Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3559

Search results for: parallel exchange rate

3559 Exchange Rate Volatility, Its Determinants and Effects on the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi V. Okolo, Onyinye S. Ugwuanyi, Kenneth A. Okpala

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effect of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria. The flow and stock market theories of exchange rate determination was adopted considering macroeconomic determinants such as balance of trade, trade openness, and net international investment. Furthermore, the influence of changes in parallel exchange rate, official exchange rate and real effective exchange rate was modeled on the manufacturing sector output. Vector autoregression techniques and vector error correction mechanism were adopted to explore the macroeconomic determinants of exchange rate fluctuation in Nigeria and to examine the influence of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. The exchange rate showed an unstable and volatile movement in Nigeria. Official exchange rate significantly impacted on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria and shock to previous manufacturing sector output caused 60.76% of the fluctuation in the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. Trade balance, trade openness and net international investments did not significantly determine exchange rate in Nigeria. However, own shock accounted for about 95% of the variation of exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and long-run. Among other macroeconomic variables, net international investment accounted for about 2.85% variation of the real effective exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and in the long-run. Monetary authorities should maintain stability of the exchange rates through proper management so as to encourage local production and government should formulate and implement policies that will develop other sectors of the economy as this will widen the country’s revenue base, reduce our over reliance on oil sector for our foreign exchange earnings and in turn reduce the shocks on our domestic economy.

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, exchange rate determinants, manufacturing sector, official exchange rate, parallel exchange rate, real effective exchange rate.

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3558 Methods of Estimating the Equilibrium Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)

Authors: Pavla Ruzickova, Petr Teply

Abstract:

There are many debates now regarding undervalued and overvalued currencies currently traded on the world financial market. This paper contributes to these debates from a theoretical point of view. We present the three most commonly used methods of estimating the equilibrium real effective exchange rate (REER): macroeconomic balance approach, external sustainability approach and equilibrium real effective exchange rate approach in the reduced form. Moreover, we discuss key concepts of the calculation of the real exchange rate (RER) based on applied explanatory variables: nominal exchange rates, terms of trade and tradable and non-tradable goods. Last but not least, we discuss the three main driving forces behind real exchange rates movements which include terms of trade, relative productivity growth and the interest rate differential.

Keywords: real exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, foreign exchange, terms of trade

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3557 The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Real Total Export and Sub-Categories of Real Total Export of Malaysia

Authors: Wong Hock Tsen

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on real export in Malaysia. The moving standard deviation with order three (MSD(3)) is used for the measurement of exchange rate volatility. The conventional and partially asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models are used in the estimations. This study finds exchange rate volatility to have significant impact on real total export and some sub-categories of real total export. Moreover, this study finds that the positive or negative exchange rate volatility tends to have positive or negative impact on real export. Exchange rate volatility can be harmful to export of Malaysia.

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, autoregressive distributed lag, export, Malaysia.

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3556 Impact of Exchange Rate on Macroeconomic Indicators

Authors: Aleksandre Ergeshidze

Abstract:

The exchange rate is a pivotal pricing instrument that simultaneously impacts various components of the economy. Depreciation of nominal exchange rate is export promoting, which might be a desired export-led growth policy, and particularly critical to closing-down the widening current account imbalance. However, negative effects resulting from high dollarization and high share of imported intermediate inputs can outweigh positive effect. The aim of this research is to quantify impact of change in nominal exchange rate and test contractionary depreciation hypothesis on Georgian economy using structural and Bayesian vector autoregression. According to the acquired results, appreciation of nominal exchange rate is expected to decrease inflation, monetary policy rate, interest rate on domestic currency loans and economic growth in the medium run; however, impact on economic growth in the short run is statistically not significant.

Keywords: Bayesian vector autoregression, contractionary depreciation, dollarization, nominal exchange rate, structural vector autoregression.

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3555 Choice of Exchange Rate Regimes: Case of Ex-Yugoslavia Countries

Authors: Ivan Lovrinović, Gordana Kordić, Martina Nakić

Abstract:

There are little subjects in macroeconomics that are so widely discussed, but at the same time controversial and without a clear solution such as the choice of exchange rate regime. National authorities need to take into consideration numerous fundamentals, trying to fulfil goals of economic growth, low and stable inflation and international stability. This paper focuses on the countries of ex- Yugoslavia and their exchange rate history as independent states. We follow the development of the regimes in 6 countries during the transition through the financial crisis of the second part of the 2000s to the prospects of their final goal: full membership in the European Union. Main question is to what extent has the exchange regime contributed to their economic success, considering other objective factors.

Keywords: European Union, exchange rate regime, ex- Yugoslavia countries

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3554 Forecasting US Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate with Genetic Fuzzy Predictor

Authors: R. Mechgoug, A. Titaouine

Abstract:

Fuzzy systems have been successfully used for exchange rate forecasting. However, fuzzy system is very confusing and complex to be designed by an expert, as there is a large set of parameters (fuzzy knowledge base) that must be selected, it is not a simple task to select the appropriate fuzzy knowledge base for an exchange rate forecasting. The researchers often look the effect of fuzzy knowledge base on the performances of fuzzy system forecasting. This paper proposes a genetic fuzzy predictor to forecast the future value of daily US Dollar/Euro exchange rate time’s series. A range of methodologies based on a set of fuzzy predictor’s which allow the forecasting of the same time series, but with a different fuzzy partition. Each fuzzy predictor is built from two stages, where each stage is performed by a real genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Foreign exchange rate, time series forecasting, Fuzzy System, and Genetic Algorithm.

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3553 Security over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: Fading parallel channels, Wire-tap channel, OFDM, Secrecy capacity, Power allocation.

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3552 Long-Range Dependence of Financial Time Series Data

Authors: Chatchai Pesee

Abstract:

This paper examines long-range dependence or longmemory of financial time series on the exchange rate data by the fractional Brownian motion (fBm). The principle of spectral density function in Section 2 is used to find the range of Hurst parameter (H) of the fBm. If 0< H <1/2, then it has a short-range dependence (SRD). It simulates long-memory or long-range dependence (LRD) if 1/2< H <1. The curve of exchange rate data is fBm because of the specific appearance of the Hurst parameter (H). Furthermore, some of the definitions of the fBm, long-range dependence and selfsimilarity are reviewed in Section II as well. Our results indicate that there exists a long-memory or a long-range dependence (LRD) for the exchange rate data in section III. Long-range dependence of the exchange rate data and estimation of the Hurst parameter (H) are discussed in Section IV, while a conclusion is discussed in Section V.

Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion, long-rangedependence, memory, short-range dependence.

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3551 Optimal All-to-All Personalized Communication in All-Port Tori

Authors: Liu Gang, Gu Nai-jie, Bi Kun, Tu Kun, Dong Wan-li

Abstract:

All-to-all personalized communication, also known as complete exchange, is one of the most dense communication patterns in parallel computing. In this paper, we propose new indirect algorithms for complete exchange on all-port ring and torus. The new algorithms fully utilize all communication links and transmit messages along shortest paths to completely achieve the theoretical lower bounds on message transmission, which have not be achieved among other existing indirect algorithms. For 2D r × c ( r % c ) all-port torus, the algorithm has time complexities of optimal transmission cost and O(c) message startup cost. In addition, the proposed algorithms accommodate non-power-of-two tori where the number of nodes in each dimension needs not be power-of-two or square. Finally, the algorithms are conceptually simple and symmetrical for every message and every node so that they can be easily implemented and achieve the optimum in practice.

Keywords: Complete exchange, collective communication, all-to-all personalized communication, parallel computing, wormhole routing, torus.

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3550 Forecasting Tala-AUD and Tala-USD Exchange Rates with ANN

Authors: Shamsuddin Ahmed, M. G. M. Khan, Biman Prasad, Avlin Prasad

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to construct daily time series exchange rate forecast models of Samoan Tala/USD and Tala/AUD during the year 2008 to 2012 with neural network The performance of the models was measured by using varies error functions such as Root Square mean error (RSME), Mean absolute error (MAE), and Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Our empirical findings suggest that AR (1) model is an effective tool to forecast the Tala/USD and Tala/AUD.

Keywords: Neural Network Forecasting Model, Autoregressive time series, Exchange rate, Tala/AUD, winters model.

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3549 Forecasting Exchange Rate between Thai Baht and the US Dollar Using Time Series Analysis

Authors: Kunya Bowornchockchai

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to forecast the monthly exchange rate between Thai baht and the US dollar and to compare two forecasting methods. The methods are Box-Jenkins’ method and Holt’s method. Results show that the Box-Jenkins’ method is the most suitable method for the monthly Exchange Rate between Thai Baht and the US Dollar. The suitable forecasting model is ARIMA (1,1,0)  without constant and the forecasting equation is Yt = Yt-1 + 0.3691 (Yt-1 - Yt-2) When Yt  is the time series data at time t, respectively.

Keywords: Box–Jenkins Method, Holt’s Method, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE).

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3548 Currency Exchange Rate Forecasts Using Quantile Regression

Authors: Yuzhi Cai

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss a Bayesian approach to quantile autoregressive (QAR) time series model estimation and forecasting. Together with a combining forecasts technique, we then predict USD to GBP currency exchange rates. Combined forecasts contain all the information captured by the fitted QAR models at different quantile levels and are therefore better than those obtained from individual models. Our results show that an unequally weighted combining method performs better than other forecasting methodology. We found that a median AR model can perform well in point forecasting when the predictive density functions are symmetric. However, in practice, using the median AR model alone may involve the loss of information about the data captured by other QAR models. We recommend that combined forecasts should be used whenever possible.

Keywords: Exchange rate, quantile regression, combining forecasts.

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3547 Performance Comparison of Parallel Sorting Algorithms on the Cluster of Workstations

Authors: Lai Lai Win Kyi, Nay Min Tun

Abstract:

Sorting appears the most attention among all computational tasks over the past years because sorted data is at the heart of many computations. Sorting is of additional importance to parallel computing because of its close relation to the task of routing data among processes, which is an essential part of many parallel algorithms. Many parallel sorting algorithms have been investigated for a variety of parallel computer architectures. In this paper, three parallel sorting algorithms have been implemented and compared in terms of their overall execution time. The algorithms implemented are the odd-even transposition sort, parallel merge sort and parallel rank sort. Cluster of Workstations or Windows Compute Cluster has been used to compare the algorithms implemented. The C# programming language is used to develop the sorting algorithms. The MPI (Message Passing Interface) library has been selected to establish the communication and synchronization between processors. The time complexity for each parallel sorting algorithm will also be mentioned and analyzed.

Keywords: Cluster of Workstations, Parallel sorting algorithms, performance analysis, parallel computing and MPI.

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3546 Currency Boards in Crisis: Experience of Baltic Countries

Authors: Gordana Kordić, Petra Palić

Abstract:

The European countries that during the past two decades based their exchange rate regimes on currency board arrangement (CBA) are usually analysed from the perspective of corner solution choice’s stabilisation effects. There is an open discussion on the positive and negative background of a strict exchange rate regime choice, although it should be seen as part of the transition process towards the monetary union membership. The focus of the paper is on the Baltic countries that after two decades of a rigid exchange rate arrangement and strongly influenced by global crisis are finishing their path towards the euro zone. Besides the stabilising capacity, the CBA is highly vulnerable regime, with limited developing potential. The rigidity of the exchange rate (and monetary) system, despite the ensured credibility, do not leave enough (or any) space for the adjustment and/or active crisis management. Still, the Baltics are in a process of recovery, with fiscal consolidation measures combined with (painful and politically unpopular) measures of internal devaluation. Today, two of them (Estonia and Latvia) are members of euro zone, fulfilling their ultimate transition targets, but de facto exchanging one fixed regime with another. The paper analyses the challenges for the CBA in unstable environment since the fixed regimes rely on imported stability and are sensitive to external shocks. With limited monetary instruments, these countries were oriented to the fiscal policies and used a combination of internal devaluation and tax policy measures. Despite their rather quick recovery, our second goal is to analyse the long term influence that the measures had on the national economy.

Keywords: Currency Board Arrangement, internal devaluation, exchange rate regime, Great recession.

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3545 Concurrent Approach to Data Parallel Model using Java

Authors: Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

Abstract:

Parallel programming models exist as an abstraction of hardware and memory architectures. There are several parallel programming models in commonly use; they are shared memory model, thread model, message passing model, data parallel model, hybrid model, Flynn-s models, embarrassingly parallel computations model, pipelined computations model. These models are not specific to a particular type of machine or memory architecture. This paper expresses the model program for concurrent approach to data parallel model through java programming.

Keywords: Concurrent, Data Parallel, JDK, Parallel, Thread

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3544 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, monetary policy, VECM.

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3543 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: Parallel fiber eutectic, no-damage strain, damage strain, fiber volume fraction, damage degree.

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3542 Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Complex DoF Parallel Manipulator

Authors: M.A. Hosseini, P. Ebrahimi Naghani

Abstract:

In this research work, a novel parallel manipulator with high positioning and orienting rate is introduced. This mechanism has two rotational and one translational degree of freedom. Kinematics and Jacobian analysis are investigated. Moreover, workspace analysis and optimization has been performed by using genetic algorithm toolbox in Matlab software. Because of decreasing moving elements, it is expected much more better dynamic performance with respect to other counterpart mechanisms with the same degrees of freedom. In addition, using couple of cylindrical and revolute joints increased mechanism ability to have more extended workspace.

Keywords: Kinematics, Workspace, 3-CRS/PU, Parallel robot

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3541 Empirical Analyses of Determinants of D.J.S.I.US Mean Returns

Authors: Nikolaos Sariannidis, Grigoris Giannarakis, Nikolaos Litinas, Nikos Kartalis

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between 10 year bond value, Yen/U.S dollar exchange rate, non-farm payrolls (all employs) and crude oil to U.S. Dow Jones Sustainability Index. A GARCH model is used to test these relationships for the period January 1st 1999 to January 31st 2008 using monthly data. Results show that an increase of the 10 year bond and non farm payrolls (all employs) lead to an increase of the D.J.S.I returns. On the contrary the volatility of the Yen/U.S dollar exchange rates as well as the increase of crude oil returns has negative effects on the U.S D.J.S.I returns. This study aims at assisting investors to understand the influences certain macroeconomic indicators have on the companies- stock returns as reported by the D.J.S.I.

Keywords: Bond value, Corporate Social Responsibility, Crudeoil, D.J.S.I United States, Exchange rate, GARCH, Non-farmpayrolls.

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3540 Statistical Reliability Based Modeling of Series and Parallel Operating Systems using Extreme Value Theory

Authors: Mohamad Mahdavi, Mojtaba Mahdavi

Abstract:

This paper tries to represent a new method for computing the reliability of a system which is arranged in series or parallel model. In this method we estimate life distribution function of whole structure using the asymptotic Extreme Value (EV) distribution of Type I, or Gumbel theory. We use EV distribution in minimal mode, for estimate the life distribution function of series structure and maximal mode for parallel system. All parameters also are estimated by Moments method. Reliability function and failure (hazard) rate and p-th percentile point of each function are determined. Other important indexes such as Mean Time to Failure (MTTF), Mean Time to repair (MTTR), for non-repairable and renewal systems in both of series and parallel structure will be computed.

Keywords: Reliability, extreme value, parallel, series, lifedistribution

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3539 Power Minimization in Decode-and-XOR-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks

Authors: Dong-Woo Lim, Chang-Jae Chun, Hyung-Myung Kim

Abstract:

We consider a two-way relay network where two sources exchange information. A relay helps the two sources exchange information using the decode-and-XOR-forward protocol. We investigate the power minimization problem with minimum rate constraints. The system needs two time slots and in each time slot the required rate pair should be achievable. The power consumption is minimized in each time slot and we obtained the closed form solution. The simulation results confirm that the proposed power allocation scheme consumes lower total power than the conventional schemes.

Keywords: Decode-and-XOR-forward, power minimization, two-way relay

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3538 A Comparative Analysis of Artificial Neural Network and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model on Modeling and Forecasting Exchange Rate

Authors: Mogari I. Rapoo, Diteboho Xaba

Abstract:

This paper examines the forecasting performance of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models with the published exchange rate obtained from South African Reserve Bank (SARB). ARIMA is one of the popular linear models in time series forecasting for the past decades. ARIMA and ANN models are often compared and literature revealed mixed results in terms of forecasting performance. The study used the MSE and MAE to measure the forecasting performance of the models. The empirical results obtained reveal the superiority of ARIMA model over ANN model. The findings further resolve and clarify the contradiction reported in literature over the superiority of ARIMA and ANN models.

Keywords: ARIMA, artificial neural networks models, error metrics, exchange rates.

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3537 Implementation of Parallel Interface for Microprocessor Trainer

Authors: Moe Moe Htun, Khin Htar Nwe

Abstract:

In this paper, parallel interface for microprocessor trainer was implemented. A programmable parallel–port device such as the IC 8255A is initialized for simple input or output and for handshake input or output by choosing kinds of modes. The hardware connections and the programs can be used to interface microprocessor trainer and a personal computer by using IC 8255A. The assembly programs edited on PC-s editor can be downloaded to the trainer.

Keywords: Parallel I/O ports, parallel interface, trainer, two 8255 ICs.

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3536 Performance Analysis of Parallel Client-Server Model Versus Parallel Mobile Agent Model

Authors: K. B. Manwade, G. A. Patil

Abstract:

Mobile agent has motivated the creation of a new methodology for parallel computing. We introduce a methodology for the creation of parallel applications on the network. The proposed Mobile-Agent parallel processing framework uses multiple Javamobile Agents. Each mobile agent can travel to the specified machine in the network to perform its tasks. We also introduce the concept of master agent, which is Java object capable of implementing a particular task of the target application. Master agent is dynamically assigns the task to mobile agents. We have developed and tested a prototype application: Mobile Agent Based Parallel Computing. Boosted by the inherited benefits of using Java and Mobile Agents, our proposed methodology breaks the barriers between the environments, and could potentially exploit in a parallel manner all the available computational resources on the network. This paper elaborates performance issues of a mobile agent for parallel computing.

Keywords: Parallel Computing, Mobile Agent.

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3535 Leader-Member Exchange and Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of Exchange Ideology

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

In today’s rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment, organizations have relied on their members’ positive attitude toward their employers. In particular, employees’ organizational commitment (primarily, the affective component) has been recognized as an essential component of organizational functioning and success. Hence, identifying the determinants of affective commitment is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of leader-member exchange (LMX) and exchange ideology on employee’s affective commitment. In addition, the interactive effect of LMX and exchange ideology was examined. Data from 198 members of the Korean military supports each of the hypotheses. Lastly, implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Affective commitment, exchange ideology, leader-member exchange, commitment.

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3534 A Technique for Reachability Graph Generation for the Petri Net Models of Parallel Processes

Authors: Farooq Ahmad, Hejiao Huang, Xiaolong Wang

Abstract:

Reachability graph (RG) generation suffers from the problem of exponential space and time complexity. To alleviate the more critical problem of time complexity, this paper presents the new approach for RG generation for the Petri net (PN) models of parallel processes. Independent RGs for each parallel process in the PN structure are generated in parallel and cross-product of these RGs turns into the exhaustive state space from which the RG of given parallel system is determined. The complexity analysis of the presented algorithm illuminates significant decrease in the time complexity cost of RG generation. The proposed technique is applicable to parallel programs having multiple threads with the synchronization problem.

Keywords: Parallel processes, Petri net, reachability graph, time complexity.

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3533 A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Christos Talagkozis, Alkiviadis Tsimpiris, Paris Mastorocostas

Abstract:

The aim of this work is the parallel implementation of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time. Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two different variants for the definition of initial values are presented. In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers of features and classes are illustrated.

Keywords: K-means algorithm, clustering, parallel computations, MATLAB.

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3532 Harmonic Reduction In Three-Phase Parallel Connected Inverter

Authors: M.A.A. Younis, N. A. Rahim, S. Mekhilef

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of a parallel connected inverter configuration of. The configuration consists of parallel connected three-phase dc/ac inverter. Series resistors added to the inverter output to maintain same current in each inverter of the two parallel inverters, and to reduce the circulating current in the parallel inverters to the minimum. High frequency third harmonic injection PWM (THIPWM) employed to reduce the total harmonic distortion and to make maximum use of the voltage source. DSP was used to generate the THIPWM and the control algorithm for the converter. Selected experimental results have been shown to validate the proposed system.

Keywords: Three-phase inverter, Third harmonic injection PWM, inverters parallel connection.

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3531 A Fair Non-transfer Exchange Protocol

Authors: Cheng-Chi Lee, Min-Shiang Hwang, Shu-Yin Hsiao

Abstract:

Network exchange is now widely used. However, it still cannot avoid the problems evolving from network exchange. For example. A buyer may not receive the order even if he/she makes the payment. For another example, the seller possibly get nothing even when the merchandise is sent. Some studies about the fair exchange have proposed protocols for the design of efficiency and exploited the signature property to specify that two parties agree on the exchange. The information about purchased item and price are disclosed in this way. This paper proposes a new fair network payment protocol with off-line trusted third party. The proposed protocol can protect the buyers- purchase message from being traced. In addition, the proposed protocol can meet the proposed requirements. The most significant feature is Non-transfer property we achieved.

Keywords: E-commerce, digital signature, fair exchange, security.

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3530 Network Based High Performance Computing

Authors: Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Gurvinder Singh, Arjan Singh

Abstract:

In the past few years there is a change in the view of high performance applications and parallel computing. Initially such applications were targeted towards dedicated parallel machines. Recently trend is changing towards building meta-applications composed of several modules that exploit heterogeneous platforms and employ hybrid forms of parallelism. The aim of this paper is to propose a model of virtual parallel computing. Virtual parallel computing system provides a flexible object oriented software framework that makes it easy for programmers to write various parallel applications.

Keywords: Applet, Efficiency, Java, LAN

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