Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1140

Search results for: frame of reference.

1140 Construction of Attitude Reference Benchmark for Test of Star Sensor Based on Precise Timing

Authors: Tingting Lu, Yonghai Wang, Haiyong Wang, Jiaqi Liu

Abstract:

To satisfy the need of outfield tests of star sensors, a method is put forward to construct the reference attitude benchmark. Firstly, its basic principle is introduced; Then, all the separate conversion matrixes are deduced, which include: the conversion matrix responsible for the transformation from the Earth Centered Inertial frame i to the Earth-centered Earth-fixed frame w according to the time of an atomic clock, the conversion matrix from frame w to the geographic frame t, and the matrix from frame t to the platform frame p, so the attitude matrix of the benchmark platform relative to the frame i can be obtained using all the three matrixes as the multiplicative factors; Next, the attitude matrix of the star sensor relative to frame i is got when the mounting matrix from frame p to the star sensor frame s is calibrated, and the reference attitude angles for star sensor outfield tests can be calculated from the transformation from frame i to frame s; Finally, the computer program is finished to solve the reference attitudes, and the error curves are drawn about the three axis attitude angles whose absolute maximum error is just 0.25ÔÇ│. The analysis on each loop and the final simulating results manifest that the method by precise timing to acquire the absolute reference attitude is feasible for star sensor outfield tests.

Keywords: Atomic time, attitude determination, coordinate conversion, inertial coordinate system, star sensor.

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1139 Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

Authors: Consalva J. Msigwa, Beda J. Kundy, Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa,

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for obtaining the desired reference current for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) of the Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory. The method relies on the performance of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller for obtaining the best control performance of the SAPF. To improve the performance of the PI controller, the feedback path to the integral term is introduced to compensate the winding up phenomenon due to integrator. Using Reference Frame Transformation, reference signals are transformed from a - b - c stationery frame to 0 - d - q rotating frame. Using the PI controller, the reference signals in the 0 - d - q rotating frame are controlled to get the desired reference signals for the Pulse Width Modulation. The synchronizer, the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) with PI filter is used for synchronization, with much emphasis on minimizing delays. The system performance is examined with Shunt Active Power Filter simulation model.

Keywords: Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Voltage Source Converter (VSC), Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF), PI, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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1138 Improving the Shunt Active Power Filter Performance Using Synchronous Reference Frame PI Based Controller with Anti-Windup Scheme

Authors: Consalva J. Msigwa, Beda J. Kundy, Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

In this paper the reference current for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) of the Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) is generated using Synchronous Reference Frame method, incorporating the PI controller with anti-windup scheme. The proposed method improves the harmonic filtering by compensating the winding up phenomenon caused by the integral term of the PI controller. Using Reference Frame Transformation, the current is transformed from om a - b - c stationery frame to rotating 0 - d - q frame. Using the PI controller, the current in the 0 - d - q frame is controlled to get the desired reference signal. A controller with integral action combined with an actuator that becomes saturated can give some undesirable effects. If the control error is so large that the integrator saturates the actuator, the feedback path becomes ineffective because the actuator will remain saturated even if the process output changes. The integrator being an unstable system may then integrate to a very large value, the phenomenon known as integrator windup. Implementing the integrator anti-windup circuit turns off the integrator action when the actuator saturates, hence improving the performance of the SAPF and dynamically compensating harmonics in the power network. In this paper the system performance is examined with Shunt Active Power Filter simulation model.

Keywords: Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Voltage SourceConverter (VSC), Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF), PI, Pulse WidthModulation (PWM).

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1137 The Influence of Directionality on the Giovanelli Illusion

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

In the Giovanelli illusion, some collinear dots appear misaligned, when each dot lies within a circle and the circles are not collinear. In this illusion, the role of the frame of reference, determined by the circles, is considered a crucial factor. Three experiments were carried out to study the influence of directionality of the circles on the misalignment. The adjustment method was used. Participants changed the orthogonal position of each dot, from the left to the right of the sequence, until a collinear sequence of dots was achieved. The first experiment verified the illusory effect of the misalignment. In the second experiment, the influence of two different directionalities of the circles (-0.58° and +0.58°) on the misalignment was tested. The results show an over-normalization on the sequences of the dots. The third experiment tested the misalignment of the dots without any inclination of the sequence of circles (0°). Only a local illusory effect was found. These results demonstrate that the directionality of the circles, as a global factor, can increase the misalignment. The findings also indicate that directionality and the frame of reference are independent factors in explaining the Giovanelli illusion.

Keywords: Giovanelli illusion, visual illusion, directionality, misalignment, frame of reference.

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1136 A New H.264-Based Rate Control Algorithm for Stereoscopic Video Coding

Authors: Yi Liao, Wencheng Yang, Gangyi Jiang

Abstract:

According to investigating impact of complexity of stereoscopic frame pairs on stereoscopic video coding and transmission, a new rate control algorithm is presented. The proposed rate control algorithm is performed on three levels: stereoscopic group of pictures (SGOP) level, stereoscopic frame (SFrame) level and frame level. A temporal-spatial frame complexity model is firstly established, in the bits allocation stage, the frame complexity, position significance and reference property between the left and right frames are taken into account. Meanwhile, the target buffer is set according to the frame complexity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently control the bitrates, and it outperforms the fixed quantization parameter method from the rate distortion perspective, and average PSNR gain between rate-distortion curves (BDPSNR) is 0.21dB.

Keywords: Stereoscopic video coding, rate control, stereoscopic group of pictures, complexity of stereoscopic frame pairs.

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1135 Using Lagrange Equations to Study the Relative Motion of a Mechanism

Authors: R. A. Petre, S. E. Nichifor, A. Craifaleanu, I. Stroe

Abstract:

The relative motion of a robotic arm formed by homogeneous bars of different lengths and masses, hinged to each other is investigated. The first bar of the mechanism is articulated on a platform, considered initially fixed on the surface of the Earth, while for the second case the platform is considered to be in rotation with respect to the Earth. For both analyzed cases the motion equations are determined using the Lagrangian formalism, applied in its traditional form, valid with respect to an inertial reference system, conventionally considered as fixed. However, in the second case, a generalized form of the formalism valid with respect to a non-inertial reference frame will also be applied. The numerical calculations were performed using a MATLAB program.

Keywords: Lagrange equations, relative motion, inertial or non-inertial reference frame.

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1134 Simulink Model of Reference Frame Theory Based Three Phase Shunt Active Filter

Authors: P. Nammalvar, P. Meganathan, A. Balamuguran

Abstract:

Among various active filters, shunt active filter is a viable solution for reactive power and harmonics compensation. In this paper, the SRF plan is used to generate current reference for compensation and conventional PI controllers were used as the controller to compensate the reactive power. The design of the closed loop controllers is reserved simple by modeling them as first order systems. Computationally uncomplicated and efficient SVM system is used in the present work for better utilization of dc bus voltage. The rating of shunt active filter has been finalized based on the reactive power demand of the selected reactive load. The proposed control and SVM technique are validated by simulating in MATLAB software.

Keywords: Shunt Active Filter, Space vector pulse width modulation, Voltage Source Converter, Reactive Power, Synchronous Reference Frame, Point of common coupling.

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1133 A High Performance Technique in Harmonic Omitting Based on Predictive Current Control of a Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: K. G. Firouzjah, A. Sheikholeslami

Abstract:

The perfect operation of common Active Filters is depended on accuracy of identification system distortion. Also, using a suitable method in current injection and reactive power compensation, leads to increased filter performance. Due to this fact, this paper presents a method based on predictive current control theory in shunt active filter applications. The harmonics of the load current is identified by using o–d–q reference frame on load current and eliminating the DC part of d–q components. Then, the rest of these components deliver to predictive current controller as a Threephase reference current by using Park inverse transformation. System is modeled in discreet time domain. The proposed method has been tested using MATLAB model for a nonlinear load (with Total Harmonic Distortion=20%). The simulation results indicate that the proposed filter leads to flowing a sinusoidal current (THD=0.15%) through the source. In addition, the results show that the filter tracks the reference current accurately.

Keywords: Active filter, predictive current control, low pass filter, harmonic omitting, o–d–q reference frame.

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1132 The Slant Helices According to Bishop Frame

Authors: Bahaddin Bukcu, Murat Kemal Karacan

Abstract:

In this study, we have defined slant helix according to Bishop frame in Euclidean 3-Space. Furthermore, we have given some necassary and sufficient conditons for the slant helix.

Keywords: Slant helix, Bishop frame, Parallel transport frame

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1131 Inter-frame Collusion Attack in SS-N Video Watermarking System

Authors: Yaser Mohammad Taheri, Alireza Zolghadr–asli, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

Video watermarking is usually considered as watermarking of a set of still images. In frame-by-frame watermarking approach, each video frame is seen as a single watermarked image, so collusion attack is more critical in video watermarking. If the same or redundant watermark is used for embedding in every frame of video, the watermark can be estimated and then removed by watermark estimate remodolulation (WER) attack. Also if uncorrelated watermarks are used for every frame, these watermarks can be washed out with frame temporal filtering (FTF). Switching watermark system or so-called SS-N system has better performance against WER and FTF attacks. In this system, for each frame, the watermark is randomly picked up from a finite pool of watermark patterns. At first SS-N system will be surveyed and then a new collusion attack for SS-N system will be proposed using a new algorithm for separating video frame based on watermark pattern. So N sets will be built in which every set contains frames carrying the same watermark. After that, using WER attack in every set, N different watermark patterns will be estimated and removed later.

Keywords: Watermark estimation remodulation (WER), Frame Temporal Averaging (FTF), switching watermark system.

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1130 Design Application Procedures of 15 Storied 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

This paper presents the design application and reinforcement detailing of 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure based on linear static analysis. Databases are generated for section sizes based on automated structural optimization method utilizing Active-set Algorithm in MATLAB platform. The design constraints of allowable section sizes, capacity criteria and seismic provisions for static loads, combination of gravity and lateral loads are checked and determined based on ASCE 7-10 documents and ACI 318-14 design provision. The result of this study illustrates the efficiency of proposed method, and is expected to provide a useful reference in designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC shear wall-frame structures.

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1129 Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of Cab Frame with FEM

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty, Zefry Darmawan, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Cab’s frame strength is considered as an important factor in excavator’s operator safety, especially during roll-over. In this study, we use a model of cab frame with different thicknesses and perform elastoplastic numerical analysis by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Deformation mode and energy absorption's of cab’s frame part are investigated on two conditions, with wrinkle and without wrinkle. The occurrence of wrinkle when deforming cab frame can reduce energy absorption, and among 4 parts with wrinkle, the energy absorption significantly decreases in part C. Residual stress that generated upon the bending process of part C is analyzed to confirm it possibility in increasing the energy absorption.

Keywords: ROPS, FEM, hydraulic excavator, cab frame, energy absorption.

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1128 Mathematical Model and Control Strategy on DQ Frame for Shunt Active Power Filters

Authors: P. Santiprapan, K-L. Areerak, K-N. Areerak

Abstract:

This paper presents the mathematical model and control strategy on DQ frame of shunt active power filter. The structure of the shunt active power filter is the voltage source inverter (VSI). The pulse width modulation (PWM) with PI controller is used in the paper. The concept of DQ frame to apply with the shunt active power filter is described. Moreover, the detail of the PI controller design for two current loops and one voltage loop are fully explained. The DQ axis with Fourier (DQF) method is applied to calculate the reference currents on DQ frame. The simulation results show that the control strategy and the design method presented in the paper can provide the good performance of the shunt active power filter. Moreover, the %THD of the source currents after compensation can follow the IEEE Std.519-1992.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, mathematical model, DQ control strategy, DQ axis with Fourier, pulse width modulation control.

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1127 Numerical Study of Vortex Formation inside a Stirred Tank

Authors: Divya Rajavathsavai, Akhilesh Khapre, Basudeb Munshi

Abstract:

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of stirred tank with the air-water interface are carried out in the presence of different types of the impeller and with or without baffles. A multiple reference frame (MRF) approach with the volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the air-water interface. The RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations with k-ε turbulence model are solved to predict the flow behavior of water and air phase which are treated as a different phases. The predicted results have shown that the VOF method is able to capture the interface in the unbaffled tank. While, the VOF method is showing an unfeasible results in the baffled tank with high rotational impeller speed. For continuous stirred tank, the air-water interface is disturbed by the inflow and the level of water is also increased with time.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, stirred tank, airwater interface, multiple reference frame, volume of fluid, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

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1126 Stator-Flux-Oriented Based Encoderless Direct Torque Control for Synchronous Reluctance Machines Using Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: J. Soltani, H. Abootorabi Zarchi, Gh. R. Arab Markadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a sliding-mode torque and flux control is designed for encoderless synchronous reluctance motor drive. The sliding-mode plus PI controllers are designed in the stator-flux field oriented reference frame which is able to track the mentioned reference signals with a minimum pulsations in the state condition. In addition, with these controllers a fast dynamic response is also achieved for the drive system. The proposed control scheme is robust subject to parameters variation except to stator resistance. To solve this problem a simple estimator is used for on-line detecting of this parameter. Moreover, the rotor position and speed are estimated by on-line obtaining of the stator-flux-space vector. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed control approach is verified by both the simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: Synchronous Reluctance Motor, Direct Torque and Flux Control, Sliding Mode, Field-Oriented Frame, Encoderless.

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1125 A Computational Design Algorithm for Manufacturing of Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained and literature was reviewed. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control. The frame consists of two columns and two semi-cylinders with circumstantial wires. A computational algorithm has been presented based on the governing equations and relations on stress-strain behavior of the whole system of the frame.  Then a case study was studied to calculate the frame dimensions and wire winding procedure.

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, Design for Manufacturing.

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1124 A New Type Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention - Part I

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

From the past earthquake events, many people get hurt at the exit while they are trying to go out of the buildings because of the exit doors are unable to be opened. The door is not opened because it deviates from its the original position. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a new type safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. The proposed door is composed of three components: outer frame joined to the wall, inner frame (door frame) and circular hollow section connected to the inner and outer frame which is used as seismic energy dissipating device.

Keywords: Earthquake disaster, FE analysis, Low yield point steel, Safety-doors.

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1123 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: Interface damping layer, steel frame, seismic, FRP.

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1122 Comparison of Numerical and Theoretical Friction Effect in the Wire Winding for Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control and wire winding process. The hot isostatic press and wire winding process introduce. With use the equilibrium term in the pressure vessel and frame, stresses in the frame wires analyzed. A case study frame was studied to control axial force in the hot isostatic press. Frame and them wires simulated then friction effect and wires effect in elastic yoke in the simulation model considered. Then theoretical and simulate resulted compare and vessel pressure import to frame because we assurance wire wounded not received to yielding point.   

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, friction.

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1121 The Frame Analysis and Testing for Student Formula

Authors: Tanawat Limwathanagura, Chartree Sithananun, Teekayu Limchamroon, Thanyarat Singhanart

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the analysis and testing for determining the torsional stiffness of the student formula-s space frame. From past study, the space frame for Chulalongkorn University Student Formula team used in 2011 TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula in Thailand was designed by considering required mass and torsional stiffness based on the numerical method and experimental method. The numerical result was compared with the experimental results to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame. It can be seen from the large error of torsional stiffness of 2011 frame that the experimental result can not verify by the numerical analysis due to the different between the numerical model and experimental setting. In this paper, the numerical analysis and experiment of the same 2011 frame model is performed by improving the model setting. The improvement of both numerical analysis and experiment are discussed to confirm that the models from both methods are same. After the frame was analyzed and tested, the results are compared to verify the torsional stiffness of the frame. It can be concluded that the improved analysis and experiments can used to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame.

Keywords: Space Frame, Student Formula, Torsional Stiffness, TSAE Auto Challenge

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1120 Enhanced Frame-based Video Coding to Support Content-based Functionalities

Authors: Prabhudev Hosur, Rolando Carrasco

Abstract:

This paper presents the enhanced frame-based video coding scheme. The input source video to the enhanced frame-based video encoder consists of a rectangular-size video and shapes of arbitrarily-shaped objects on video frames. The rectangular frame texture is encoded by the conventional frame-based coding technique and the video object-s shape is encoded using the contour-based vertex coding. It is possible to achieve several useful content-based functionalities by utilizing the shape information in the bitstream at the cost of a very small overhead to the bitrate.

Keywords: Video coding, content-based, hyper video, interactivity, shape coding, polygon.

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1119 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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1118 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi

Abstract:

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: Key Frame Extraction, Shot detection, FSDWT, Singular Value Decomposition.

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1117 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shakings. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: Masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response.

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1116 Research of the Behavior of Solar Module Frame Installed by Solar Clamping System by Finite Element Method

Authors: Li-Chung Su, Chia-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yuan Lai, Sheng-Jye Hwang

Abstract:

Mechanical design of the thin-film solar framed module and mounting system is important to enhance module reliability and to increase areas of applications. The stress induced by different mounting positions played a main role controlling the stability of the whole mechanical structure. From the finite element method, under the pressure from the back of module, the stress at Lc (center point of the Long frame) increased and the stresses at Center, Corner and Sc (center point of the Short frame) decreased while the mounting position was away from the center of the module. In addition, not only the stress of the glass but also the stress of the frame decreased. Accordingly it was safer to mount in the position away from the center of the module. The emphasis of designing frame system of the module was on the upper support of the Short frame. Strength of the overall structure and design of the corner were also important due to the complexity of the stress in the Long frame.

Keywords: Finite element method, Framed module, Mountingposition

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1115 Sensorless Speed Based on MRAS with Tuning of IP Speed Controller in FOC of Induction Motor Drive Using PSO

Authors: Youcef Bekakra, Djilani Ben attous

Abstract:

In this paper, a field oriented control (FOC) induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact FOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor speed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The Integral Proportional (IP) gains speed controller are tuned by a modern approach that is the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to optimize the parameters of the IP controller. The use of PSO as an optimization algorithm makes the drive robust, with faster dynamic response, higher accuracy and insensitive to load variation. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving load.

Keywords: Induction motor drive, field oriented control, model reference adaptive system (MRAS), particle swarm optimization (PSO).

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1114 Evolution of the Hydrogen Atom: An Alternative to the Big Bang Theory

Authors: Ghassan H. Halasa

Abstract:

Elementary particles are created in pairs of equal and opposite momentums at a reference frame at the speed of light. The speed of light reference frame is viewed as a point in space as observed by observer at rest. This point in space is the bang location of the big bang theory. The bang in the big bang theory is not more than sustained flow of pairs of positive and negative elementary particles. Electrons and negative charged elementary particles are ejected from this point in space at velocities faster than light, while protons and positively charged particles obtain velocities lower than light. Subsonic masses are found to have real and positive charge, while supersonic masses are found to be negative and imaginary indicating that the two masses are of different entities. The electron-s super-sonic speed, as viewed by rest observer was calculated and found to be less than the speed of light and is little higher than the electron speed in Bohr-s orbit. The newly formed hydrogen gas temperature was found to be in agreement with temperatures found on newly formed stars. Universe expansion was found to be in agreement. Partial mass and charge elementary particles and particles with momentum only were explained in the context of this theoretical approach.

Keywords: Evolution of Matter, Multidimensional spaces, relativity, Big Bang Theory

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1113 Design and Implementation of a 10-bit SAR ADC with A Programmable Reference

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Yuzman Yusoff, Noor Shelida Salleh

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a single-ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and a SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits ADC. A programmable reference circuitry allows the ADC to operate with different input range from 0.6 V to 2.1 V. The ADC consumed less than 7.5 mW power with a 3 V supply.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Resistive DAC, Programmable Reference.

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1112 Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: Model predictive control, three phase voltage source inverter, PV system, Matlab/Simulink.

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1111 The Impact of Temporal Impairment on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Video Streaming: A No Reference (NR) Subjective and Objective Study

Authors: Muhammad Arslan Usman, Muhammad Rehan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

Live video streaming is one of the most widely used service among end users, yet it is a big challenge for the network operators in terms of quality. The only way to provide excellent Quality of Experience (QoE) to the end users is continuous monitoring of live video streaming. For this purpose, there are several objective algorithms available that monitor the quality of the video in a live stream. Subjective tests play a very important role in fine tuning the results of objective algorithms. As human perception is considered to be the most reliable source for assessing the quality of a video stream subjective tests are conducted in order to develop more reliable objective algorithms. Temporal impairments in a live video stream can have a negative impact on the end users. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation tests on a set of video sequences containing temporal impairment known as frame freezing. Frame Freezing is considered as a transmission error as well as a hardware error which can result in loss of video frames on the reception side of a transmission system. In our subjective tests, we have performed tests on videos that contain a single freezing event and also for videos that contain multiple freezing events. We have recorded our subjective test results for all the videos in order to give a comparison on the available No Reference (NR) objective algorithms. Finally, we have shown the performance of no reference algorithms used for objective evaluation of videos and suggested the algorithm that works better. The outcome of this study shows the importance of QoE and its effect on human perception. The results for the subjective evaluation can serve the purpose for validating objective algorithms.

Keywords: Objective evaluation, subjective evaluation, quality of experience (QoE), video quality assessment (VQA).

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