**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2907

# Search results for: sample average approximation

##### 2907 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

**Authors:**
Yeonsoo Jang,
Dongweon Yoon,
Ki Ho Kwon,
Jaeyoon Lee,
Wooju Lee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Average error probability,
Phase shift keying,
Phase
error

##### 2906 Best Co-approximation and Best Simultaneous Co-approximation in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

**Authors:**
J. Kavikumar,
N. S. Manian,
M.B.K. Moorthy

**Abstract:**

The main purpose of this paper is to consider the t-best co-approximation and t-best simultaneous co-approximation in fuzzy normed spaces. We develop the theory of t-best co-approximation and t-best simultaneous co-approximation in quotient spaces. This new concept is employed us to improve various characterisations of t-co-proximinal and t-co-Chebyshev sets.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy best co-approximation,
fuzzy quotient spaces,
proximinality,
Chebyshevity,
best simultaneous co-approximation.

##### 2905 Definable Subsets in Covering Approximation Spaces

**Authors:**
Xun Ge,
Zhaowen Li

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Covering approximation space,
covering approximation operator,
definable subset,
inner definable subset,
outer definable subset.

##### 2904 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

**Authors:**
John N. Haddad,
Serge B. Provost

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sample correlation coefficient,
density approximation,
confidence intervals.

##### 2903 On an Open Problem for Definable Subsets of Covering Approximation Spaces

**Authors:**
Mei He,
Ying Ge,
Jingyu Qian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Covering approximation space,
covering approximation operator,
definable subset,
inner definable subset,
outer definable subset.

##### 2902 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

**Authors:**
Wajdi Bellil,
Chokri Ben Amar,
Adel M. Alimi

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate Ôêºf as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

**Keywords:**
Beta wavelets networks,
RBF neural network,
training algorithms,
MSE,
1-D,
2D function approximation.

##### 2901 Some Separations in Covering Approximation Spaces

**Authors:**
Xun Ge,
Jinjin Li,
Ying Ge

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Rough set,
covering approximation space,
granularitywise separation.

##### 2900 An Empirical Validation of the Linear- Hyperbolic Approximation of the I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator

**Authors:**
A. A. Penin

**Abstract:**

An empirical linearly-hyperbolic approximation of the I - V characteristic of a solar cell is presented. This approximation is based on hyperbolic dependence of a current of p-n junctions on voltage for large currents. Such empirical approximation is compared with the early proposed formal linearly-hyperbolic approximation of a solar cell. The expressions defining laws of change of parameters of formal approximation at change of a photo current of family of characteristics are received. It allows simplifying a finding of parameters of approximation on actual curves, to specify their values. Analytical calculation of load regime for linearly - hyperbolic model leads to quadratic equation. Also, this model allows to define soundly a deviation from the maximum power regime and to compare efficiency of regimes of solar cells with different parameters.

**Keywords:**
a solar cell generator,
I − V characteristic,
p − n junction,
approximation

##### 2899 Numerical Approximation to the Performance of CUSUM Charts for EMA (1) Process

**Authors:**
K. Petcharat,
Y. Areepong,
S. Sukparungsri,
G. Mititelu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cumulative Sum Chart,
Moving Average
Observation,
Average Run Length,
Numerical Approximations.

##### 2898 An EWMA p Chart Based On Improved Square Root Transformation

**Authors:**
S. Sukparungsee

**Abstract:**

Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

**Keywords:**
Number of defects,
Exponentially Weighted Moving Average,
Average Run Length,
Square root transformations.

##### 2897 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

**Authors:**
Chaghoub Soraya,
Zhang Xiaoyan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Approximation algorithms,
buy-at-bulk,
combinatorial
optimization,
network design,
p-median.

##### 2896 Performance Analysis of a Series of Adaptive Filters in Non-Stationary Environment for Noise Cancelling Setup

**Authors:**
Anam Rafique,
Syed Sohail Ahmed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
AFA,
ANLMS,
LMS,
NLMS.

##### 2895 An Evaluation of Average Run Length of MaxEWMA and MaxGWMA Control Charts

**Authors:**
S. Phanyaem

**Abstract:**

Exponentially weighted moving average control chart (EWMA) is a popular chart used for detecting shift in the mean of parameter of distributions in quality control. The objective of this paper is to compare the efficiency of control chart to detect an increases in the mean of a process. In particular, we compared the Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MaxEWMA) and Maximum Generally Weighted Moving Average (MaxGWMA) control charts when the observations are Exponential distribution. The criteria for evaluate the performance of control chart is called, the Average Run Length (ARL). The result of comparison show that in the case of process is small sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more efficiency to detect shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart. For the case of large sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect small shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart, and when the process is a large shift in mean, the MaxGWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect mean shift than MaxEWMA control chart.

**Keywords:**
Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average,
Maximum General Weighted Moving Average,
Average Run Length.

##### 2894 Approximation to the Hardy Operator on Topological Measure Spaces

**Authors:**
Kairat T. Mynbaev,
Elena N. Lomakina

**Abstract:**

We consider a Hardy type operator generated by a family of open subsets of a Hausdorff topological space. The family is indexed with non-negative real numbers and is totally ordered. For this operator, we obtain two-sided bounds of its norm, a compactness criterion and bounds for its approximation numbers. Previously bounds for its approximation numbers have been established only in the one-dimensional case, while we do not impose any restrictions on the dimension of the Hausdorff space. The bounds for the norm and conditions for compactness have been found earlier but our approach is different in that we use domain partitions for all problems under consideration.

**Keywords:**
Approximation numbers,
boundedness and
compactness,
multidimensional Hardy operator,
Hausdorff
topological space.

##### 2893 Denoising and Compression in Wavelet Domainvia Projection on to Approximation Coefficients

**Authors:**
Mario Mastriani

**Abstract:**

We describe a new filtering approach in the wavelet domain for image denoising and compression, based on the projections of details subbands coefficients (resultants of the splitting procedure, typical in wavelet domain) onto the approximation subband coefficients (much less noisy). The new algorithm is called Projection Onto Approximation Coefficients (POAC). As a result of this approach, only the approximation subband coefficients and three scalars are stored and/or transmitted to the channel. Besides, with the elimination of the details subbands coefficients, we obtain a bigger compression rate. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach compares favorably to more typical methods of denoising and compression in wavelet domain.

**Keywords:**
Compression,
denoising,
projections,
wavelets.

##### 2892 A Note on Negative Hypergeometric Distribution and Its Approximation

**Authors:**
S. B. Mansuri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Negative hypergeometric distribution,
Poisson distribution,
Poisson approximation,
Stein-Chen identity,
w-function.

##### 2891 The Inverse Problem of Nonsymmetric Matrices with a Submatrix Constraint and its Approximation

**Authors:**
Yongxin Yuan,
Hao Liu

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following least-squares problem (LSP): Given matrices X ∈ Rn×p, B ∈ Rp×p and A0 ∈ Rr×r, find a matrix A ∈ Rn×n such that XT AX − B = min, s. t. A([1, r]) = A0, where A([1, r]) is the r×r leading principal submatrix of the matrix A. We then consider a best approximation problem: given an n × n matrix A˜ with A˜([1, r]) = A0, find Aˆ ∈ SE such that A˜ − Aˆ = minA∈SE A˜ − A, where SE is the solution set of LSP. We show that the best approximation solution Aˆ is unique and derive an explicit formula for it. Keyw

**Keywords:**
Inverse problem,
Least-squares solution,
model updating,
Singular value decomposition (SVD),
Optimal approximation.

##### 2890 Approximation Algorithm for the Shortest Approximate Common Superstring Problem

**Authors:**
A.S. Rebaï,
M. Elloumi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shortest approximate common superstring,
approximation algorithms,
strings overlaps,
complexities.

##### 2889 A Scenario-Based Approach for the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem with Stochastic Capacities

**Authors:**
Soumia Ichoua

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we investigate the strategic stochastic air traffic flow management problem which seeks to balance airspace capacity and demand under weather disruptions. The goal is to reduce the need for myopic tactical decisions that do not account for probabilistic knowledge about the NAS near-future states. We present and discuss a scenario-based modeling approach based on a time-space stochastic process to depict weather disruption occurrences in the NAS. A solution framework is also proposed along with a distributed implementation aimed at overcoming scalability problems. Issues related to this implementation are also discussed.

**Keywords:**
Air traffic management,
sample average approximation,
scenario-based approach,
stochastic capacity.

##### 2888 Estimation of Bayesian Sample Size for Binomial Proportions Using Areas P-tolerance with Lowest Posterior Loss

**Authors:**
H. Bevrani,
N. Najafi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bayesian inference,
Beta-binomial Distribution,
LPLcriteria,
quadratic loss function.

##### 2887 Properties and Approximation Distribution Reductions in Multigranulation Rough Set Model

**Authors:**
Properties,
Approximation Distribution Reductions in Multigranulation Rough Set Model

**Abstract:**

Some properties of approximation sets are studied in multi-granulation optimist model in rough set theory using maximal compatible classes. The relationships between or among lower and upper approximations in single and multiple granulation are compared and discussed. Through designing Boolean functions and discernibility matrices in incomplete information systems, the lower and upper approximation sets and reduction in multi-granulation environments can be found. By using examples, the correctness of computation approach is consolidated. The related conclusions obtained are suitable for further investigating in multiple granulation RSM.

**Keywords:**
Incomplete information system,
maximal compatible class,
multi-granulation rough set model,
reduction.

##### 2886 On Diffusion Approximation of Discrete Markov Dynamical Systems

**Authors:**
Jevgenijs Carkovs

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Markov dynamical system,
diffusion approximation,
equilibrium stochastic stability.

##### 2885 Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA

**Authors:**
S. Heydarzadeh,
A. Kadivarian,
P. Torkzadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Analog to digital converter,
Successive
approximation,
Capacitor switching algorithm,
FPGA

##### 2884 Small Sample Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Long-Memory Parameter

**Authors:**
Josu Arteche,
Jesus Orbe

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
bootstrap,
confidence interval,
log periodogram regression,
long memory.

##### 2883 Reduction of Linear Time-Invariant Systems Using Routh-Approximation and PSO

**Authors:**
S. Panda,
S. K. Tomar,
R. Prasad,
C. Ardil

**Abstract:**

Order reduction of linear-time invariant systems employing two methods; one using the advantages of Routh approximation and other by an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In Routh approximation method the denominator of the reduced order model is obtained using Routh approximation while the numerator of the reduced order model is determined using the indirect approach of retaining the time moments and/or Markov parameters of original system. By this method the reduced order model guarantees stability if the original high order model is stable. In the second method Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical examples.

**Keywords:**
Model Order Reduction,
Markov Parameters,
Routh Approximation,
Particle Swarm Optimization,
Integral Squared Error,
Steady State Stability.

##### 2882 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

**Authors:**
Habtu Alemayehu,
G. Radhakrishnamacharya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dispersion,
Peristalsis,
Couple stress fluid,
Chemicalreaction,
Magnetic field.

##### 2881 The Effects of Peristalsis on Dispersion of a Micropolar Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

**Authors:**
Habtu Alemayehu,
G. Radhakrishnamacharya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Peristalsis,
Dispersion,
Chemical reaction,
Magneticfield,
Micropolar fluid

##### 2880 Average Secrecy Mutual Information of the Non-Identically Independently Distributed Hoyt Fading Wireless Channels

**Authors:**
Md. Sohidul Islam,
Mohammad Rakibul Islam

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hoyt fading,
main channel,
eavesdropper channel,
secure outage probability,
average secrecy mutual information.

##### 2879 A Study on the Least Squares Reduced Parameter Approximation of FIR Digital Filters

**Authors:**
S. Seyedtabaii,
E. Seyedtabaii

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Digital filter,
filter approximation,
least squares,
model order reduction.

##### 2878 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid through a Porous Medium with Slip Condition

**Authors:**
Habtu Alemayehu,
G. Radhakrishnamacharya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dispersion,
Peristalsis,
Couple stress fluid,
Porousmedium,
Chemical reaction,
Slip condition.