Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 227

Search results for: Just-noticeable distortion (JND)

227 Effect of Butt Joint Distortion and Comparison Study on Ti/Al Dissimilar Metal Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

In general, it is desirable to finish the weld quickly, before a large volume of surrounding metal heats up and expands. The welding process used, type, welding current and speed of travel, thus, affect the degree of shrinkage and distortion of a weldment. The use of mechanized welding equipment reduces welding time, metal affected zone and consequently distortion. This article helps to define what weld distortion is and then provide a practical understanding of the causes of distortion, effects of shrinkage in butt joint welded assemblies using TI6AL4VA and Aluminium AA2024 alloy sheet. The beam offset position to the joint interface towards titanium and aluminium side. The factors affecting distortion during welding is also given. Test results reveal that welding speed is the significant parameter to decide the extent of distortion. Also welding from Al side reduces the distortion while Ti side increases the distortion.

Keywords: Nd:YAG Pulsed laser welding, Titanium/Aluminium thin sheet butt joint, distortion.

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226 Study on the Relations between One's Personality Dimensions and his Personality Judgment about Friend based on Reality Distortion

Authors: Bahareh Babaei, Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Reza Reza-zadeh, Hossien Kaviani

Abstract:

Judgment is affected by many agents and distortion in this assessment is unpreventable. Personality dimensions are among those factors that interfere with the distortion. In this research, the relations between personality dimensions of subject and his judgment on friends- personality dimensions is investigated. One-hundred friend couples completed both NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) and Ahvaz Reality Distortion Inventory (ARDI) to make judgments about themselves and their friends. Observations show that judge-s Agreement and Neuroticism dimensions are impressed by reality distortion. On the other hand, this reality distortion interferes with one-s evaluation of his friend-s Agreement, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness dimensions. Conscientiousness with suppressive effect on judge-s other dimensions plays the irrelevant role on personality judgment. Therefore, observer-rating tools which are used as a conventional criterion seem to be not valid because of the reality distortion due to judge-s personality dimensions.

Keywords: Personality dimensions, reality distortion, judgmental accuracy.

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225 Ultra-Precise Hybrid Lens Distortion Correction

Authors: Christian Bräuer-Burchardt, Peter Kühmstedt, Gunther Notni

Abstract:

A new hybrid method to realise high-precision distortion determination for optical ultra-precision 3D measurement systems based on stereo cameras using active light projection is introduced. It consists of two phases: the basic distortion determination and the refinement. The refinement phase of the procedure uses a plane surface and projected fringe patterns as calibration tools to determine simultaneously the distortion of both cameras within an iterative procedure. The new technique may be performed in the state of the device “ready for measurement" which avoids errors by a later adjustment. A considerable reduction of distortion errors is achieved and leads to considerable improvements of the accuracy of 3D measurements, especially in the precise measurement of smooth surfaces.

Keywords: 3D Surface Measurement, Fringe Projection, Lens Distortion, Stereo.

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224 Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion

Authors: A. Alghanim, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker

Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Keywords: Low Frequency Memory, IntermodulationDistortion (IMD).

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223 Multi-VSS Scheme by Shifting Random Grids

Authors: Joy Jo-Yi Chang, Justie Su-Tzu Juan

Abstract:

Visual secret sharing (VSS) was proposed by Naor and Shamir in 1995. Visual secret sharing schemes encode a secret image into two or more share images, and single share image can’t obtain any information about the secret image. When superimposes the shares, it can restore the secret by human vision. Due to the traditional VSS have some problems like pixel expansion and the cost of sophisticated. And this method only can encode one secret image. The schemes of encrypting more secret images by random grids into two shares were proposed by Chen et al. in 2008. But when those restored secret images have much distortion, those schemes are almost limited in decoding. In the other words, if there is too much distortion, we can’t encrypt too much information. So, if we can adjust distortion to very small, we can encrypt more secret images. In this paper, four new algorithms which based on Chang et al.’s scheme be held in 2010 are proposed. First algorithm can adjust distortion to very small. Second algorithm distributes the distortion into two restored secret images. Third algorithm achieves no distortion for special secret images. Fourth algorithm encrypts three secret images, which not only retain the advantage of VSS but also improve on the problems of decoding.

Keywords: Visual cryptography, visual secret sharing, random grids, multiple, secret image sharing

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222 Studies on Distortion of Dissimilar Thin Sheet Weld Joints Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

To achieve reliable welds with minimum distortion for the fabrication of components in aerospace industry laser beam welding is attempted. Laser welding can provide a significant benefit for the welding of Titanium and Aluminium thin sheet alloys of its precision and rapid processing capability. For laser welding, pulse shape, energy, duration, repetition rate and peak power are the most important parameters that influence directly the quality of welds. In this experimental work for joining 1mm thick TI6AL4V and AA2024 alloy and JK600 Nd:YAG pulsed laser units used. The distortions at different welding power and speed of titanium and aluminium thin sheet alloys are investigated. Test results reveal that increase in welding speed increases distortion in weldment

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding, Titanium, Aluminium alloy sheets and distortion.

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221 Transform-Domain Rate-Distortion Optimization Accelerator for H.264/AVC Video Encoding

Authors: Mohammed Golam Sarwer, Lai Man Po, Kai Guo, Q.M. Jonathan Wu

Abstract:

In H.264/AVC video encoding, rate-distortion optimization for mode selection plays a significant role to achieve outstanding performance in compression efficiency and video quality. However, this mode selection process also makes the encoding process extremely complex, especially in the computation of the ratedistortion cost function, which includes the computations of the sum of squared difference (SSD) between the original and reconstructed image blocks and context-based entropy coding of the block. In this paper, a transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator based on fast SSD (FSSD) and VLC-based rate estimation algorithm is proposed. This algorithm could significantly simplify the hardware architecture for the rate-distortion cost computation with only ignorable performance degradation. An efficient hardware structure for implementing the proposed transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator is also proposed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduces about 47% of total encoding time with negligible degradation of coding performance. The proposed method can be easily applied to many mobile video application areas such as a digital camera and a DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) phone.

Keywords: Context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC), H.264/AVC, rate-distortion optimization (RDO), sum of squareddifference (SSD).

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220 Audio Watermarking Based on Compression-expansion Technique

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

A novel robust audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme, the host audio signals are segmented into frames. Two consecutive frames are assessed if they are suitable to represent a watermark bit. If so, frequency transform is performed on these two frames. The compressionexpansion technique is adopted to generate distortion over the two frames. The distortion is used to represent one watermark bit. Psychoacoustic model is applied to calculate local auditory mask to ensure that the distortion is not audible. The watermarking schemes using mono and stereo audio signals are designed differently. The correlation-based detection method is used to detect the distortion and extract embedded watermark bits. The experimental results show that the quality degradation caused by the embedded watermarks is perceptually transparent and the proposed schemes are very robust against different types of attacks.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, Compression-expansion, Stereo signals, Robustness.

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219 ML Detection with Symbol Estimation for Nonlinear Distortion of OFDM Signal

Authors: Somkiat Lerkvaranyu, Yoshikazu Miyanaga

Abstract:

In this paper, a new technique of signal detection has been proposed for detecting the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the presence of nonlinear distortion.There are several advantages of OFDM communications system.However, one of the existing problems is remain considered as the nonlinear distortion generated by high-power-amplifier at the transmitter end due to the large dynamic range of an OFDM signal. The proposed method is the maximum likelihood detection with the symbol estimation. When the training data are available, the neural network has been used to learn the characteristic of received signal and to estimate the new positions of the transmitted symbol which are provided to the maximum likelihood detector. Resulting in the system performance, the nonlinear distortions of a traveling wave tube amplifier with OFDM signal are considered in this paper.Simulation results of the bit-error-rate performance are obtained with 16-QAM OFDM systems.

Keywords: OFDM, TWTA, nonlinear distortion, detection.

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218 Distortion Estimation in Digital Image Watermarking using Genetic Programming

Authors: Labiba Gilani, Asifullah Khan, Anwar M. Mirza

Abstract:

This paper introduces a technique of distortion estimation in image watermarking using Genetic Programming (GP). The distortion is estimated by considering the problem of obtaining a distorted watermarked signal from the original watermarked signal as a function regression problem. This function regression problem is solved using GP, where the original watermarked signal is considered as an independent variable. GP-based distortion estimation scheme is checked for Gaussian attack and Jpeg compression attack. We have used Gaussian attacks of different strengths by changing the standard deviation. JPEG compression attack is also varied by adding various distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is able to detect the watermark even in the case of strong distortions and is more robust against attacks.

Keywords: Blind Watermarking, Genetic Programming (GP), Fitness Function, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

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217 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

Authors: Ibrahim El rube'

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion.

Keywords: Image matching, key point detection, affine invariant, triangle-shaped segments.

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216 Extremal Properties of Generalized Class of Close-to-convex Functions

Authors: Norlyda Mohamed, Daud Mohamad, Shaharuddin Cik Soh

Abstract:

Let Gα ,β (γ ,δ ) denote the class of function f (z), f (0) = f ′(0)−1= 0 which satisfied e δ {αf ′(z)+ βzf ′′(z)}> γ i Re in the open unit disk D = {z ∈ı : z < 1} for some α ∈ı (α ≠ 0) , β ∈ı and γ ∈ı (0 ≤γ <α ) where δ ≤ π and α cosδ −γ > 0 . In this paper, we determine some extremal properties including distortion theorem and argument of f ′( z ) .

Keywords: Argument of f ′(z) , Carathéodory Function, Closeto- convex Function, Distortion Theorem, Extremal Properties

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215 Distortion of Flow Measurement and Cavitation Occurs Due to Orifice Inlet Velocity Profiles

Authors: Byung-Soo Shin, Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

This analysis investigates the distortion of flow measurement and the increase of cavitation along orifice flowmeter. The analysis using the numerical method (CFD) validated the distortion of flow measurement through the inlet velocity profile considering the convergence and grid dependency. Realizable k-e model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this numerical analysis. This analysis also estimated the vulnerability of cavitation effect due to inlet velocity profile. The investigation concludes that inclined inlet velocity profile could vary the pressure which was measured at pressure tab near pipe wall and it led to distort the pressure values ranged from -3.8% to 5.3% near the orifice plate and to make the increase of cavitation. The investigation recommends that the fully developed inlet velocity flow is beneficial to accurate flow measurement in orifice flowmeter.

Keywords: Orifice, k-e model, CFD

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214 Effects of Capacitor Bank Defects on Harmonic Distortion and Park's Pattern Analysis in Induction Motors

Authors: G. Das, S. Das, P. Purkait, A. Dasgupta, M. Kumar

Abstract:

Properly sized capacitor banks are connected across induction motors for several reasons including power factor correction, reducing distortions, increasing capacity, etc. Total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are used in such cases to quantify the improvements obtained through connection of the external capacitor banks. On the other hand, one of the methods for assessing the motor internal condition is by the use of Park-s pattern analysis. In spite of taking adequate precautionary measures, the capacitor banks may sometimes malfunction. Such a minor fault in the capacitor bank is often not apparently discernible. This may however, give rise to substantial degradation of power factor correction performance and may also damage the supply profile. The case is more severe with the fact that the Park-s pattern gets distorted due to such external capacitor faults, and can give anomalous results about motor internal fault analyses. The aim of this paper is to present simulation and hardware laboratory test results to have an understanding of the anomalies in harmonic distortion and Park-s pattern analyses in induction motors due to capacitor bank defects.

Keywords: Capacitor bank, harmonic distortion, induction motor, Park's pattern, PSCAD simulation.

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213 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Architectural distortions, masses and microcalcifications are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support vector machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and an accuracy of 96% for mammogram images collected from digital database for screening mammography database.

Keywords: Architecture Distortion, GLCM Texture features, GLRLM Texture Features, Mammograms, Support Vector Machine.

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212 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding (FSW), micro-hardness, underwater.

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211 Sensitivity and Removed THD of a Phase- Cutting Dimmer

Authors: H. Fathabadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a designed and implemented phase-cutting dimmer. In fact, the dimmer is closed loop and a microcontroller calculates and then regulates the firing delay angles of each channel. Depending on the firing angle, the harmonic distortion in the input current will not comply with international standards, such as IEC 61000-3-2 (class C equipments). For solving this problem, eight harmonic compensators have been added to the dimmer. So, the proposed dimmer has a little harmonic distortion in the input current whereas conventional phase-cutting dimmers are not so. Sensitivity and removed THD of the proposed dimmer will be presented.

Keywords: Dimmer, compensator, harmonic, dimming.

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210 Neuro-Fuzzy System for Equalization Channel Distortion

Authors: Rahib H. Abiyev

Abstract:

In this paper the application of neuro-fuzzy system for equalization of channel distortion is considered. The structure and operation algorithm of neuro-fuzzy equalizer are described. The use of neuro-fuzzy equalizer in digital signal transmission allows to decrease training time of parameters and decrease the complexity of the network. The simulation of neuro-fuzzy equalizer is performed. The obtained result satisfies the efficiency of application of neurofuzzy technology in channel equalization.

Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy system, noise equalization, neuro-fuzzy equalizer, neural system.

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209 Edge Detection with the Parametric Filtering Method (Comparison with Canny Method)

Authors: Yacine Ait Ali Yahia, Abderazak Guessoum

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method of image edge-detection and characterization is presented. “Parametric Filtering method" uses a judicious defined filter, which preserves the signal correlation structure as input in the autocorrelation of the output. This leads, showing the evolution of the image correlation structure as well as various distortion measures which quantify the deviation between two zones of the signal (the two Hamming signals) for the protection of an image edge.

Keywords: Edge detection, parametrable recursive filter, autocorrelation structure, distortion measurements.

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208 Harmonic Comparison between Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED) Lamps

Authors: Hari Maghfiroh, Fadhila Tresna Nugraha, Harry Prabowo

Abstract:

Fluorescent and WOLED are widely used because it consumes less energy. However, both lamps cause a harmonics because it has semiconductors components. Harmonic is a distorted sinusoidal electric wave and cause excess heat. This study compares the amount of harmonics generated by both lamps. The test shows that both lamps have THDv(Total Harmonics Distortion of Voltage) almost the same with average 2.5% while the average of WOLED's THDi(Total Harmonics Distortion of Current) is lower than fluorescent has. The average WOLED's THDi is 29.10 % and fluorescent's 'THDi is 87. 23 %.

Keywords: Fluorescent, harmonic, power factor, WOLED

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207 Harmonic Pollution Control of the Electrical Network by Three-Phase Shunt Active Filter: Comparative Study of Controls, by Hysteresis and by Duty Cycle Modulation

Authors: T. Patrice Nna Nna, S. Ndjakomo Essiane, S. Pérabi Ngoffé, F. Amigue Fissou

Abstract:

This paper deals with the harmonic decontamination of current in an electrical grid by an active shunt filter in order to improve power quality. The contribution of this paper is mainly based on the proposal of a control strategy for an active filter based on Duty Cycle Modulation (DCM). First, three-monophase method is applied for the identification of disturbing currents. A Simulink model of this method is given for one phase of the grid. Secondly, two orders were designed: the first one is the Hysteresis Control and the second one is the DCM Control. Finally, a comparative study of the two controls was performed. The results obtained show a significant improvement in the rate of harmonic distortion for both controls. The harmonic distortion for the Hysteresis control is limited by the non-controllability of the switching frequencies of the inverter's switches and reduces the harmonic distortion rate (THD) to 3.12% as opposed to the DCM control which limits the THD to 2.82% which makes it better.

Keywords: Harmonic pollution, shunt active filter, hysteresis, Duty Cycle Modulation.

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206 Study of EEGs from Somatosensory Cortex and Alzheimer's Disease Sources

Authors: Md R. Bashar, Yan Li, Peng Wen

Abstract:

This study is to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences generated from a normal and Alzheimer-s disease (AD) sources. We also investigate the effects of brain tissue distortions due to AD on EEG. We develop a realistic head model from T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using finite element method (FEM) for normal source (somatosensory cortex (SC) in parietal lobe) and AD sources (right amygdala (RA) and left amygdala (LA) in medial temporal lobe). Then, we compare the AD sourced EEGs to the SC sourced EEG for studying the nature of potential changes due to sources and 5% to 20% brain tissue distortions. We find an average of 0.15 magnification errors produced by AD sourced EEGs. Different brain tissue distortion models also generate the maximum 0.07 magnification. EEGs obtained from AD sources and different brain tissue distortion levels vary scalp potentials from normal source, and the electrodes residing in parietal and temporal lobes are more sensitive than other electrodes for AD sourced EEG.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tissue distortion, electroencephalogram, finite element method.

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205 Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression

Authors: K.Somasundaram, S.Domnic

Abstract:

A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.

Keywords: Image compression, Vector Quantization, Residual Codebook.

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204 Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the comparison made between Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter. Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper, comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.

Keywords: Multi-level inverter, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation, Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Total Harmonic Distortion, Genetic Algorithm.

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203 A Literature Assessment of Multi-Level Inverters

Authors: P. Kiruthika, K. Ramani

Abstract:

Multi-Level Inverter technology has been developed in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy scheme, because of their advantages such as devices of lower rating can be used thereby enabling the schemes to be used for high voltage applications. Reduced Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).Since the dv/dt is low; the Electromagnetic Interference from the scheme is low. To avoid the switching losses Lower switching frequencies can be used. In this paper present a survey of various topologies, control strategy and modulation techniques used by these inverters. Here the regenerative and superior topologies are also discussed.

Keywords: Cascaded H-bridge Multi-Level Inverter, Diode Clamped Multi-Level Inverter, Flying Capacitors Multi- Level Inverter, Multi-Level Inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion.

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202 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).

Keywords: Unconstrained vector quantization, Linear predictiveCoding, Split vector quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Line Spectral Frequencies.

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201 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: Power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan.

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200 Mathematical Modeling of Current Harmonics Caused by Personal Computers

Authors: Rana Abdul Jabbar Khan, Muhammad Akmal

Abstract:

Personal computers draw non-sinusoidal current with odd harmonics more significantly. Power Quality of distribution networks is severely affected due to the flow of these generated harmonics during the operation of electronic loads. In this paper, mathematical modeling of odd harmonics in current like 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th influencing the power quality has been presented. Live signals have been captured with the help of power quality analyzer for analysis purpose. The interesting feature is that Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in current decreases with the increase of nonlinear loads has been verified theoretically. The results obtained using mathematical expressions have been compared with the practical results and exciting results have been found.

Keywords: Harmonic Distortion, Mathematical Modeling, Power Quality.

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199 Low Voltage Squarer Using Floating Gate MOSFETs

Authors: Rishikesh Pandey, Maneesha Gupta

Abstract:

A new low-voltage floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS) based squarer using square law characteristic of the FGMOS is proposed in this paper. The major advantages of the squarer are simplicity, rail-to-rail input dynamic range, low total harmonic distortion, and low power consumption. The proposed circuit is biased without body effect. The circuit is designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25μm CMOS technology. The squarer is operated at the supply voltages of ±0.75V . The total harmonic distortion (THD) for the input signal 0.75Vpp at 25 KHz, and maximum power consumption were found to be less than 1% and 319μW respectively.

Keywords: Analog signal processing, floating gate MOSFETs, low-voltage, Spice, squarer.

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198 Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter

Authors: B. Sathyanandhi, P. M. Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can  take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant  circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to  presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.  Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.

Keywords: Buck-boost converter, High switching frequency, Power factor correction, power factor correction stage Regulation stage, Total harmonic distortion (THD).

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