of commercial automatic normalization tools. It is also rare technique to do it automatically rather manually. Moreover, for a large and complex database as of now, it make even harder to do it manually. This paper presents a new complete automated relational database normalization method. It produces the directed graph and spanning tree, first. It then proceeds with generating the 2NF, 3NF and also BCNF normal forms. The benefit of this new algorithm is that it can cope with a large set of complex function dependencies.

Keywords: Relational Database, Functional Dependency, Automatic Normalization, Primary Key, Spanning tree.

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1213 A Spanning Tree for Enhanced Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Saravanan, M. Madheswaran

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, clustering, minimum spanning tree, genetic algorithm, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, simulated annealing.

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1212 Clustering in WSN Based on Minimum Spanning Tree Using Divide and Conquer Approach

Authors: Uttam Vijay, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Due to heavy energy constraints in WSNs clustering is an efficient way to manage the energy in sensors. There are many methods already proposed in the area of clustering and research is still going on to make clustering more energy efficient. In our paper we are proposing a minimum spanning tree based clustering using divide and conquer approach. The MST based clustering was first proposed in 1970’s for large databases. Here we are taking divide and conquer approach and implementing it for wireless sensor networks with the constraints attached to the sensor networks. This Divide and conquer approach is implemented in a way that we don’t have to construct the whole MST before clustering but we just find the edge which will be the part of the MST to a corresponding graph and divide the graph in clusters there itself if that edge from the graph can be removed judging on certain constraints and hence saving lot of computation.

Keywords: Algorithm, Clustering, Edge-Weighted Graph, Weighted-LEACH.

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1211 A Preemptive Link State Spanning Tree Source Routing Scheme for Opportunistic Data Forwarding in MANET

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, A. Sabari

Abstract:

Opportunistic Data Forwarding (ODF) has drawn much attention in mobile adhoc networking research in recent years. The effectiveness of ODF in MANET depends on a suitable routing protocol which provides a powerful source routing services. PLSR is featured by source routing, loop free and small routing overhead. The update messages in PLSR are integrated into a tree structure and no need to time stamp routing updates which reduces the routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Opportunistic data forwarding (ODF), Preemptive link state spanning tree routing (PLSR), Depth First Search (DFS).

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1210 Independent Spanning Trees on Systems-on-chip Hypercubes Routing

Authors: Eduardo Sant'Ana da Silva, Andre Luiz Pires Guedes, Eduardo Todt

Abstract:

Independent spanning trees (ISTs) provide a number of advantages in data broadcasting. One can cite the use in fault tolerance network protocols for distributed computing and bandwidth. However, the problem of constructing multiple ISTs is considered hard for arbitrary graphs. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm to construct ISTs on hypercubes that requires minimum resources to be performed.

Keywords: Hypercube, Independent Spanning Trees, Networks On Chip, Systems On Chip.

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1209 Minimal Spanning Tree based Fuzzy Clustering

Authors: Ágnes Vathy-Fogarassy, Balázs Feil, János Abonyi

Abstract:

Most of fuzzy clustering algorithms have some discrepancies, e.g. they are not able to detect clusters with convex shapes, the number of the clusters should be a priori known, they suffer from numerical problems, like sensitiveness to the initialization, etc. This paper studies the synergistic combination of the hierarchical and graph theoretic minimal spanning tree based clustering algorithm with the partitional Gath-Geva fuzzy clustering algorithm. The aim of this hybridization is to increase the robustness and consistency of the clustering results and to decrease the number of the heuristically defined parameters of these algorithms to decrease the influence of the user on the clustering results. For the analysis of the resulted fuzzy clusters a new fuzzy similarity measure based tool has been presented. The calculated similarities of the clusters can be used for the hierarchical clustering of the resulted fuzzy clusters, which information is useful for cluster merging and for the visualization of the clustering results. As the examples used for the illustration of the operation of the new algorithm will show, the proposed algorithm can detect clusters from data with arbitrary shape and does not suffer from the numerical problems of the classical Gath-Geva fuzzy clustering algorithm.

Keywords: Clustering, fuzzy clustering, minimal spanning tree, cluster validity, fuzzy similarity.

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1208 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete Graphs and Complete Bipartite Graphs

Authors: R. Anitha, R. S. Lekshmi

Abstract:

Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. Given two graphs G and H, an H-decomposition of G is a partition of the edge set of G into disjoint isomorphic copies of H. An n-sun is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper we have proved that the complete graph of order 2n, K2n can be decomposed into n-2 n-suns, a Hamilton cycle and a perfect matching, when n is even and for odd case, the decomposition is n-1 n-suns and a perfect matching. For an odd order complete graph K2n+1, delete the star subgraph K1, 2n and the resultant graph K2n is decomposed as in the case of even order. The method of building n-suns uses Walecki's construction for the Hamilton decomposition of complete graphs. A spanning tree decomposition of even order complete graphs is also discussed using the labeling scheme of n-sun decomposition. A complete bipartite graph Kn, n can be decomposed into n/2 n-suns when n/2 is even. When n/2 is odd, Kn, n can be decomposed into (n-2)/2 n-suns and a Hamilton cycle.

Keywords: Hamilton cycle, n-sun decomposition, perfectmatching, spanning tree.

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1207 Consensus of Multi-Agent Systems under the Special Consensus Protocols

Authors: Konghe Xie

Abstract:

Two consensus problems are considered in this paper. One is the consensus of linear multi-agent systems with weakly connected directed communication topology. The other is the consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems with strongly connected directed communication topology. For the first problem, a simplified consensus protocol is designed: Each child agent can only communicate with one of its neighbors. That is, the real communication topology is a directed spanning tree of the original communication topology and without any cycles. Then, the necessary and sufficient condition is put forward to the multi-agent systems can be reached consensus. It is worth noting that the given conditions do not need any eigenvalue of the corresponding Laplacian matrix of the original directed communication network. For the second problem, the feedback gain is designed in the nonlinear consensus protocol. Then, the sufficient condition is proposed such that the systems can be achieved consensus. Besides, the consensus interval is introduced and analyzed to solve the consensus problem. Finally, two numerical simulations are included to verify the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Consensus, multi-agent systems, directed spanning tree, the Laplacian matrix.

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1206 A Methodology for Definition of Road Networks in Rural Areas of Nepal

Authors: J. K. Shrestha, A. Benta, R. B. Lopes, N. Lopes

Abstract:

This work provides a practical method for the development of rural road networks in rural areas of developing countries. The proposed methodology enables to determine obligatory points in the rural road network maximizing the number of settlements that have access to basic services within a given maximum distance. The proposed methodology is simple and practical, hence, highly applicable to real-world scenarios, as demonstrated in the definition of the road network for the rural areas of Nepal.

Keywords: Minimum spanning tree, nodal points, rural road network.

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1205 Distributed 2-Vertex Connectivity Test of Graphs Using Local Knowledge

Authors: Brahim Hamid, Bertrand Le Saec, Mohamed Mosbah

Abstract:

The vertex connectivity of a graph is the smallest number of vertices whose deletion separates the graph or makes it trivial. This work is devoted to the problem of vertex connectivity test of graphs in a distributed environment based on a general and a constructive approach. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, using a preconstructed spanning tree of the considered graph, we present a protocol to test whether a given graph is 2-connected using only local knowledge. Second, we present an encoding of this protocol using graph relabeling systems. The last contribution is the implementation of this protocol in the message passing model. For a given graph G, where M is the number of its edges, N the number of its nodes and Δ is its degree, our algorithms need the following requirements: The first one uses O(Δ×N2) steps and O(Δ×logΔ) bits per node. The second one uses O(Δ×N2) messages, O(N2) time and O(Δ × logΔ) bits per node. Furthermore, the studied network is semi-anonymous: Only the root of the pre-constructed spanning tree needs to be identified.

Keywords: Distributed computing, fault-tolerance, graph relabeling systems, local computations, local knowledge, message passing system, networks, vertex connectivity.

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1204 Auto Regressive Tree Modeling for Parametric Optimization in Fuzzy Logic Control System

Authors: Arshia Azam, J. Amarnath, Ch. D. V. Paradesi Rao

Abstract:

The advantage of solving the complex nonlinear problems by utilizing fuzzy logic methodologies is that the experience or expert-s knowledge described as a fuzzy rule base can be directly embedded into the systems for dealing with the problems. The current limitation of appropriate and automated designing of fuzzy controllers are focused in this paper. The structure discovery and parameter adjustment of the Branched T-S fuzzy model is addressed by a hybrid technique of type constrained sparse tree algorithms. The simulation result for different system model is evaluated and the identification error is observed to be minimum.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, branch T-S fuzzy model, tree modeling, complex nonlinear system.

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1203 Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Deepali Virmani , Satbir Jain

Abstract:

To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree. DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss ,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy.

Keywords: branch energy, decentralized, energy level , lifetime, tree energy, wireless sensor networks.

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1202 Revised PLWAP Tree with Non-frequent Items for Mining Sequential Pattern

Authors: R. Vishnu Priya, A. Vadivel

Abstract:

Sequential pattern mining is a challenging task in data mining area with large applications. One among those applications is mining patterns from weblog. Recent times, weblog is highly dynamic and some of them may become absolute over time. In addition, users may frequently change the threshold value during the data mining process until acquiring required output or mining interesting rules. Some of the recently proposed algorithms for mining weblog, build the tree with two scans and always consume large time and space. In this paper, we build Revised PLWAP with Non-frequent Items (RePLNI-tree) with single scan for all items. While mining sequential patterns, the links related to the nonfrequent items are not considered. Hence, it is not required to delete or maintain the information of nodes while revising the tree for mining updated transactions. The algorithm supports both incremental and interactive mining. It is not required to re-compute the patterns each time, while weblog is updated or minimum support changed. The performance of the proposed tree is better, even the size of incremental database is more than 50% of existing one. For evaluation purpose, we have used the benchmark weblog dataset and found that the performance of proposed tree is encouraging compared to some of the recently proposed approaches.

Keywords: Sequential pattern mining, weblog, frequent and non-frequent items, incremental and interactive mining.

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1201 Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis

Authors: Amitava Chakraborty, Sudip Kumar De, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Point quad tree is considered as one of the most common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness.

Keywords: Algorithm, Height balanced tree, Point patternanalysis, Point quad tree.

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1200 An Attribute-Centre Based Decision Tree Classification Algorithm

Authors: Gökhan Silahtaroğlu

Abstract:

Decision tree algorithms have very important place at classification model of data mining. In literature, algorithms use entropy concept or gini index to form the tree. The shape of the classes and their closeness to each other some of the factors that affect the performance of the algorithm. In this paper we introduce a new decision tree algorithm which employs data (attribute) folding method and variation of the class variables over the branches to be created. A comparative performance analysis has been held between the proposed algorithm and C4.5.

Keywords: Classification, decision tree, split, pruning, entropy, gini.

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1199 Some New Bounds for a Real Power of the Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues

Authors: Ayşe Dilek Maden

Abstract:

For a given a simple connected graph, we present some new bounds via a new approach for a special topological index given by the sum of the real number power of the non-zero normalized Laplacian eigenvalues. To use this approach presents an advantage not only to derive old and new bounds on this topic but also gives an idea how some previous results in similar area can be developed.

Keywords: Degree Kirchhoff index, normalized Laplacian eigenvalue, spanning tree.

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1198 Improving Fault Resilience and Reconstruction of Overlay Multicast Tree Using Leaving Time of Participants

Authors: Bhed Bahadur Bista

Abstract:

Network layer multicast, i.e. IP multicast, even after many years of research, development and standardization, is not deployed in large scale due to both technical (e.g. upgrading of routers) and political (e.g. policy making and negotiation) issues. Researchers looked for alternatives and proposed application/overlay multicast where multicast functions are handled by end hosts, not network layer routers. Member hosts wishing to receive multicast data form a multicast delivery tree. The intermediate hosts in the tree act as routers also, i.e. they forward data to the lower hosts in the tree. Unlike IP multicast, where a router cannot leave the tree until all members below it leave, in overlay multicast any member can leave the tree at any time thus disjoining the tree and disrupting the data dissemination. All the disrupted hosts have to rejoin the tree. This characteristic of the overlay multicast causes multicast tree unstable, data loss and rejoin overhead. In this paper, we propose that each node sets its leaving time from the tree and sends join request to a number of nodes in the tree. The nodes in the tree will reject the request if their leaving time is earlier than the requesting node otherwise they will accept the request. The node can join at one of the accepting nodes. This makes the tree more stable as the nodes will join the tree according to their leaving time, earliest leaving time node being at the leaf of the tree. Some intermediate nodes may not follow their leaving time and leave earlier than their leaving time thus disrupting the tree. For this, we propose a proactive recovery mechanism so that disrupted nodes can rejoin the tree at predetermined nodes immediately. We have shown by simulation that there is less overhead when joining the multicast tree and the recovery time of the disrupted nodes is much less than the previous works. Keywords

Keywords: Network layer multicast, Fault Resilience, IP multicast

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1197 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

Authors: Wan Chian Li, Justie Su-Tzu Juan, Yi-Chun Wang, Shu-Chuan Chen

Abstract:

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

Keywords: evolutionary tree, mixture tree, mutated site, distance.

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1196 Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection

Authors: Krishnamoorthi Makkithaya, N. V. Subba Reddy, U. Dinesh Acharya

Abstract:

As the number of networked computers grows, intrusion detection is an essential component in keeping networks secure. Various approaches for intrusion detection are currently being in use with each one has its own merits and demerits. This paper presents our work to test and improve the performance of a new class of decision tree c-fuzzy decision tree to detect intrusion. The work also includes identifying best candidate feature sub set to build the efficient c-fuzzy decision tree based Intrusion Detection System (IDS). We investigated the usefulness of c-fuzzy decision tree for developing IDS with a data partition based on horizontal fragmentation. Empirical results indicate the usefulness of our approach in developing the efficient IDS.

Keywords: Data mining, Decision tree, Feature selection, Fuzzyc- means clustering, Intrusion detection.

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1195 Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape

Authors: Hairulliza M. Judi, Soon Y. Chee

Abstract:

This paper discusses the landscape design that could increase energy efficiency in a house. By planting trees in a house compound, the tree shades prevent direct sunlight from heating up the building, and it enables cooling off the surrounding air. The requirement for air-conditioning could be minimized and the air quality could be improved. During the life time of a tree, the saving cost from the mentioned benefits could be up to US $ 200 for each tree. The project intends to visually describe the landscape design in a house compound that could enhance energy efficiency and consequently lead to energy saving. The house compound model was developed in three dimensions by using AutoCAD 2005, the animation was programmed by using LightWave 3D softwares i.e. Modeler and Layout to display the tree shadings in the wall. The visualization was executed on a VRML Pad platform and implemented on a web environment.

Keywords: Tree planting, tree shading, energy efficiency, visualization.

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1194 Combining Minimum Energy and Minimum Direct Jerk of Linear Dynamic Systems

Authors: V. Tawiwat, P. Jumnong

Abstract:

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting when combining the minimum energy and jerk of indirect jerks approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions of the minimum energy, the minimum jerk and combining them together are found using the dynamic optimization methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history of state inputs employed by combining minimum energy and jerk designs. The numerical solution of minimum direct jerk and energy problem are exactly the same solution; however, the solutions from problem of minimum energy yield the similar solution especially in term of tendency.

Keywords: Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.

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1193 [a, b]-Factors Excluding Some Specified Edges In Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu

Abstract:

Let G be a graph of order n, and let a, b and m be positive integers with 1 ≤ a<b. An [a, b]-factor of G is defined as a spanning subgraph F of G such that a ≤ dF (x) ≤ b for each x ∈ V (G). In this paper, it is proved that if n ≥ (a+b−1+√(a+b+1)m−2)2−1 b and δ(G) > n + a + b − 2 √bn+ 1, then for any subgraph H of G with m edges, G has an [a, b]-factor F such that E(H)∩ E(F) = ∅. This result is an extension of thatof Egawa [2].

Keywords: graph, minimum degree, [a, b]-factor.

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1192 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam

Abstract:

The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.

Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.

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1191 Dynamic Routing to Multiple Destinations in IP Networks using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (DRHGA)

Authors: K. Vijayalakshmi, S. Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

In this paper we have proposed a novel dynamic least cost multicast routing protocol using hybrid genetic algorithm for IP networks. Our protocol finds the multicast tree with minimum cost subject to delay, degree, and bandwidth constraints. The proposed protocol has the following features: i. Heuristic local search function has been devised and embedded with normal genetic operation to increase the speed and to get the optimized tree, ii. It is efficient to handle the dynamic situation arises due to either change in the multicast group membership or node / link failure, iii. Two different crossover and mutation probabilities have been used for maintaining the diversity of solution and quick convergence. The simulation results have shown that our proposed protocol generates dynamic multicast tree with lower cost. Results have also shown that the proposed algorithm has better convergence rate, better dynamic request success rate and less execution time than other existing algorithms. Effects of degree and delay constraints have also been analyzed for the multicast tree interns of search success rate.

Keywords: Dynamic Group membership change, Hybrid Genetic Algorithm, Link / node failure, QoS Parameters.

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1190 The Leaves of a Tree

Authors: Zhu Jiaming, Yu Mengna

Abstract:

In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile.

Keywords: Leaf shape; Mass; Fuzzy cluster; Regression analysis; Eviews; Matlab

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1189 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

Authors: Asha Rani, Christian Micheloni, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural tree (NT) classifier having a simple perceptron at each node is considered. A new concept for making a balanced tree is applied in the learning algorithm of the tree. At each node, if the perceptron classification is not accurate and unbalanced, then it is replaced by a new perceptron. This separates the training set in such a way that almost the equal number of patterns fall into each of the classes. Moreover, each perceptron is trained only for the classes which are present at respective node and ignore other classes. Splitting nodes are employed into the neural tree architecture to divide the training set when the current perceptron node repeats the same classification of the parent node. A new error function based on the depth of the tree is introduced to reduce the computational time for the training of a perceptron. Experiments are performed to check the efficiency and encouraging results are obtained in terms of accuracy and computational costs.

Keywords: Neural Tree, Pattern Classification, Perceptron, Splitting Nodes.

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