Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 903

Search results for: monitoring and instrumentation

903 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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902 Model Based Monitoring Using Integrated Data Validation, Simulation and Parameter Estimation

Authors: Reza Hayati, Maryam Sadi, Saeid Shokri, Mehdi Ahmadi Marvast, Saeid Hassan Boroojerdi, Amin Hamzavi Abedi

Abstract:

Efficient and safe plant operation can only be achieved if the operators are able to monitor all key process parameters. Instrumentation is used to measure many process variables, like temperatures, pressures, flow rates, compositions or other product properties. Therefore Performance monitoring is a suitable tool for operators. In this paper, we integrate rigorous simulation model, data reconciliation and parameter estimation to monitor process equipments and determine key performance indicator (KPI) of them. The applied method here has been implemented in two case studies.

Keywords: Data Reconciliation, Measurement, Optimization, Parameter Estimation, Performance Monitoring.

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901 Characterization and Behavior of Level and Flow Transmitters Available on the Market

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations configurations.

Keywords: Flow, level, instrumentation, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes.

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900 Wireless Sensor Networks for Swiftlet Farms Monitoring

Authors: Al-Khalid Othman, Wan A. Wan Zainal Abidin, Kee M. Lee, Hushairi Zen, Tengku. M. A. Zulcaffle, Kuryati Kipli

Abstract:

This paper provides an in-depth study of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) application to monitor and control the swiftlet habitat. A set of system design is designed and developed that includes the hardware design of the nodes, Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, sensor network, and interconnectivity for remote data access and management. System architecture is proposed to address the requirements for habitat monitoring. Such applicationdriven design provides and identify important areas of further work in data sampling, communications and networking. For this monitoring system, a sensor node (MTS400), IRIS and Micaz radio transceivers, and a USB interfaced gateway base station of Crossbow (Xbow) Technology WSN are employed. The GUI of this monitoring system is written using a Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) along with Xbow Technology drivers provided by National Instrument. As a result, this monitoring system is capable of collecting data and presents it in both tables and waveform charts for further analysis. This system is also able to send notification message by email provided Internet connectivity is available whenever changes on habitat at remote sites (swiftlet farms) occur. Other functions that have been implemented in this system are the database system for record and management purposes; remote access through the internet using LogMeIn software. Finally, this research draws a conclusion that a WSN for monitoring swiftlet habitat can be effectively used to monitor and manage swiftlet farming industry in Sarawak.

Keywords: Swiftlet, WSN, Habitat Monitoring, Networking.

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899 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel

Abstract:

This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: Event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, Web services.

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898 2D Human Motion Regeneration with Stick Figure Animation Using Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers.

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897 Developments for ''Virtual'' Monitoring and Process Simulation of the Cryogenic Pilot Plant

Authors: Carmen Maria Moraru, Iuliana Stefan, Ovidiu Balteanu, Ciprian Bucur, Liviu Stefan, Anisia Bornea, Ioan Stefanescu

Abstract:

The implementation of the new software and hardware-s technologies for tritium processing nuclear plants, and especially those with an experimental character or of new technology developments shows a coefficient of complexity due to issues raised by the implementation of the performing instrumentation and equipment into a unitary monitoring system of the nuclear technological process of tritium removal. Keeping the system-s flexibility is a demand of the nuclear experimental plants for which the change of configuration, process and parameters is something usual. The big amount of data that needs to be processed stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with a developed technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be executed, to be continued with the execution of optimization system, by choosing new and performed methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. The developing software applications is executed with the support of the program packages dedicated to industrial processes and they will include acquisition and monitoring sub-modules, named “virtually" as well as the storage sub-module of the process data later required for the software of optimization and simulation of the technological process for tritium removal. The system plays and important role in the environment protection and durable development through new technologies, that is – the reduction of and fight against industrial accidents in the case of tritium processing nuclear plants. Research for monitoring optimisation of nuclear processes is also a major driving force for economic and social development.

Keywords: Monitoring system, process simulation.

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896 Human Motion Regeneration in 2-Dimension as Stick Figure Animation with Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, Darwin Gouwanda, S.M.N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers

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895 Condition Monitoring System of Mine Air Compressors Based on Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sheng Fu, Yinbo Gao, Hao Lin

Abstract:

In the current mine air compressors monitoring system, there are some difficulties in the installation and maintenance because of the wired connection. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new air compressors monitoring system based on ZigBee in which the monitoring parameters are transmitted wirelessly. The collecting devices are designed to form a cluster network to collect vibration, temperature, and pressure of air cylinders and other parameters. All these devices are battery-powered. Besides, the monitoring software in PC is developed using MFC. Experiments show that the designed wireless sensor network works well in the site environmental condition and the system is very convenient to be installed since the wireless connection. This monitoring system will have a wide application prospect in the upgrade of the old monitoring system of the air compressors.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, wireless sensor network, air compressor, ZigBee, data collecting

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894 Landfill Gas Monitoring at Borehole Wells using an Autonomous Environmental Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Stephen Beirne, Cormac Fay, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

An autonomous environmental monitoring system (Smart Landfill) has been constructed for the quantitative measurement of the components of landfill gas found at borehole wells at the perimeter of landfill sites. The main components of landfill gas are the greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide and have been monitored in the range 0-5 % volume. This monitoring system has not only been tested in the laboratory but has been deployed in multiple field trials and the data collected successfully compared with on-site monitors. This success shows the potential of this system for application in environments where reliable gas monitoring is crucial.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, greenhouse gas, landfill gas, sensor deployment

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893 Monitoring the Railways by Means of C-OTDR Technology

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

This paper presents development results of the method of seismoacoustic activity monitoring based on usage vibrosensitive properties of optical fibers. Analysis of Rayleigh backscattering radiation parameters changes, which take place due to microscopic seismoacoustic impacts on the optical fiber, allows to determine seismoacoustic emission sources positions and to identify their types. Results of using this approach are successful for complex monitoring of railways.

Keywords: C-OTDR systems, monitoring of railways, Rayleigh backscattering.

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892 Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology

Authors: Masaki Ito, Hideyuki Tokuda, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, its practical utilization is becoming an important challange. This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project, and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Field Experiment and Research Challenges.

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891 A Multi-Agent Intelligent System for Monitoring Health Conditions of Elderly People

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a multi-agent intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of elderly people. Monitoring the health condition of elderly people is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring. Such expert system is highly needed in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians or nurses. Such monitoring must have autonomous interactions between these medical units in order to be effective. A multi-agent system is formed by a community of agents that exchange information and proactively help one another to achieve the goal of elderly monitoring. The agents in the developed system are equipped with intelligent decision maker that arms them with the rule-based reasoning capability that can assist the physicians in making decisions regarding the medical condition of elderly people.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Inference system, Monitoring system, Multi-agent system.

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890 Performance Monitoring of the Refrigeration System with Minimum Set of Sensors

Authors: Radek Fisera, Petr Stluka

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology for remote performance monitoring of retail refrigeration systems. The proposed framework starts with monitoring of the whole refrigeration circuit which allows detecting deviations from expected behavior caused by various faults and degradations. The subsequent diagnostics methods drill down deeper in the equipment hierarchy to more specifically determine root causes. An important feature of the proposed concept is that it does not require any additional sensors, and thus, the performance monitoring solution can be deployed at a low installation cost. Moreover only a minimum of contextual information is required, which also substantially reduces time and cost of the deployment process.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, energy baselining, fault detection and diagnostics, commercial refrigeration.

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889 Instrumentation for Studying Real-time Popcorn Effect in Surface Mount Packages during Solder Reflow

Authors: Arijit Roy

Abstract:

Occurrence of popcorn in IC packages while assembling them onto the PCB is a well known moisture sensitive reliability issues, especially for surface mount packages. Commonly reflow soldering simulation process is conducted to assess the impact of assembling IC package onto PCB. A strain gauge-based instrumentation is developed to investigate the popcorn effect in surface mount packages during reflow soldering process. The instrument is capable of providing real-time quantitative information of the occurrence popcorn phenomenon in IC packages. It is found that the popcorn occur temperatures between 218 to 241°C depending on moisture soak condition, but not at the peak temperature of the reflow process. The presence of popcorn and delamination are further confirmed by scanning acoustic tomography as a failure analysis.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Popcorn, Real-time, Solder Reflow, Strain Gauge.

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888 Access Control System: Monitoring Tool for Fiber to the Home Passive Optical Network

Authors: Aswir Premadi, Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab. Rahman, Mohamad Najib Moh. Saupe, KasmiranJumari

Abstract:

An optical fault monitoring in FTTH-PON using ACS is demonstrated. This device can achieve real-time fault monitoring for protection feeder fiber. In addition, the ACS can distinguish optical fiber fault from the transmission services to other customers in the FTTH-PON. It is essential to use a wavelength different from the triple-play services operating wavelengths for failure detection. ACS is using the operating wavelength 1625 nm for monitoring and failure detection control. Our solution works on a standard local area network (LAN) using a specially designed hardware interfaced with a microcontroller integrated Ethernet.

Keywords: ACS, monitoring tool, FTTH-PON.

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887 Pipelines Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Seong-Joon Baek, Bae-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Recently there has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the behaviors of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One of various bio-mimetic robot applications is to explore pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. Special types of mobile robots are necessary for the pipeline monitoring tasks. In order to move effectively along a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of insects or crawling animals. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependent on periodical offline monitoring. This paper proposes a monitoring system that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Mobile and active monitoring.

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886 Concept for Determining the Focus of Technology Monitoring Activities

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Christina Koenig, Nico Schoen, Markus Wellensiek

Abstract:

Identification and selection of appropriate product and manufacturing technologies are key factors for competitiveness and market success of technology-based companies. Therefore, many companies perform technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure the identification of evolving technologies at the right time. Technology monitoring is one of the three base activities of TI, besides scanning and scouting. As the technological progress is accelerating, more and more technologies are being developed. Against the background of limited resources it is therefore necessary to focus TI activities. In this paper we propose a concept for defining appropriate search fields for technology monitoring. This limitation of search space leads to more concentrated monitoring activities. The concept will be introduced and demonstrated through an anonymized case study conducted within an industry project at the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT. The described concept provides a customized monitoring approach, which is suitable for use in technology-oriented companies. It is shown in this paper that the definition of search fields and search tasks are suitable methods to define topics of interest and thus to align monitoring activities. Current as well as planned product, production and material technologies and existing skills, capabilities and resources form the basis for derivation of relevant search areas. To further improve the concept of technology monitoring the proposed concept should be extended during future research e.g. by the definition of relevant monitoring parameters.

Keywords: Monitoring radar, search field, technology intelligence, technology monitoring.

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885 Monitoring of Dielectric Losses and Use of Ferrofluids for Bushing Cooling

Authors: S. D. Nedelcut, V. Proca, D. M. Purcaru

Abstract:

At present, the tendency to implement the conditionbased maintenance (CBM), which allows the optimization of the expenses for equipment monitoring, is more and more evident; also, the transformer substations with remote monitoring are increasingly used. This paper reviews all the advantages of the on-line monitoring and presents an equipment for on-line monitoring of bushings, which is the own contribution of specialists who are the authors of this paper. The paper presents a study of the temperature field, using the finite element method. For carrying out this study, the 3D modelling of the above mentioned bushing was performed. The analysis study is done taking into account the extreme thermal stresses, focusing at the level of the first cooling wing section of the ceramic insulator. This fact enables to justify the tanδ variation in time, depending on the transformer loading and the environmental conditions. With a view to reducing the variation of dielectric losses in bushing insulation, the use of ferrofuids instead of mineral oils is proposed.

Keywords: Monitoring, dielectric losses, ferrofluids, bushing.

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884 Design and Instrumentation of a Benchmark Multivariable Nonlinear Control Laboratory

Authors: S. H. Teh, S. Malawaraarachci, W. P. Chan, A. Nassirharand

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and instrumentation of a new benchmark multivariable nonlinear control laboratory. The mathematical model of this system may be used to test the applicability and performance of various nonlinear control procedures. The system is a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm with soft and hard (discontinuous) nonlinear terms. Two novel mechanisms are designed to allow the implementation of adjustable Coulomb friction and backlash.

Keywords: Nonlinear control, describing functions, AdjustableCoulomb friction, Adjustable backlash.

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883 Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes

Authors: Jungho Moon, Lae-Jeong Park

Abstract:

This paper introduces a signal monitoring program developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU, the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since it was compiled as a standalone executable.

Keywords: Digital sensor, MATLAB, MCU, signal monitoring program.

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882 A Practical Solution of a Plant Pipes Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Bae-Ho Lee, Ji-Sung Lee

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the shape of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One bio-mimetic robot serves the purpose of exploring pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. In order to move effectively inside a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of a lizard. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependant on periodical offline monitoring. This paper provides the Monitoring System that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Mobileand active monitoring.

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881 GSM Based Smart Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of patients. Monitoring the health condition of patients is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring especially in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians. The proposed system will improve patient care and drive costs down comparing to the existing system in Jordan. The proposed system will be the start point to faster and improve the communication between different units in the health system in Jordan. Connecting patients and their physicians beyond hospital doors regarding their geographical area is an important issue in developing the health system in Jordan. The ability of making medical decisions, the quality of medical is expected to be improved.

Keywords: GSM, SMS, Patient, Monitoring system, Fuzzy Logic, Multi-agent system.

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880 Event Monitoring Web Services for Heterogeneous Information Systems

Authors: Arne Koschel, Irina Astrova

Abstract:

Heterogeneity has to be taken into account when integrating a set of existing information sources into a distributed information system that are nowadays often based on Service- Oriented Architectures (SOA). This is also particularly applicable to distributed services such as event monitoring, which are useful in the context of Event Driven Architectures (EDA) and Complex Event Processing (CEP). Web services deal with this heterogeneity at a technical level, also providing little support for event processing. Our central thesis is that such a fully generic solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Our core result is the design of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service that allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: ECA, CEP, SOA, and Web services.

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879 Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient

Authors: Cristian P. Topa, Esteban A. Valencia, Victor H. Hidalgo, Marco A. Martinez

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.

Keywords: Wind tunnel, low cost instrumentation, experimental testing, CFD simulation.

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878 Development of an Autonomous Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Cormac Fay, Stephen Beirne, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

This paper describes the designs of a first and second generation autonomous gas monitoring system and the successful field trial of the final system (2nd generation). Infrared sensing technology is used to detect and measure the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at point sources. The ability to monitor real-time events is further enhanced through the implementation of both GSM and Bluetooth technologies to communicate these data in real-time. These systems are robust, reliable and a necessary tool where the monitoring of gas events in real-time are needed.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, infrared sensing, autonomous system.

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877 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: Control Area Network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE.

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876 Smart Monitoring and Control of Tap Changer Using Intelligent Electronic Device

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, G. R. Manjunatha, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, M. V. Gopalan

Abstract:

In this paper, monitoring and control of tap changer mechanism of a transformer implementation in an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is discussed. It has been a custom for decades to provide a separate panel for on load tap changer control for monitoring the tap position. However, this facility cannot either record or transfer the information to remote control centers. As there is a technology shift towards the smart grid protection and control standards, the need for implementing remote control and monitoring has necessitated the implementation of this feature in numerical relays. This paper deals with the programming, settings and logic implementation which is applicable to both IEC 61850 compatible and non-compatible IEDs thereby eliminating the need for separate tap changer control equipment. The monitoring mechanism has been implemented in a 28MVA, 110 /6.9kV transformer with 16 tap position with GE make T60 IED at Ultratech cement limited Gulbarga, Karnataka and is in successful service.

Keywords: Transformer protection, tap changer control, tap position monitoring, on load tap changer, intelligent electronic device (IED).

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875 Theoretical Study on a Thermal Model for Large Power Transformer Units

Authors: Traian Chiulan, Brandusa Pantelimon

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the large power transformer unit regimes, indicating the criteria for the management of the voltage operating conditions, as well as the change in the operating conditions with the load connected to the secondary winding of the transformer unit. Further, the paper presents the software application for the evaluation of the transformer unit operation under different conditions. The software application was developed by means of virtual instrumentation.

Keywords: Operating regimes, power transformer, overload, lifetime, virtual instrumentation.

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874 Observer Design for Ecological Monitoring

Authors: I. López , J. Garay, R. Carreño, Z. Varga

Abstract:

Monitoring of ecological systems is one of the major issues in ecosystem research. The concepts and methodology of mathematical systems theory provide useful tools to face this problem. In many cases, state monitoring of a complex ecological system consists in observation (measurement) of certain state variables, and the whole state process has to be determined from the observed data. The solution proposed in the paper is the design of an observer system, which makes it possible to approximately recover the state process from its partial observation. The method is illustrated with a trophic chain of resource – producer – primary consumer type and a numerical example is also presented.

Keywords: Monitoring, observer system, trophic chain

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