Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31097
Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, histogram, visual cryptography, Butterworth filter

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1214


[1] Tianrui Zong, Young Xiang, Iynkaran Natgunanathan, Song Guo, Wanlei Zhou and Gleb Beliakov, “Robust Histogram Shape-Based Method for Image Watermarking”, IEEE Transactions on circuit and system for Video Technology, Vol.25, No.5, pp.717-729, 2015.
[2] Tianrui Zong, Yong Xiang, and Iynkaran Natgunanathan, "Histogram Shape Based Robust Image Watermarking Method", IEEE ICC Communication and Information System Security Symposium, pp. 878-883, 2014.
[3] Kiran, Kawal Garg and Girdhar Gopal, “Robust Image Watermarking based on Histogram Shape and Butterworth Filtering”, International Journal for scientific Research & Development (IJSRD), Vol. 3, Issue 03, pp.2581-2584, 2015.
[4] Kiran and Kawal Garg. “Watermark Embedding and Extraction using Histogram Shifting and Butterworth Filtering”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol 5, Issue 5, pp. 1481-1487, 2015
[5] Xuansen He, Tao Zhu, and Gaobo Yang, "A geometrical attack resistant image watermarking algorithm based on histogram modification", Springer, pp. 291-306, 2013.
[6] Der-Chyuan Lou, Hao-Kuan Tso and Jiang-Lung Liu, "A Copyright Protection Scheme for Digital Images Using Visual Cryptography Technique", Computer Standards & Interfaces Elsevier, Vol 29, pp. 125-131, 2007.
[7] Shijun Xiang, Hyoung Joong Kim and Jiwu Huang, “Histogram-Based Image Hashing Scheme Robust Against Geometric Deformations”, In Proceedings of the 9th workshop on Multimedia & security, pp. 121-128. ACM, 2007
[8] Xuefeng hu and Daoshun Wang et al, “A histogram based watermarking algorithm robust to geometric distortions,” in Proc. ICECEE, pp. 773-779, 2015.
[9] Shumai Wang, Wenbao Hou, “A robust watermarking algorithm based on histogram,’’ in Proc. IWISA 2009, pp. 453-456,2009.
[10] Hamidreza Sadreazami, M. Omair Ahmad and M.N.S Swamy, “Multiplicative Watermark Decoder in Countourlet domain using normal inverse Gaussian distribution,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia vol.18, no.2, Feb2016.
[11] J. Veerappan and G. Pitchammal, “Geometric Attack Resistant Multilayer Image Watermarking Scheme for Providing High Security”, arXiv preprint arXiv:1210.5941,2012
[12] James Ching-Nung Yang, and Chih-Cheng Wu Stelvio Climato, "Visual Cryptography based watermarking: Definition and Meaning," Springer, 2013.
[13] Stelvio Cimato, James C.N. Yang and Chih -Cheng Wu, "Vsual Cryptography based watermarking," In Transactions of data hiding and Multimedia Security IX, pp. 91-109, 2014.
[14] Sanjay Rawat, Balasubramanian Raman, "A blind Watermarking Algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform and visual cryptography," Signal Processing 92, no. 6, pp. 1480-1491, 2012.
[15] Han Yan-yan, Xián China, "A watermarking-based Visual Cryptograhy scheme with meaningful shares," in IEEE International Conference on computational Intelligence and security, 2011, pp. 870-873.
[16] Jithi PV, Anitha T Nair, "Progressive Visual Cryptography with watermarking for meaningful shares," in International Multi-Conference on Automation, Computing, Communication, Control and compressed sensing, 2013, pp. 394-401.
[17] Oscar C. Au. Ming Sun Fu, "Joint Visual Cryptography and Watermarking," in IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 2004, pp. 975-978.
[18] J. C. Lin, W. P. Fang and, "Progressive Viewing and sharing of sensitive images," Pattern recognition and Image analysis, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 632-636, 2006.
[19] Pei-Min-Chen Young-Chang-Hou, "An asymmetric watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography," in ICSP, 2000.
[20] Sunesh, R. Rama Kishore,” Digital watermarking based on visual cryptography”, in Vth International Symposium on fusion of Science and Technology, New Delhi, pp. 279-285,2016.
[21] Meryem Benyoussef, Samira Mabtoul, Mohamed EI Marraki, Driss Aboutajdine, "Medical Image watermarking for copyright Protection based on Visual Cryptography," in IEEE ICMCS, 2014, pp. 93-98.
[22] Abusitta, Adel Hammad, "A Visual Cryptography Based Digital Image Copyright Protection," Journal of Information Security (Scientific Research), pp. 96-104, April 2012.
[23] Mathivadhani, C. Meena, "Digital watermarking and information hiding using wavelets, SLSB and Visual cryptography method," in IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and computing Research, 2010.
[24] Tzung-Her chen and Du-shiau Tsai, "Owner-Customer copyright protection mechanism using a watermarking scheme and a watermarking protocol," The Journal of Pattern Recognition society, pp. 1530-1541, 2006.
[25] Huo Luo, Zhe-Ming Lu and Jeng-Shyang Pan, "Multiple Watermarking in Visual Cryptography," Digital watermarking, pp. 60-70, 2008.
[26] Yanyan Han, Wencai He and Yixiao Shang, "DWT- domain Dual watermarking algorithm of color image based on visual cryptography," in IEEE 9th international Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, 2013, pp. 373-378.
[27] Meryem Benyoussef, Samira Mabtoul, "Blind Invisible Watermarking Technique in DT-CWT domain using visual cryptography," Image Analysis and Processing, pp. 813-822, 2013.
[28] Rawan I. Zaghloul, Enas F. Al-Rawashdeh, “HSV image watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:2, No:8, pp.2658-2661, 2008