Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Operating regimes

4 Comparison between Post- and Oxy-Combustion Systems in a Petroleum Refinery Unit Using Modeling and Optimization

Authors: Farooq A. Al-Sheikh, Ali Elkamel, William A. Anderson

Abstract:

A fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is one of the effective units in many refineries. Modeling and optimization of FCCU were done by many researchers in past decades, but in this research, comparison between post- and oxy-combustion was studied in the regenerator-FCCU. Therefore, a simplified mathematical model was derived by doing mass/heat balances around both reactor and regenerator. A state space analysis was employed to show effects of the flow rates variables such as air, feed, spent catalyst, regenerated catalyst and flue gas on the output variables. The main aim of studying dynamic responses is to figure out the most influencing variables that affect both reactor/regenerator temperatures; also, finding the upper/lower limits of the influencing variables to ensure that temperatures of the reactors and regenerator work within normal operating conditions. Therefore, those values will be used as side constraints in the optimization technique to find appropriate operating regimes. The objective functions were modeled to be maximizing the energy in the reactor while minimizing the energy consumption in the regenerator. In conclusion, an oxy-combustion process can be used instead of a post-combustion one.

Keywords: FCCU modeling, optimization, oxy-combustion post-combustion.

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3 Adaptive Kaman Filter for Fault Diagnosis of Linear Parameter-Varying Systems

Authors: Rajamani Doraiswami, Lahouari Cheded

Abstract:

Fault diagnosis of Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) system using an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed. The LPV model is comprised of scheduling parameters, and the emulator parameters. The scheduling parameters are chosen such that they are capable of tracking variations in the system model as a result of changes in the operating regimes. The emulator parameters, on the other hand, simulate variations in the subsystems during the identification phase and have negligible effect during the operational phase. The nominal model and the influence vectors, which are the gradient of the feature vector respect to the emulator parameters, are identified off-line from a number of emulator parameter perturbed experiments. A Kalman filter is designed using the identified nominal model. As the system varies, the Kalman filter model is adapted using the scheduling variables. The residual is employed for fault diagnosis. The proposed scheme is successfully evaluated on simulated system as well as on a physical process control system.

Keywords: Keywords—Identification, linear parameter-varying systems, least-squares estimation, fault diagnosis, Kalman filter, emulators

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2 Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Properties of Jatropha Biodiesel on Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of a DI-CI Engine

Authors: P. V. Rao

Abstract:

The aim of the present research work is to investigate the influence of Jatropha biodiesel properties on various characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine. The experiments were performed at different engine operating regimes with the injection timing prescribed by the engine manufacturer for diesel fuel. The engine characteristics with Jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From the results, it is observed that the biodiesel performance and emissions are lower than that of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emission of Jatropha biodiesel is more than that of diesel fuel. These high NOx emissions are due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the advanced injection caused by the higher bulk modulus (or density) of Jatropha biodiesel Furthermore, the possibility for reduction of NOx emissions without expensive engine modifications (hardware) was investigated. Keeping this in mind, the Jatropha biodiesel was preheated. The experimental results show that the retarded injection timing is necessary when using Jatropha biodiesel in order to reduce NOx emission without worsening other engine characteristics. Results also indicate improved performance with the application of preheated biodiesel. The only penalty for using preheated biodiesel is the increase of smoke (soot).

Keywords: chemical properties, combustion, exhaust emissions, Jatropha biodiesel

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1 Theoretical Study on a Thermal Model for Large Power Transformer Units

Authors: Traian Chiulan, Brandusa Pantelimon

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the large power transformer unit regimes, indicating the criteria for the management of the voltage operating conditions, as well as the change in the operating conditions with the load connected to the secondary winding of the transformer unit. Further, the paper presents the software application for the evaluation of the transformer unit operation under different conditions. The software application was developed by means of virtual instrumentation.

Keywords: Operating regimes, power transformer, overload, lifetime, virtual instrumentation.

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