**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**395

# Search results for: thin walled cross section

##### 395 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Hyperboloidal Helix Having Thin Walled Open and Close Sections

**Authors:**
Merve Ermis,
Murat Yılmaz,
Nihal Eratlı,
Mehmet H. Omurtag

**Abstract:**

The static and dynamic analyses of hyperboloidal helix having the closed and the open square box sections are investigated via the mixed finite element formulation based on Timoshenko beam theory. Frenet triad is considered as local coordinate systems for helix geometry. Helix domain is discretized with a two-noded curved element and linear shape functions are used. Each node of the curved element has 12 degrees of freedom, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. Finite element matrices are derived by using exact nodal values of curvatures and arc length and it is interpolated linearly throughout the element axial length. The torsional moments of inertia for close and open square box sections are obtained by finite element solution of St. Venant torsion formulation. With the proposed method, the torsional rigidity of simply and multiply connected cross-sections can be also calculated in same manner. The influence of the close and the open square box cross-sections on the static and dynamic analyses of hyperboloidal helix is investigated. The benchmark problems are represented for the literature.

**Keywords:**
Hyperboloidal helix,
squared cross section,
thin walled cross section,
torsional rigidity.

##### 394 Stabilization of Steel Beams of Monosymmetric Thin-Walled Cross-Section by Trapezoidal Sheeting

**Authors:**
Ivan Balázs,
Jindřich Melcher

**Abstract:**

Steel thin-walled beams have been widely used in civil engineering as purlins, ceiling beams or wall substructure beams. There are often planar members such as trapezoidal sheeting or sandwich panels used as roof or wall cladding fastened to the steel beams. The planar members also serve as stabilization of thin-walled beams against buckling due to loss of stability. This paper focuses on problem of stabilization of steel monosymmetric thin-walled beams by trapezoidal sheeting. Some factors having influence on overall behavior of this structural system are investigated using numerical analysis. Thin-walled beams in bending stabilized by trapezoidal sheeting are of primarily interest of this study.

**Keywords:**
Beam,
buckling,
numerical analysis,
stability,
steel structures,
trapezoidal sheeting.

##### 393 Stress Analysis for Two Fitted Thin Walled Cylinder with High Angular Velocity

**Authors:**
A.V. Hoseini,
A. Bidi,
M. H. Pol,
M.Jalali azizpour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thin walled cylinder,
high angular velocity,
twofitted thin walled

##### 392 Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes

**Authors:**
Katarzyna Rzeszut,
Ilona Szewczak

**Abstract:**

The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.

**Keywords:**
CFRP tapes,
sigma profiles,
steel thin-walled structures,
strengthening.

##### 391 Extracting the Coupled Dynamics in Thin-Walled Beams from Numerical Data Bases

**Authors:**
Mohammad A. Bani-Khaled

**Abstract:**

In this work we use the Discrete Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform to characterize the properties of coupled dynamics in thin-walled beams by exploiting numerical simulations obtained from finite element simulations. The outcomes of the will improve our understanding of the linear and nonlinear coupled behavior of thin-walled beams structures. Thin-walled beams have widespread usage in modern engineering application in both large scale structures (aeronautical structures), as well as in nano-structures (nano-tubes). Therefore, detailed knowledge in regard to the properties of coupled vibrations and buckling in these structures are of great interest in the research community. Due to the geometric complexity in the overall structure and in particular in the cross-sections it is necessary to involve computational mechanics to numerically simulate the dynamics. In using numerical computational techniques, it is not necessary to over simplify a model in order to solve the equations of motions. Computational dynamics methods produce databases of controlled resolution in time and space. These numerical databases contain information on the properties of the coupled dynamics. In order to extract the system dynamic properties and strength of coupling among the various fields of the motion, processing techniques are required. Time- Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform is a powerful tool for processing databases for the dynamics. It will be used to study the coupled dynamics of thin-walled basic structures. These structures are ideal to form a basis for a systematic study of coupled dynamics in structures of complex geometry.

**Keywords:**
Coupled dynamics,
geometric complexity,
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD),
thin walled beams.

##### 390 Simulation Study on the Thin-walled Tube Structure of a Vehicle Simulator Crash Testing Equipment

**Authors:**
Xu Zhang,
Qi Jiang,
Liwei Li,
Weiwei Cui,
Jijun Cui,
Yang Cao,
Hairong Zhao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
thin-walled tube structure,
crash energy absorption,
deceleration,
finite element simulation

##### 389 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

**Authors:**
M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib,
M. K. Swailem,
M. M. Metwally,
A. I. El Awady

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Steel I-columns,
local buckling,
slender,
stiffener,
thin walled section.

##### 388 Effect of Stiffeners on the Behavior of Slender Built up Steel I-Beams

**Authors:**
M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib,
M. K. Swailem,
M. M. Metwally,
A. I. El Awady

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Steel I-beams,
local buckling,
slender,
stiffener,
thin walled section.

##### 387 Effects of Pipe Curvature and Internal Pressure on Stiffness and Buckling Phenomenon of Circular Thin-Walled Pipes

**Authors:**
V. Polenta,
S. D. Garvey,
D. Chronopoulos,
A. C. Long,
H. P. Morvan

**Abstract:**

A parametric study on circular thin-walled pipes subjected to pure bending is performed. Both straight and curved pipes are considered. Ratio D/t, initial pipe curvature and internal pressure are the parameters varying in the analyses. The study is mainly FEA-based. It is found that negative curvatures (opposite to bending moment) considerably increase stiffness and buckling limit of the pipe when no internal pressure is acting and, similarly, positive curvatures decrease the stiffness and buckling limit. For internal pressurised pipes the effects of initial pipe curvature are less relevant. Results show that this phenomenon is in relationship with the cross-section deformation due to bending moment, which undergoes relevant ovalisation for no pressurised pipes and little ovalisation for pressurised pipes.

**Keywords:**
Buckling,
curved pipes,
internal pressure,
ovalisation,
pure bending,
thin-walled pipes.

##### 386 Unsteady Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Electrically Conducting Fluid in Tube of Elliptical Cross Section under the Influence of Magnetic Field

**Authors:**
Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

**Abstract:**

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous electrically conducting fluid through a porous media in a tube of elliptical cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient and magnetic field has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of elliptical cross section by taking into account of the transverse magnetic field and porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non- Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, magnetic parameter and the porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

**Keywords:**
Elastico-viscous fluid,
Elliptic cross-section,
Porous media,
Second order fluids.

##### 385 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Asymmetric Cross-Section

**Authors:**
A.Campanile,
M. Mandarino,
V. Piscopo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-uniform torsion,
Asymmetric cross-section,
Fourier series,
Helmholtz equation,
FE method.

##### 384 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

**Authors:**
M. Kamal M. Shah,
Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad,
O. Irma Wani,
J. Sahari

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

**Keywords:**
Axial loading,
energy absorption performance,
computational mechanics,
crashworthiness behavior,
deformation mode,
thin-walled tubes.

##### 383 Numerical Investigation of Unsteady MHD Flow of Second Order Fluid in a Tube of Elliptical Cross-Section on the Porous Boundary

**Authors:**
S. B. Kulkarni,
Hasim A. Chikte,
V. Murali Mohan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Elastico-viscous fluid,
Porous media,
Elliptic cross-section,
Magnetic parameter,
Numerical Simulation.

##### 382 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Axial Symmetric Cross-Section

**Authors:**
A.Campanile,
M. Mandarino,
V. Piscopo,
A. Pranzitelli

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-uniform torsion,
Axial symmetric cross-section,
Fourier series,
Helmholtz equation,
FE method.

##### 381 A Novel Computer Vision Method for Evaluating Deformations of Fibers Cross Section in False Twist Textured Yarns

**Authors:**
Dariush Semnani,
Mehdi Ahangareianabhari,
Hossein Ghayoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Computer Vision,
Cross Section Analysis,
Fibers Deformation,
Textured Yarn

##### 380 Comparison of ANN and Finite Element Model for the Prediction of Ultimate Load of Thin-Walled Steel Perforated Sections in Compression

**Authors:**
Zhi-Jun Lu,
Qi Lu,
Meng Wu,
Qian Xiang,
Jun Gu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial neural network,
finite element method,
perforated sections,
thin-walled steel,
ultimate load.

##### 379 Unsteady MHD Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid in a Tube of Spherical Cross Section on a Porous Boundary

**Authors:**
Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

**Abstract:**

Exact solution of an unsteady MHD flow of elasticoviscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of spherical cross section under the influence of magnetic field and constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of spherical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in two-stages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a non-dimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elasticoviscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

**Keywords:**
Elastico-viscous fluid,
Porous media,
Second order
fluids,
Spherical cross-section,
Magnetic parameter.

##### 378 Unsteady Poiseuille Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid in a Tube of Spherical Cross Section on a Porous Boundary

**Authors:**
Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

**Abstract:**

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of spherical cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of spherical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

**Keywords:**
Elastico-viscous fluid,
Porous media,
Second order
fluids,
Spherical cross-section.

##### 377 Unsteady Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid of Second order Type in Tube of Ellipsoidal Cross Section on a Porous Boundary

**Authors:**
Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

**Abstract:**

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of ellipsoidal cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of ellipsoidal cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter and the porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

**Keywords:**
Elastico-viscous fluid,
Ellipsoidal cross-section,
Porous media,
Second order fluids.

##### 376 Development of Underactuated Robot Hand Using Cross Section Deformation Spring

**Authors:**
Naoki Saito,
Daisuke Kon,
Toshiyuki Sato

**Abstract:**

This paper describes an underactuated robot hand operated by low-power actuators. It can grasp objects of various shapes using easy operations. This hand is suitable for use as a lightweight prosthetic hand that can grasp various objects using few input channels. To realize operations using a low-power actuator, a cross section deformation spring is proposed. The design procedure of the underactuated robot finger is proposed to realize an adaptive grasping movement. The validity of this mechanism and design procedure are confirmed through an object grasping experiment. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of across section deformation spring in reducing the actuator power. Moreover, adaptive grasping movement is realized by an easy operation.

**Keywords:**
Robot hand,
Underactuated mechanism,
Cross section deformation spring,
Prosthetic hand.

##### 375 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

**Authors:**
Ömer Aktaş,
Olga A. Suvorova,
Oleg Tretyakov

**Abstract:**

_{2}. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

**Keywords:**
Arbitrary cross section waveguide,
analytical regularization method,
evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory of time-domain,
TM field.

##### 374 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

**Authors:**
Su Jeong Lee,
Tae Il Lee,
Jung Han Kim,
Chul-Hong Kim,
Gee Sung Chae,
Jae-Min Myoung

**Abstract:**

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V·s at 250°C.

**Keywords:**
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT),
Al-doped
ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle,
contact resistance,
Thin-film transistor
(TFT).

##### 373 Coherent and Incoherent Scattering Cross Sections for Elements with 13

**Authors:**
Panakkada Latha,
K. K. Abdullah,
M. P. Unnikrishnan,
K. M. Varier,
B. R. S. Babu

**Abstract:**

Coherent and incoherent scattering cross section measurements have been carried out using a HPGe detector on elements in the range of Z = 13 - 50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminium with the corresponding peak of the target. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are compared with theoretical values and earlier reported values. Our results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

**Keywords:**
Cross section,
coherent scattering,
incoherent scattering,
241Am.

##### 372 Flutter Analysis of Slender Beams with Variable Cross Sections Based on Integral Equation Formulation

**Authors:**
Z. El Felsoufi,
L. Azrar

**Abstract:**

This paper studies a mathematical model based on the integral equations for dynamic analyzes numerical investigations of a non-uniform or multi-material composite beam. The beam is subjected to a sub-tangential follower force and elastic foundation. The boundary conditions are represented by generalized parameterized fixations by the linear and rotary springs. A mathematical formula based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented for beams with variable cross-sections. The non-uniform section introduces non-uniformity in the rigidity and inertia of beams and consequently, more complicated equilibrium who governs the equation. Using the boundary element method and radial basis functions, the equation of motion is reduced to an algebro-differential system related to internal and boundary unknowns. A generalized formula for the deflection, the slope, the moment and the shear force are presented. The free vibration of non-uniform loaded beams is formulated in a compact matrix form and all needed matrices are explicitly given. The dynamic stability analysis of slender beam is illustrated numerically based on the coalescence criterion. A realistic case related to an industrial chimney is investigated.

**Keywords:**
Chimney,
BEM and integral equation formulation,
non uniform cross section,
vibration and Flutter.

##### 371 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Hollow Beams with Super-Elliptic Cross-Sections

**Authors:**
G. Akgun,
I. Algul,
H. Kurtaran

**Abstract:**

In this paper geometrically nonlinear static behavior of laminated composite hollow super-elliptic beams is investigated using generalized differential quadrature method. Super-elliptic beam can have both oval and elliptic cross-sections by adjusting parameters in super-ellipse formulation (also known as Lamé curves). Equilibrium equations of super-elliptic beam are obtained using the virtual work principle. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into account using von-Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Spatial derivatives in strains are expressed with the generalized differential quadrature method. Transverse shear effect is considered through the first-order shear deformation theory. Static equilibrium equations are solved using Newton-Raphson method. Several composite super-elliptic beam problems are solved with the proposed method. Effects of layer orientations of composite material, boundary conditions, ovality and ellipticity on bending behavior are investigated.

**Keywords:**
Generalized differential quadrature,
geometric nonlinearity,
laminated composite,
super-elliptic cross-section.

##### 370 Free Vibration Analysis of Conical Helicoidal Rods Having Elliptical Cross Sections Positioned in Different Orientation

**Authors:**
Merve Ermis,
Akif Kutlu,
Nihal Eratlı,
Mehmet H. Omurtag

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Conical helix,
elliptical cross section,
finite element,
free vibration.

##### 369 A Study on the Effect of Variation of the Cross-sectional Area of Spiral Volute Casing for Centrifugal Pump

**Authors:**
Hyun Bae Jin,
Myung Jin Kim,
Wui Jun Chung

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Centrifugal Pump,
Volute Casing,
Cross-Section area,
CFD

##### 368 Absolute Cross Sections of Multi-Photon Ionization of Xenon by the Comparison with Process of its Electron-Impact Ionization

**Authors:**
A. A. Mityureva,
A. A. Pastor,
P. Yu. Serdobintsev,
N. A. Timofeev

**Abstract:**

Comparison of electron- and photon-impact processes as a method for determination of photo-ionization cross sections is described, discussed and shown to have many attractive features.

**Keywords:**
Transition probability,
cross section,
photo-ionization,
electron-ionization,
multi-photon process.

##### 367 Design and Production of Thin-Walled UHPFRC Footbridge

**Authors:**
P. Tej,
P. Kněž,
M. Blank

**Abstract:**

The paper presents design and production of thin-walled U-profile footbridge made of UHPFRC. The main structure of the bridge is one prefabricated shell structure made of UHPFRC with dispersed steel fibers without any conventional reinforcement. The span of the bridge structure is 10 m and the clear width of 1.5 m. The thickness of the UHPFRC shell structure oscillated in an interval of 30-45 mm. Several calculations were made during the bridge design and compared with the experiments. For the purpose of verifying the calculations, a segment of 1.5 m was first produced, followed by the whole footbridge for testing. After the load tests were done, the design was optimized to cast the final footbridge.

**Keywords:**
Footbridge,
UHPFRC,
non-linear analysis,
shell structure.

##### 366 The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides

**Authors:**
Shivalinge Gowda

**Abstract:**

_{2}, CdI

_{2}and HgI

_{2}were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections s

_{a,}of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section s

_{a}data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Z

_{eff}. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Z

_{eff}of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section s

_{a}from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Z

_{eff}values, the electron densities N

_{el}of halides were also determined. The present Z

_{eff}and N

_{el}values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.

**Keywords:**
Mass attenuation coefficient,
atomic cross-section,
effective atomic number,
electron density.