Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 694

Search results for: visual reasoning.

694 Testing Visual Abilities of Machines - Visual Intelligence Tests

Authors: Zbigniew Les, Magdalena Les

Abstract:

Intelligence tests are series of tasks designed to measure the capacity to make abstractions, to learn, and to deal with novel situations. Testing of the visual abilities of the shape understanding system (SUS) is performed based on the visual intelligence tests. In this paper the progressive matrices tests are formulated as tasks given to SUS. These tests require good visual problem solving abilities of the human subject. SUS solves these tests by performing complex visual reasoning transforming the visual forms (tests) into the string forms. The experiment proved that the proposed method, which is part of the SUS visual understanding abilities, can solve a test that is very difficult for human subject.

Keywords: Shape understanding, intelligence test, visual concept, visual reasoning.

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693 Appreciating, Interpreting and Understanding Posters via Levels of Visual Literacy

Authors: Mona Masood, Zakiah Zain

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Malaysia to discover how meaning and appreciation were construed among 35 Form Five students. Panofsky-s theory was employed to discover the levels of reasoning among students when various types of posters were displayed. The independent variables used were posters that carried explicit and implicit meanings; the moderating variable was students- visual literacy levels while the dependent variable was the implicit interpretation level. One-way ANOVA was applied for the data analysis. The data showed that before students were exposed to Panofsky-s theory, there were differences in thinking between boys, who did not think abstractly or implicit in comparison to girls. The study showed that students- visual literacy in posters depended on the use of visual texts and illustration. This paper discuss further on posters with text only have a tendency to be too abstract as opposed to posters with visuals plus text.

Keywords: explicit visual, implicit visual, visual interpretation, visual literacy

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692 Temporal Case-Based Reasoning System for Automatic Parking Complex

Authors: Alexander P. Eremeev, Ivan E. Kurilenko, Pavel R. Varshavskiy

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of the application of temporal reasoning and case-based reasoning in intelligent decision support systems is considered. The method of case-based reasoning with temporal dependences for the solution of problems of real-time diagnostics and forecasting in intelligent decision support systems is described. This paper demonstrates how the temporal case-based reasoning system can be used in intelligent decision support systems of the car access control. This work was supported by RFBR.

Keywords: Analogous reasoning, case-based reasoning, intelligent decision support systems, temporal reasoning.

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691 Reasoning with Dynamic Domains and Computer Security

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

Representing objects in a dynamic domain is essential in commonsense reasoning under some circumstances. Classical logics and their nonmonotonic consequences, however, are usually not able to deal with reasoning with dynamic domains due to the fact that every constant in the logical language denotes some existing object in the static domain. In this paper, we explore a logical formalization which allows us to represent nonexisting objects in commonsense reasoning. A formal system named N-theory is proposed for this purpose and its possible application in computer security is briefly discussed.

Keywords: knowledge representation and reasoning, commonsensereasoning, computer security

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690 Integrated Reasoning Approach for Car Faulty Diagnosis

Authors: Diana M.L. Wong

Abstract:

This paper presents an integrated case based and rule based reasoning method for car faulty diagnosis. The reasoning method is done through extracting the past cases from the Proton Service Center while comparing with the preset rules to deduce a diagnosis/solution to a car service case. New cases will be stored to the knowledge base. The test cases examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated reasoning. It has proven accuracy of similar reasoning if carried out by a service advisor from the service center.

Keywords: component; case based reasoning (CBR), rule basedreasoning (RBR), decision support systems, diagnosis tool.

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689 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle — Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: Visual culture, contemporary, visual spectacle.

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688 Visual Analytics in K 12 Education - Emerging Dimensions of Complexity

Authors: Linnea Stenliden

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to understand emerging learning conditions, when a visual analytics is implemented and used in K 12 (education). To date, little attention has been paid to the role visual analytics (digital media and technology that highlight visual data communication in order to support analytical tasks) can play in education, and to the extent to which these tools can process actionable data for young students. This study was conducted in three public K 12 schools, in four social science classes with students aged 10 to 13 years, over a period of two to four weeks at each school. Empirical data were generated using video observations and analyzed with help of metaphors within Actor-network theory (ANT). The learning conditions are found to be distinguished by broad complexity, characterized by four dimensions. These emerge from the actors’ deeply intertwined relations in the activities. The paper argues in relation to the found dimensions that novel approaches to teaching and learning could benefit students’ knowledge building as they work with visual analytics, analyzing visualized data.

Keywords: Analytical reasoning, complexity, data use, problem space, visual analytics, visual storytelling, translation.

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687 Mining and Visual Management of XML-Based Image Collections

Authors: Khalil Shihab, Nida Al-Chalabi

Abstract:

This article describes Uruk, the virtual museum of Iraq that we developed for visual exploration and retrieval of image collections. The system largely exploits the loosely-structured hierarchy of XML documents that provides a useful representation method to store semi-structured or unstructured data, which does not easily fit into existing database. The system offers users the capability to mine and manage the XML-based image collections through a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI). Typically, at an interactive session with the system, the user can browse a visual structural summary of the XML database in order to select interesting elements. Using this intermediate result, queries combining structure and textual references can be composed and presented to the system. After query evaluation, the full set of answers is presented in a visual and structured way.

Keywords: Data-centric XML, graphical user interfaces, information retrieval, case-based reasoning, fuzzy sets

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686 Multimodal Reasoning in a Knowledge Engineering Framework for Product Support

Authors: Rossitza M. Setchi, Nikolaos Lagos

Abstract:

Problem solving has traditionally been one of the principal research areas for artificial intelligence. Yet, although artificial intelligence reasoning techniques have been employed in several product support systems, the benefit of integrating product support, knowledge engineering, and problem solving, is still unclear. This paper studies the synergy of these areas and proposes a knowledge engineering framework that integrates product support systems and artificial intelligence techniques. The framework includes four spaces; the data, problem, hypothesis, and solution ones. The data space incorporates the knowledge needed for structured reasoning to take place, the problem space contains representations of problems, and the hypothesis space utilizes a multimodal reasoning approach to produce appropriate solutions in the form of virtual documents. The solution space is used as the gateway between the system and the user. The proposed framework enables the development of product support systems in terms of smaller, more manageable steps while the combination of different reasoning techniques provides a way to overcome the lack of documentation resources.

Keywords: Knowledge engineering framework, product support, case-based reasoning, model-based reasoning, multimodal reasoning.

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685 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei

Abstract:

With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: Reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, kill chain, threat intelligence.

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684 Problems of Boolean Reasoning Based Biclustering Parallelization

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Biclustering is the way of two-dimensional data analysis. For several years it became possible to express such issue in terms of Boolean reasoning, for processing continuous, discrete and binary data. The mathematical backgrounds of such approach — proved ability of induction of exact and inclusion–maximal biclusters fulfilling assumed criteria — are strong advantages of the method. Unfortunately, the core of the method has quite high computational complexity. In the paper the basics of Boolean reasoning approach for biclustering are presented. In such context the problems of computation parallelization are risen.

Keywords: Boolean reasoning, biclustering, parallelization, prime implicant.

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683 Representing Uncertainty in Computer-Generated Forces

Authors: Ruibiao J. Guo, Brad Cain, Pierre Meunier

Abstract:

The Integrated Performance Modelling Environment (IPME) is a powerful simulation engine for task simulation and performance analysis. However, it has no high level cognition such as memory and reasoning for complex simulation. This article introduces a knowledge representation and reasoning scheme that can accommodate uncertainty in simulations of military personnel with IPME. This approach demonstrates how advanced reasoning models that support similarity-based associative process, rule-based abstract process, multiple reasoning methods and real-time interaction can be integrated with conventional task network modelling to provide greater functionality and flexibility when modelling operator performance.

Keywords: Computer-Generated Forces, Human Behaviour Representation, IPME, Modelling and Simulation, Uncertainty Reasoning

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682 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: Components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity.

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681 Leveraging Reasoning through Discourse: A Case Study in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms

Authors: Cory A. Bennett

Abstract:

Teaching and learning through the use of discourse support students’ conceptual understanding by attending to key concepts and relationships. One discourse structure used in primary classrooms is number talks wherein students mentally calculate, discuss, and reason about the appropriateness and efficiency of their strategies. In the secondary mathematics classroom, the mathematics understudy does not often lend itself to mental calculations yet learning to reason, and articulate reasoning, is central to learning mathematics. This qualitative case study discusses how one secondary school in the Middle East adapted the number talk protocol for secondary mathematics classrooms. Several challenges in implementing ‘reasoning talks’ became apparent including shifting current discourse protocols and practices to a more student-centric model, accurately recording and probing student thinking, and specifically attending to reasoning rather than computations.

Keywords: Discourse, reasoning, secondary mathematics, teacher development.

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680 Niksic in the Context of Visual Urban Culture

Authors: Svetlana Perović

Abstract:

Out of all visual arts including: painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, architecture, and others, architecture is by far the most complex one, because the art category is only one of its determinants. Architecture, to some extent includes other arts which can significantly influence the shaping of an urban space (artistic interventions). These arts largely shape the visual culture in combination with other categories: film, TV, Internet, information technologies that are "changing the world" etc. In the area of architecture and urbanism, visual culture is achieved through the aspects of visual spatial effects. In this context, a complex visual deliberation about designing urban areas in order to contribute to the urban visual culture, and with it restore the cultural identity of the city, is becoming almost the primary concept of contemporary urban and architectural practice. Research in this paper relate to the city of Niksic and its place in the visual urban culture. We are looking at the city’s existing visual effects and determining the directions of transformability of its physical structure in order to achieve the visual realization of an urban area and the renewal of cultural identity of a modern city.

Keywords: Nikšić, transformability, visual culture, visual realization.

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679 Predictions Using Data Mining and Case-based Reasoning: A Case Study for Retinopathy

Authors: Vimala Balakrishnan, Mohammad R. Shakouri, Hooman Hoodeh, Loo, Huck-Soo

Abstract:

Diabetes is one of the high prevalence diseases worldwide with increased number of complications, with retinopathy as one of the most common one. This paper describes how data mining and case-based reasoning were integrated to predict retinopathy prevalence among diabetes patients in Malaysia. The knowledge base required was built after literature reviews and interviews with medical experts. A total of 140 diabetes patients- data were used to train the prediction system. A voting mechanism selects the best prediction results from the two techniques used. It has been successfully proven that both data mining and case-based reasoning can be used for retinopathy prediction with an improved accuracy of 85%.

Keywords: Case-Based Reasoning, Data Mining, Prediction, Retinopathy.

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678 An EEG Case Study of Arithmetical Reasoning by Four Individuals Varying in Imagery and Mathematical Ability: Implications for Mathematics Education

Authors: Mark Rousell, Di Catherwood, Graham Edgar

Abstract:

The main issue of interest here is whether individuals who differ in arithmetical reasoning ability and levels of imagery ability display different brain activity during the conduct of mental arithmetical reasoning tasks. This was a case study of four participants who represented four extreme combinations of Maths –Imagery abilities: ie., low-low, high-high, high-low, low-high respectively. As the Ps performed a series of 60 arithmetical reasoning tasks, 128-channel EEG recordings were taken and the pre-response interval subsequently analysed using EGI GeosourceTM software. The P who was high in both imagery and maths ability showed peak activity prior to response in BA7 (superior parietal cortex) but other Ps did not show peak activity in this region. The results are considered in terms of the diverse routes that may be employed by individuals during the conduct of arithmetical reasoning tasks and the possible implications of this for mathematics education.

Keywords: Arithmetic, imagery, EEG, education.

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677 Artificial Visual Percepts for Image Understanding

Authors: Jeewanee Bamunusinghe, Damminda Alahakoon

Abstract:

Visual inputs are one of the key sources from which humans perceive the environment and 'understand' what is happening. Artificial systems perceive the visual inputs as digital images. The images need to be processed and analysed. Within the human brain, processing of visual inputs and subsequent development of perception is one of its major functionalities. In this paper we present part of our research project, which aims at the development of an artificial model for visual perception (or 'understanding') based on the human perceptive and cognitive systems. We propose a new model for perception from visual inputs and a way of understaning or interpreting images using the model. We demonstrate the implementation and use of the model with a real image data set.

Keywords: Image understanding, percept, visual perception.

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676 A Relational Case-Based Reasoning Framework for Project Delivery System Selection

Authors: Yang Cui, Yong Qiang Chen

Abstract:

An appropriate project delivery system (PDS) is crucial to the success of a construction projects. Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is a useful support for PDS selection. However, the traditional CBR approach represents cases as attribute-value vectors without taking relations among attributes into consideration, and could not calculate the similarity when the structures of cases are not strictly same. Therefore, this paper solves this problem by adopting the Relational Case-based Reasoning (RCBR) approach for PDS selection, considering both the structural similarity and feature similarity. To develop the feature terms of the construction projects, the criteria and factors governing PDS selection process are first identified. Then feature terms for the construction projects are developed. Finally, the mechanism of similarity calculation and a case study indicate how RCBR works for PDS selection. The adoption of RCBR in PDS selection expands the scope of application of traditional CBR method and improves the accuracy of the PDS selection system.

Keywords: Relational Cased-based Reasoning, Case-based Reasoning, Project delivery system, Selection.

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675 Examining Organizational Improvisation: The Role of Strategic Reasoning and Managerial Factors

Authors: Darwina Arshad, Paul Hughes

Abstract:

Recent environmental turbulence including financial crisis, intensified competitive forces, rapid technological change and high market turbulence have dramatically changed the current business climate. The managers firms have to plan and decide what the best approaches that best fit their firms in order to pursue superior performance. This research aims to examine the influence of strategic reasoning and top level managers- individual characteristics on the effectiveness of organizational improvisation and firm performance. Given the lack of studies on these relationships in the previous literature, there is significant contribution to the body of knowledge as well as for managerial practices. 128 responses from top management of technology-based companies in Malaysia were used as a sample. Three hypotheses were examined and the findings confirm that (a) there is no relationship between intuitive reasoning and organizational improvisation but there is a link between rational reasoning and organizational improvisation, (b) top level managers- individual characteristics as a whole affect organizational improvisation; and (c) organizational improvisation positively affects firm performance. The theoretical and managerial implications were discussed in the conclusions.

Keywords: Organizational improvisation, strategic reasoning, firm performance.

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674 Educase – Intelligent System for Pedagogical Advising Using Case-Based Reasoning

Authors: Elionai Moura, José A. da Cunha, César Analide

Abstract:

This paper introduces a proposal scheme for an Intelligent System applied to Pedagogical Advising using Case-Based Reasoning, to find consolidated solutions before used for the new problems, making easier the task of advising students to the pedagogical staff. We do intend, through this work, introduce the motivation behind the choices for this system structure, justifying the development of an incremental and smart web system who learns bests solutions for new cases when it’s used, showing technics and technology.

Keywords: Case-based Reasoning, Pedagogical Advising, Educational Data-Mining (EDM), Machine Learning.

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673 Using Automatic Ontology Learning Methods in Human Plausible Reasoning Based Systems

Authors: A. R. Vazifedoost, M. Rahgozar, F. Oroumchian

Abstract:

Knowledge discovery from text and ontology learning are relatively new fields. However their usage is extended in many fields like Information Retrieval (IR) and its related domains. Human Plausible Reasoning based (HPR) IR systems for example need a knowledge base as their underlying system which is currently made by hand. In this paper we propose an architecture based on ontology learning methods to automatically generate the needed HPR knowledge base.

Keywords: Ontology Learning, Human Plausible Reasoning, knowledge extraction, knowledge representation.

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672 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audio Visual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Due to inform the masses, give direction to opinions, and establish public opinion, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorization of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: Audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, Radio and Television Supreme Council.

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671 Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

Authors: Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

Abstract:

Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

Keywords: Cortona Control, Interpolator, Route, Sensor, VisualBasic, VRML

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670 Comparative Study of View Point Types on Landscape Evaluation

Authors: Yoon Jung Sik, Bur-Deul Yoon, Ki Hun Kim, Chang Hoon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the viewpoints in terms of changing distances and levels and thereby, comparatively analyze the visual sensitivity to the elements of the natural views. The questionnaire survey was conducted separately for experts and non-experts. Summing up, it was confirmed that the visual sensitivity to the elements of the same natural views differed significantly depending on subjects' professionalism, changes of the viewpoint levels and distances, while the visual sensitivity to 'openness of visual/view axes' did not differ significantly when only the distances of the viewpoints were varied. In addition, the visual sensitivity to visual/view axes differed between experts and ordinary people when the levels of the viewpoints were varied, while the visual sensitivity to 'damaged natural view resources' differed between two groups when the distances of the viewpoints were varied.

Keywords: Landscape Evaluation, Visual Sensitivity, Viewpoint.

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669 Model Transformation with a Visual Control Flow Language

Authors: László Lengyel, Tihamér Levendovszky, Gergely Mezei, Hassan Charaf

Abstract:

Graph rewriting-based visual model processing is a widely used technique for model transformation. Visual model transformations often need to follow an algorithm that requires a strict control over the execution sequence of the transformation steps. Therefore, in Visual Model Processors (VMPs) the execution order of the transformation steps is crucial. This paper presents the visual control flow support of Visual Modeling and Transformation System (VMTS), which facilitates composing complex model transformations of simple transformation steps and executing them. The VMTS Visual Control Flow Language (VCFL) uses stereotyped activity diagrams to specify control flow structures and OCL constraints to choose between different control flow branches. This paper introduces VCFL, discusses its termination properties and provides an algorithm to support the termination analysis of VCFL transformations.

Keywords: Control Flow, Metamodel-Based Visual ModelTransformation, OCL, Termination Properties, UML.

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668 Case Based Reasoning Technology for Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem

Abstract:

Case based reasoning (CBR) methodology presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computeraided diagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust and maintenance. This paper discusses the CBR methodology, the research issues and technical aspects of implementing intelligent medical diagnoses systems. Successful applications in cancer and heart diseases developed by Medical Informatics Research Group at Ain Shams University are also discussed.

Keywords: Medical Informatics, Computer-Aided MedicalDiagnoses, AI in Medicine, Case-Based Reasoning.

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667 Similarity Based Retrieval in Case Based Reasoning for Analysis of Medical Images

Authors: M. Das Gupta, S. Banerjee

Abstract:

Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) coupled with Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular in the diagnosis and therapy planning of medical ailments utilizing the digital content of medical images. This paper presents a survey of some of the promising approaches used in the detection of abnormalities in retina images as well in mammographic screening and detection of regions of interest in MRI scans of the brain. We also describe our proposed algorithm to detect hard exudates in fundus images of the retina of Diabetic Retinopathy patients.

Keywords: Case based reasoning, Exudates, Retina image, Similarity based retrieval.

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666 A Visualized Framework for Representing Uncertain and Incomplete Temporal Knowledge

Authors: Yue Wang, Jixin Ma, Brian Knight

Abstract:

This paper presents a visualized computer aided case tool for non-expert, called Visual Time, for representing and reasoning about incomplete and uncertain temporal information. It is both expressive and versatile, allowing logical conjunctions and disjunctions of both absolute and relative temporal relations, such as “Before”, “Meets”, “Overlaps”, “Starts”, “During”, and “Finishes”, etc. In terms of a visualized framework, Visual Time provides a user-friendly environment for describing scenarios with rich temporal structure in natural language, which can be formatted as structured temporal phrases and modeled in terms of Temporal Relationship Diagrams (TRD). A TRD can be automatically and visually transformed into a corresponding Time Graph, supported by automatic consistency checker that derives a verdict to confirm if a given scenario is temporally consistent or inconsistent.

Keywords: Time Visualization, Uncertainty, Incompleteness, Consistency Checking.

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665 The Feasibility of Augmenting an Augmented Reality Image Card on a Quick Response Code

Authors: Alfred Chen, Shr Yu Lu, Cong Seng Hong, Yur-June Wang

Abstract:

This research attempts to study the feasibility of augmenting an augmented reality (AR) image card on a Quick Response (QR) code. The authors have developed a new visual tag, which contains a QR code and an augmented AR image card. The new visual tag has features of reading both of the revealed data of the QR code and the instant data from the AR image card. Furthermore, a handheld communicating device is used to read and decode the new visual tag, and then the concealed data of the new visual tag can be revealed and read through its visual display. In general, the QR code is designed to store the corresponding data or, as a key, to access the corresponding data from the server through internet. Those reveled data from the QR code are represented in text. Normally, the AR image card is designed to store the corresponding data in 3-Dimensional or animation/video forms. By using QR code's property of high fault tolerant rate, the new visual tag can access those two different types of data by using a handheld communicating device. The new visual tag has an advantage of carrying much more data than independent QR code or AR image card. The major findings of this research are: 1) the most efficient area for the designed augmented AR card augmenting on the QR code is 9% coverage area out of the total new visual tag-s area, and 2) the best location for the augmented AR image card augmenting on the QR code is located in the bottom-right corner of the new visual tag.

Keywords: Augmented reality, QR code, Visual tag, Handheldcommunicating device

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