Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1874

Search results for: moderating role

1874 The Impact of Strategic HRM Practices on Employee’s Job Satisfaction: The Moderating Effect of Transformational Leadership

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Sarwar Mehmood Azhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the positive impact of SHRM practices and transformational leadership style on employees job satisfaction and to develop a conceptual understanding of the moderating role of transformational leadership between the relationship of SHRM practices and employees job satisfaction. This study focuses on four SHRM practices that have positive relationship with employee’s job satisfaction.

Keywords: Employee’s job satisfaction, moderating effect of transformational leadership, SHRM practices, transformational leadership, theoretical framework.

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1873 Emotional Intelligence and Retention: The Moderating Role of Job Involvement

Authors: Mahfuz Judeh

Abstract:

The main aim of the current study was to examine the effect of emotional intelligence on retention. The study also aimed at analyzing the role of job involvement, as a moderator, in the effect of emotional intelligence on retention. Using data gathered from 241 employees working with hotels and tourism corporations listed in Amman Stock Exchange in Jordan, emotional intelligence, job involvement and retention were measured. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the three main hypotheses. Results indicated that retention was related to emotional intelligence. Moreover, the study yielded support for the claim that job involvement had a moderating effect on the relationship between emotional intelligence and retention.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Job Involvement, Jordan, Retention.

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1872 Impact of Moderating Role of e-Administration on Training, Perfromance Appraisal and Organizational Performance

Authors: Ejaz Ali, Muhammad Younas, Tahir Saeed

Abstract:

In this age of information technology, organizations are revisiting their approach in great deal. E-administration is the most popular area to proceed with. Organizations in order to excel over their competitors are spending a substantial chunk of its resources on E-Administration as it is the most effective, transparent and efficient way to achieve their short term as well as long term organizational goals. E-administration being a tool of ICT plays a significant role towards effective management of HR practices resulting into optimal performance of an organization. The present research was carried out to analyze the impact of moderating role of e-administration in the relationships training and performance appraisal aligned with perceived organizational performance. The study is based on RBV and AMO theories, advocating that use of latest technology in execution of human resource (HR) functions enables an organization to achieve and sustain competitive advantage which leads to optimal firm performance.

Keywords: Human resource management, HR function, e-administration, performance appraisal, training, organizational performance.

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1871 Perceived Ease-of-Use and Intention to Use E-Government Services in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Perceived Usefulness

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah

Abstract:

Public sector organizations, ministries, departments and local government agencies are adopting e-government as a means to provide efficient and quality service delivery to citizens. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the extent to which perceived usefulness (PU) of e-government services moderates between perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of e-government services and intention to use (IU) e-government services in Ghana. A structured research questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 700 potential respondents in Ghana, of which 693 responded, representing 99% of the questionnaires distributed. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to capture and analyze the data. The results indicate that even though predictors such as PU and PEOU are main determiners of citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Ghana, it failed to show that PEOU and IU e-government services in Ghana is significantly moderated by the PU of e-government services. The implication of this finding on theory and practice is further discussed.

Keywords: E-government services, intention to use, moderating role, perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness, Ghana, technology acceptance model.

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1870 The Effects of Country of Manufacture and Country of Brand on Purchase Intention: The Moderating Role of Brand Experience

Authors: Natinee Thanajaro

Abstract:

In the past few decades, international research on the country of origin of products has garnered significant interest, particularly in investigating the effects of consumers’ evaluation and perception. As globalization and market competition rise, international firms are seeking ways to control their labour costs and minimise taxes. Many products are outsourced and manufactured in countries with cheap labour. Consequently, the proliferation of ‘bi-national’ products has increased, raising important questions related to consumers’ perception. Moreover, the rapid growth in emerging markets, especially in Asia, has made these countries attractive options for international brands. Therefore, studying the country of origin allows firms and researchers to understand how customers perceive such information regarding the country of manufacture and the country of the brand. This study aims to investigate the influence of the country of manufacture (COM) and country of brand (COB) on Thai consumers’ perception of the brand. In addition, it embraces a different perspective on brand experience as a moderating factor. A sample of 403 Thai respondents was collected through face-to-face survey questionnaires in central Bangkok. This research employs an experiment using a factorial design to test the hypotheses. SPSS statistics software was adopted to analyse and validate the reliability of the testing of the constructs and model hypotheses. The results of this research show that the respondents positively respond to the COB more than the COM, and brand experience plays a moderating role in this research. This research provides a significant contribution to the existing literature and managerial practicality by using multi-dimensional information on the country and analyses the relationships between these dimensions.

Keywords: Brand experience, country of brand, country of manufacture, purchase intention.

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1869 Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee’s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.

Keywords: Positive psychological capital, satisfaction, commitment, OCB, creativity, meta-analysis.

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1868 Upon Further Reflection: More on the History, Tripartite Role, and Challenges of the Professoriate

Authors: Jeffrey R. Mueller

Abstract:

This paper expands on the role of the professor by detailing the origins of the profession, adding some of the unique contributions of North American universities as well as some of the best practice recommendations to the unique tripartite role of the professor. It describes current challenges to the profession including the ever-controversial student rating of professors. It continues with the significance of empowerment to the role of the professor. It concludes with a predictive prescription for the future of the professoriate and the role of the university-level educational administrator toward that end.

Keywords: Professoriate history, tripartite role, challenges, empowerment, shared governance, administratization.

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1867 Factors Influencing University Students' Online Disinhibition Behavior – The Moderating Effects of Deterrence and Social Identity

Authors: Wang, Kuei-Ing, Jou-Fan Shih

Abstract:

This study adopts deterrence theory as well as social identities as moderators, and explores their moderating affects on online toxic disinhibition. Survey and Experimental methodologies are applied to test the research model and four hypotheses are developed in this study. The controllability of identity positively influenced the behavior of toxic disinhibition both in experimental and control groups while the fluidity of the identity did not have significant influences on online disinhibition. Punishment certainty, punishment severity as well as social identity negatively moderated the relation between the controllability of the identity and the toxic disinhibition. The result of this study shows that internet users hide their real identities when they behave inappropriately on internet, but once they acknowledge that the inappropriate behavior will be found and punished severely, the inappropriate behavior then will be weakened.

Keywords: Seductive properties of Internet, Online Disinhibition, Punishment Certainty, Punishment Severity, Social Identity.

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1866 Leader-Member Exchange and Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of Exchange Ideology

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

In today’s rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment, organizations have relied on their members’ positive attitude toward their employers. In particular, employees’ organizational commitment (primarily, the affective component) has been recognized as an essential component of organizational functioning and success. Hence, identifying the determinants of affective commitment is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of leader-member exchange (LMX) and exchange ideology on employee’s affective commitment. In addition, the interactive effect of LMX and exchange ideology was examined. Data from 198 members of the Korean military supports each of the hypotheses. Lastly, implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Affective commitment, exchange ideology, leader-member exchange, commitment.

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1865 Communication Behaviors as Predictors of Long-Term Dyadic Adjustment: Personality as a Moderator

Authors: Ariane Lazaridès, Claude Bélanger, Stéphane Sabourin

Abstract:

In this longitudinal study, we examined the moderating role of personality in the relationship between communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment. A sample of 82 couples completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. These couples were also videotaped during a 15-minute problem-solving discussion. Approximately 2.5 years later, these couples completed again the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results show that personality of both men and women moderates the relationship between communication behaviors of the partner and long-term dyadic adjustment of the individual. Women-s openness and men-s extraversion moderate the relationship between some communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment

Keywords: Communication Behavior, Couples, Dyadic Adjustment, Personality.

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1864 The Role of the State towards Employability of Malaysian PWDs – Myth or Reality?

Authors: Suet Leng Khoo, Tiun Ling Ta, Lay Wah Lee

Abstract:

In this era of globalization, the role of the State in all aspects of development is widely debated. Some scholars contend the 'demise' and diminishing role of the State whilst others claim that the State is still “de facto developmental". Clearly, it is vital to ascertain which of these two contentions are reflective of the role of the State as nations ascend their development trajectories. Based on the findings of this paper, the perception that the Malaysian State plays an active and committed role towards distributing equitable educational opportunities and enhancing employability of Malaysian PWDs is actually a myth and not reality. Thus, in order to fulfill the promise of Vision 2020 to transform Malaysia into a caring and socially-inclusive society; this paper calls for a more interventionist and committed role by the Malaysian State to translate the universal rights of education and employment opportunities for PWDs from mere policy rhetoric into inclusive realities.

Keywords: People with Disabilities, Malaysia, role of State, equal employment opportunities

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1863 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: Corporate governance, place, role, Japan.

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1862 Impact of Stressors on Turnover Intention: Examining the Role of Employee Well-Being

Authors: Tooba Qasim, Uzma Javed, Muhammad Safder Shafi

Abstract:

This study empirically examines the differentiating impact of challenge-hindrance stressors on turnover intention through job satisfaction in IT industry of Pakistan. Moreover, perceived job alternatives were tested as a moderator in the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. Primary data was collected from 186 randomly selected IT professionals, working in project-based IT organizations of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Results indicated significant: (1) positive relationship between challenge stressors and job satisfaction, (2) negative relationship between hindrance stressors and job satisfaction, (3) negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention, (4) Job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between challenge stressor and turnover intention, (5) Job satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between hindrance stressor and turnover intention. However, it was observed that perceived job alternatives do not have any moderating effect. Proper balancing of two stressors may help top management to increase the job satisfaction and reduce the turnover intention of IT professionals.

Keywords: Challenge Stressors, Hindrance Stressors, Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Alternatives, Project-based organizations, Turnover Intention.

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1861 On-Line Impulse Buying and Cognitive Dissonance: The Moderating Role of the Positive Affective State

Authors: G. Mattia, A. Di Leo, L. Principato

Abstract:

The purchase impulsiveness is preceded by a lack of self-control: consequently, it is legitimate to believe that a consumer with a low level of self-control can result in a higher probability of cognitive dissonance. Moreover, the process of purchase is influenced by the pre-existing affective state in a considerable way. With reference to on-line purchases, digital behavior cannot be merely ascribed to the rational sphere, given the speed and ease of transactions and the hedonistic dimension of purchases. To our knowledge, this research is among the first cases of verification of the effect of moderation exerted by the positive affective state in the on-line impulse purchase of products with a high expressive value such as a smartphone on the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. To this aim, a moderation analysis was conducted on a sample of 212 impulsive millennials buyers. Three scales were adopted to measure the constructs of interest: IBTS for impulsivity, PANAS for the affective state, Sweeney for cognitive dissonance. The analysis revealed that positive affective state does not affect the onset of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: Cognitive dissonance, impulsive buying, online shopping, online consumer behavior.

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1860 The Impact of Supply Chain Strategy and Integration on Supply Chain Performance: Supply Chain Vulnerability as a Moderator

Authors: Yi-Chun Kuo, Jo-Chieh Lin

Abstract:

The objective of a supply chain strategy is to reduce waste and increase efficiency to attain cost benefits, and to guarantee supply chain flexibility when facing the ever-changing market environment in order to meet customer requirements. Strategy implementation aims to fulfill common goals and attain benefits by integrating upstream and downstream enterprises, sharing information, conducting common planning, and taking part in decision making, so as to enhance the overall performance of the supply chain. With the rise of outsourcing and globalization, the increasing dependence on suppliers and customers and the rapid development of information technology, the complexity and uncertainty of the supply chain have intensified, and supply chain vulnerability has surged, resulting in adverse effects on supply chain performance. Thus, this study aims to use supply chain vulnerability as a moderating variable and apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine the relationships among supply chain strategy, supply chain integration, and supply chain performance, as well as the moderating effect of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain performance. The data investigation of this study was questionnaires which were collected from the management level of enterprises in Taiwan and China, 149 questionnaires were received. The result of confirmatory factor analysis shows that the path coefficients of supply chain strategy on supply chain integration and supply chain performance are positive (0.497, t= 4.914; 0.748, t= 5.919), having a significantly positive effect. Supply chain integration is also significantly positively correlated to supply chain performance (0.192, t = 2.273). The moderating effects of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain strategy and supply chain integration to supply chain performance are significant (7.407; 4.687). In Taiwan, 97.73% of enterprises are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) focusing on receiving original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and original design manufacturer (ODM) orders. In order to meet the needs of customers and to respond to market changes, these enterprises especially focus on supply chain flexibility and their integration with the upstream and downstream enterprises. According to the observation of this research, the effect of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain performance is significant, and so enterprises need to attach great importance to the management of supply chain risk and conduct risk analysis on their suppliers in order to formulate response strategies when facing emergency situations. At the same time, risk management is incorporated into the supply chain so as to reduce the effect of supply chain vulnerability on the overall supply chain performance.

Keywords: Supply chain integration, supply chain performance, supply chain vulnerability, structural equation modeling.

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1859 A GA-Based Role Assignment Approach for Web-based Cooperative Learning Environments

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Jian-Wei Li

Abstract:

Web-based cooperative learning focuses on (1) the interaction and the collaboration of community members, and (2) the sharing and the distribution of knowledge and expertise by network technology to enhance learning performance. Numerous research literatures related to web-based cooperative learning have demonstrated that cooperative scripts have a positive impact to specify, sequence, and assign cooperative learning activities. Besides, literatures have indicated that role-play in web-based cooperative learning environments enhances two or more students to work together toward the completion of a common goal. Since students generally do not know each other and they lack the face-to-face contact that is necessary for the negotiation of assigning group roles in web-based cooperative learning environments, this paper intends to further extend the application of genetic algorithm (GA) and propose a GA-based algorithm to tackle the problem of role assignment in web-based cooperative learning environments, which not only saves communication costs but also reduces conflict between group members in negotiating role assignments.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), role assignment, role-play; web-based cooperative learning.

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1858 Role-play Gaming Simulation for Flood Management on Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Ayutthaya Historic City

Authors: Pongpisit Huyakorn, Chaweewan Denpaiboon, Hidehiko Kanegae

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to develop a methodology to encourage people's awareness, knowledge and understanding on the participation of flood management for cultural heritage, as the cooperation and interaction among government section, private section, and public section through role-play gaming simulation theory. The format of this research is to develop Role-play gaming simulation from existing documents, game or role-playing from several sources and existing data of the research site. We found that role-play gaming simulation can be implemented to help improving the understanding of the existing problem and the impact of the flood on cultural heritage, and the role-play game can be developed into the tool to improve people's knowledge, understanding and awareness about people's participation for flood management on cultural heritage, moreover the cooperation among the government, private section and public section will be improved through the theory of role-play gaming simulation.

Keywords: Climate change, Role-play gaming simulation, Sustainable development, Public participation, Cultural heritage

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1857 The Role of Cultural Transformation in Telco Strategy

Authors: F. Amin, S. Feizi

Abstract:

This paper describes the complex nature of organizational culture and its role in telecom organizations. To set the stage for culture change, the literature is reviewed for perspective on the role and function of culture in organizations. Organizational the­orists as well as business consultants report that a strong organizational culture is essential for success because the shared assumptions, values and culture of an organization influence the behavior of its individual members.

Keywords: Component, Telecommunication, Management, Cultural, Transformation.

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1856 The Role of Female Population as a Consumer in Modern Marketing Strategy and Management

Authors: Jana Aleksić, Marijana Petković

Abstract:

Female population has an increasing role when it comes to purchase. Consequently, the female population has a greater role in modern marketing. Although it is thought that women buy more than men, marketing strategy was not directed specifically towards women. The thing that has changed regarding women’s role in modern marketing is the fact that the female population has a leading position when it comes to decision making in various fields and various sectors, which was not the case in the past. Marketing should be directed towards women but it should be done in the right way. Compared to men, women buy in a different way, and they look for more various advantages in the product itself, than men do. This paper aims to show the importance of the female role in the modern marketing and management and to redirect marketing in some way towards female population through new marketing strategies and management systems. Hypothesis is that women have an important role in marketing, and marketing strategy of modern society could and should be based on and directed towards female population and their tastes when it comes to purchasing. It is necessary and desirable to apply marketing strategy with a special strategy that has an emphasis on women and their purchase or in a word to apply WS- woman strategy. This research was carried out as a random sample research, where were obtained 212 valid surveys whose results serve as a basis for drawing conclusions about the research as well as to verify the formulated hypotheses. The research was carried out during 2011 and 2012. The study has shown a significant role of the female population in the marketing process.

Keywords: Marketing, management, female, purchase, strategy.

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1855 A Review of the Theoretical Context of the Role of Innovation in Economic Development

Authors: Maria E. Eggink

Abstract:

It is the aim of this paper to place the role of innovation in economic development in its theoretical context through a literature review. The review compares classical economic theory and the neoclassical theories of “equilibrium in the markets” and “perfectly competitive markets” with the Schumpeterian theory. It was found that Schumpeter’s role in contributing towards economic development theories, and by creating awareness of the role of innovation in these theories is of immeasurable importance. His contribution led to a change in economic thinking, although this was only realized much later than when his theories were first published. The neo-Schumpeterian thinking expanded on the Schumpeterian theory by studying innovation within a system of interaction among different role players. Studies on innovation should be founded in the neo-Schumpeterian school of thought in order to accommodate the complexity of the innovation system concept.

Keywords: Economic development, evolutionary economics, innovation, Schumpeter.

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1854 The Impact of Recommendation Sources on Online Purchase Intentions: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Perceived Risk

Authors: Chiao-Chen Chang, Yang-Chieh Chin

Abstract:

This study examines the issue of recommendation sources from the perspectives of gender and consumers- perceived risk, and validates a model for the antecedents of consumer online purchases. The method of obtaining quantitative data was that of the instrument of a survey questionnaire. Data were collected via questionnaires from 396 undergraduate students aged 18-24, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify causal relationships. Empirical findings established the link between recommendation sources (word-of-mouth, advertising, and recommendation systems) and the likelihood of making online purchases and demonstrated the role of gender and perceived risk as moderators in this context. The results showed that the effects of word-of-mouth on online purchase intentions were stronger than those of advertising and recommendation systems. In addition, female consumers have less experience with online purchases, so they may be more likely than males to refer to recommendations during the decision-making process. The findings of the study will help marketers to address the recommendation factor which influences consumers- intention to purchase and to improve firm performances to meet consumer needs.

Keywords: Recommendation sources, Online purchaseintentions, Gender differences, Perceived risk.

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1853 Elections, Checks and Balances, and Government Expenditures: Empirical Evidence for Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

Authors: Yuan-Hong Ho, Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

Previous studies on political budget cycles (PBCs) implicitly assume the executive has full discretion power over fiscal policy, neglecting the role of checks and balances of the legislature. This paper goes beyond traditional PBCs models and sheds light on the case study of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan over the 1988-2007 periods. Based on the results, we find no evidence of electoral impacts on the public expenditures in South Korean and Taiwan's congressional elections. We also noted that PBCs are found on Taiwan-s government expenditures during our sample periods. Furthermore, the results also show that Japan-s legislature has a significant checks and balances on government-s expenditures. However, empirical results show that the legislature veto player in Taiwan neither has effect on the reduction of public expenditures, nor has the moderating effect over Taiwan-s political budget cycles, albeit that they are statistically insignificant.We suggest that the existence of PBCs in Taiwan is due to a weaker systemof checks and balances. Our conjecture is that Taiwan either has no legislative veto player or has observed low compliance to the law during the time period examined in our study.

Keywords: Checks and balances, compliance to the law, political budget cycles, veto player.

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1852 More Realistic Model for Simulating Min Protein Dynamics: Lattice Boltzmann Method Incorporating the Role of Nucleoids

Authors: J.Yojina, W. Ngamsaad, N. Nuttavut, D.Triampo, Y. Lenbury, W. Triampo, P. Kanthang, S.Sriyab

Abstract:

The dynamics of Min proteins plays a center role in accurate cell division. Although the nucleoids may presumably play an important role in prokaryotic cell division, there is a lack of models to account for its participation. In this work, we apply the lattice Boltzmann method to investigate protein oscillation based on a mesoscopic model that takes into account the nucleoid-s role. We found that our numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with the previous experimental results On comparing with the other computational models without the presence of nucleoids, the highlight of our finding is that the local densities of MinD and MinE on the cytoplasmic membrane increases, especially along the cell width, when the size of the obstacle increases, leading to a more distinct cap-like structure at the poles. This feature indicated the realistic pattern and reflected the combination of Min protein dynamics and nucleoid-s role.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, cell division, Minproteins oscillation, nucleoid

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1851 Dual Role of Women and Its Influence on Farmers’ Household Income and Consumption Pattern: Study of Informal Women Workers in the District Mandalle, Pangkep, South Sulawesi Province

Authors: Ida Rosada, Nurliani

Abstract:

Today, the number of women who seek additional income to help her husband is increasing. They do that in order to be able to express themselves in the midst of the family and society. Nonetheless, housewives are in charge of managing family’s income and prepare food for the family. The objective of this research is 1) to analyze the effect of the dual role of women to household income and 2) to analyze the effect of the dual role to consumption patterns. The study used a qualitative approach, data collection techniques are through observation, interviews, and documentation on farming households. The data was analysed qualitative descriptively. The results found that: 1) The revenue contribution of women who play double role in the informal sector amounted to 34.07% (less than 50%). 2) The main reason that the respondents worked in the informal sector is to be able to send their children to school (34%) and to improve household economy condition (28%). 3) After earning additional income, respondents said that they can contribute to increase the family’s income and to cover the family shortage (82%); 4) Respondents’ opinion to changes in food consumption after performing the dual role is the ability to purchase and provide the desired food (44%) and changing patterns of consumption per day (30%).

Keywords: Dual role, the informal sector, consumption patterns, household income.

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1850 A Review on Geomembrane Characteristics and Application in Geotechnical Engineering

Authors: Sandra Ghavam Shirazi, Komeil Valipourian, Mohammad Reza Golhashem

Abstract:

This paper represents the basic idea and mechanisms associated with the durability of geomembranes and discusses the factors influencing the service life and temperature of geomembrane liners. Geomembrane durability is stated as field performance and laboratory test outcomes under various conditions. Due to the high demand of geomembranes as landfill barriers and their crucial role in sensitive projects, sufficient service life of geomembranes is very important, therefore in this paper, the durability, the effect of temperature on geomembrane and the role of this type of reinforcement in different types of soil will be discussed. Also, the role of geomembrane in the earthquake will be considered in the last part of the paper.

Keywords: Geomembrane, durability temperature soil mechanic.

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1849 The Role of Medical Expert Systems in Pakistan

Authors: Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Fahad Maqbool, Saad Razzaq, Kashif Irfan, Tehseen Zia

Abstract:

Expert systems are used extensively in many domains. This paper discusses the use of medical expert systems in Pakistan. Countries all over the world pay special attention on health facilities. A country like Pakistan faces a lot of trouble in health sector. Several attempts have been made in Pakistan to improve the health conditions of the people but the situation is still not encouraging. There is a shortage of doctors and other trained personnel in Pakistan. Expert systems can play a vital role in such cases where the medical expert is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role that such systems can play in improving the health conditions of the people in Pakistan.

Keywords: Medical Diagnostics, Expert Systems, Pakistan.

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1848 Dual-Response Approach to Work Stress: An Investigation of Stressors and Wellbeing Outcomes

Authors: J. R. C. Kuntz, Katharina Näswall, Frances Walls

Abstract:

This study sought to uncover the complex role of stress in the workplace by investigating both positive (eustress) and negative (distress) stress responses. In particular, the study tested a mediation model in which organisational stressors (person-job fit and role overload) influence employee affective wellbeing, both directly and indirectly through stress responses. Participants were recruited from retail and finance organisations in Australia and New Zealand, and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. A total of 140 individuals returned completed questionnaires. The results show that person-job fit influenced eustress, which in turn had a positive effect on employee affective wellbeing; and role overload impacted distress, which in turn held a negative influence on affective wellbeing. These findings indicate that different organisational stressors have unique relationships with eustress and distress responses. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

Keywords: Distress, Eustress, Role Overload, Wellbeing.

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1847 A Conceptual Analysis of Teams’ Climate Role in the Intrapreneurial Process

Authors: Georgia C. Kosta, Christos S. Nicolaidis

Abstract:

The present paper discusses the role of teams’ climate in the intrapreneurial process. Intrapreneurship, which corresponds for entrepreneurship in existing organizations, puts special emphasis on climate as an influential factor of the intrapreneurial behavior. Although climate exists at every level and in every subgroup of the organizational structure, research focuses mainly on the study of climate that characterizes organization as a whole. However, the climate of a work team may differ radically from the organizational climate, and in fact it can be far more influential. The paper provides a conceptual analysis of organizational climate from the intrapreneurial point of view, and sheds light upon teams’ climate role in the intrapreneurial posture.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, innovation, intrapreneurship, organizational climate, teams’ climate.

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1846 Role of Leaders in Managing Employees’ Dysfunctional Behavior at Workplace

Authors: Aya Maher, Pakinam Youssef

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to explore in depth the role of leaders in managing employees’ dysfunctional behavior at workplace in an effort to recommend strategies and solutions for these destructive behaviors that affect employees’ performance. The significance of the study lies in the fact that dysfunctional behavior has been widely spread in almost all organizations, public and private, with its very destructive manifestations. Dysfunctional behavior may be classified into thefts, sabotage, sexual harassment, jealousy, envy, revenge, vulgarity all of which affect employees’ moral, self-esteem and satisfaction level drastically which will be reflected negatively on their performance and productivity. The main research question will focus on the role of leaders in managing employees’ dysfunctional behavior effectively at the workplace through the different strategies and control measures. In this study, the data will be collected from different academic literature and through some primary data by conducting interviews with some public and private employees from different managerial levels and fields.

Keywords: Dysfunctional behavior, employees’ deviant behavior, employees moral, leaders’ role.

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1845 Analyzing and Comparing the Architectural Specifications and the Urban Role of Scientific– Technological Parks in Iran and the World

Authors: Shahryar Shaghaghi G., Mojtaba H. Ghoshouni, Bahareh S. Ghabel

Abstract:

The issue of scientific – technological parks has been proposed in several countries of the world especially in western countries since a few decades ago and its efficiency is under examination. In our county Iran, some scientific – technological parks have been established or are being established. This design would evaluate the urban role and method of architecture of these parks in order to criticize its efficiency and offer some suggestions, as much as possible to improve its building methods in Iran. The main problem of this design is that how much these parks in Iran do meet the international measurements. So for this reason, one scientific park in Iran and one from western countries would be studied and compared with each other.

Keywords: Applicability, Architectural pattern, Scientific _technological park , Urban role

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