Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 282

Search results for: female

282 The Female Beauty Myth Fostered by the Mass Media

Authors: Yoojin Chung

Abstract:

This paper starts with a critical view of beautiful female images in the mass media being frequently generated by a stereotypical Korean concept of beauty. Several female beauty myths have evolved in Korea during the present decade. Nearly all of them have formed due to a deeply-ingrained androcentric ideology which objectifies women. Mass media causes the public to hold a distorted concept about female beauty. There is a huge gap between women in reality and representative women in the mass media. It is essential to have an unbiased perception of female images presented in the mass media. Due to cosmetic advertisements projecting contemporary images of female beauty to promote products, cosmetics images will be examined in regard to female beauty myths portrayed by the mass media. This paper will analyze features of female beauty myths in Korea and their intrinsic characteristics.

Keywords: Cosmetics Advertisements, Female Beauty Myth, Korean ideologies, Roland Barthes' Mythology Theory

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281 The Role of Female Population as a Consumer in Modern Marketing Strategy and Management

Authors: Jana Aleksić, Marijana Petković

Abstract:

Female population has an increasing role when it comes to purchase. Consequently, the female population has a greater role in modern marketing. Although it is thought that women buy more than men, marketing strategy was not directed specifically towards women. The thing that has changed regarding women’s role in modern marketing is the fact that the female population has a leading position when it comes to decision making in various fields and various sectors, which was not the case in the past. Marketing should be directed towards women but it should be done in the right way. Compared to men, women buy in a different way, and they look for more various advantages in the product itself, than men do. This paper aims to show the importance of the female role in the modern marketing and management and to redirect marketing in some way towards female population through new marketing strategies and management systems. Hypothesis is that women have an important role in marketing, and marketing strategy of modern society could and should be based on and directed towards female population and their tastes when it comes to purchasing. It is necessary and desirable to apply marketing strategy with a special strategy that has an emphasis on women and their purchase or in a word to apply WS- woman strategy. This research was carried out as a random sample research, where were obtained 212 valid surveys whose results serve as a basis for drawing conclusions about the research as well as to verify the formulated hypotheses. The research was carried out during 2011 and 2012. The study has shown a significant role of the female population in the marketing process.

Keywords: Marketing, management, female, purchase, strategy.

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280 Use Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Chemotaxonomic of The Pamphagidae Pamphagus elephas (Insecta, Orthoptera) of Algeria

Authors: M. Bounechada, F. Benia, M. Aiouaz, S. Bouharati, N. Djirar, H. Benamrani

Abstract:

The cuticular hydrocarbons of Pamphagus elephas (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae) has been analysed by gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The following hydrocarbon classes have been identified in insect cuticular hydrocarbons are: n-alkanes and methylalkanes comprising Monomethyl-, dimethyl-and trimethylalkanes. Sexual dimorphism is observed in long chain alkanes (C24-C36) present on male and female. The cuticulars hydrocarbons of P.elephas ranged from 24 to 36 carbons and incluted n-alkanes, Dimethylalkanes and Trimethylalkanes. nalkanes represented by (C24-C36,72,7% on male and 79,2% on female), internally branched Monomethylalkanes identified were (C25, C30-C32,C35-C37;11% on male and 9,4% on female), Dimethylalkanes detected are (C31-C32, C36; 2,2% on male and 2,06% on female) and Trimethylalkanes detected are (C32, C36; 3,1% on male and 4, 97 on female). Larvae male and female (stage 7) showed the same quality of n-alkanes observed in adults. However a difference quantity is noted.

Keywords: Cuticular hydrocarbons, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry, Pamphagus elephas, , Sexual dimorphism

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279 Female Executive Career Success and Satisfaction in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Nipon Sasithornsaowapa

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study the career success and the satisfaction of female executives working for schools in Bangkok, Thailand. This paper drew upon the survey data collected from 68 female executives. The survey conducted in on Bangkok schools. The statistics utilized in this paper included percentage, mean, standard deviation as well as t-test. The findings revealed that the majority of samples had more than 30 years of experience, held a master degree, and had an average income of less than 40,000 baht. The majority of respondents worked not more than 50 hours per week. In addition, the mean score revealed career development was ranked as their number one career satisfaction and having a job related to education was ranked as their number one job satisfaction. Also, the mean score of all categories of satisfaction was 4.61 with standard deviation of 1.677 which indicated that female executive level of satisfaction was high. In terms of the subjectivity career success, the hypothesis testing’s result disclosed that female executives with different married status had a difference in their job satisfaction which was significant at the 0.05 confidence level.

Keywords: Female executives, Career Success, Satisfaction.

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278 Humor Roles of Females in a Product Color Matrix

Authors: Jin-Tsann Yeh, Chyong-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Healthcare providers sometimes use the power of humor as a treatment and therapy for buffering mental health or easing mental disorders because humor can provide relief from distress and conflict. Humor is also very suitable for advertising because of similar benefits. This study carefully examines humor's widespread use in advertising and identifies relationships among humor mechanisms, female depictions, and product types. The purpose is to conceptualize how humor theories can be used not only to successfully define a product as fitting within one of four color categories of the product color matrix, but also to identify compelling contemporary female depictions through humor in ads. The results can offer an idealization for marketing managers and consumers to help them understand how female role depictions can be effectively used with humor in ads. The four propositions developed herein are derived from related literature, through the identification of marketing strategy formulations that achieve product memory enhancement by adopting humor mechanisms properly matched with female role depictions.

Keywords: Humor mechanisms, Female role depiction, Product types.

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277 Design Management Applications to Improve Work Environment for Female Academics in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nouf Saad Alnassar, Susan Grant, Ray Holland

Abstract:

This research study examines cases of Saudi Arabian universities and female academics for work environment issues within the context of design management applications. The study proposes use of design research, ergonomics and systems design thinking to develop the university design which facilitates removal of physical and cognitive barriers for female academics. Review of literature demonstrates that macro and micro ergonomic combined with design management and system design strategies can significantly improve the workplace design for female academics. The university design model would be prepared based on the analyses of primary data obtained from archived documents, participants' observation logs, photo audits, focus groups and semi-structured interviews of currently employed female academics in the selected case universities.

Keywords: Design management, workplace design, university design, ergonomics.

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276 Evaluation of the Effect of Nursing Services Provided in a Correctional Institution on the Physical Health Levels and Health Behaviors of Female Inmates

Authors: Şenay Pehli̇van, Gülümser Kublay

Abstract:

Female inmates placed in a Correctional Institution (CI) have more physical health problems than other women and their male counterparts. Thus, they require more health care services in the CI and nursing services in particular. CI nurses also have the opportunity to teach behaviors which will protect and improve their health to these women who are difficult to reach in the community. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of nursing services provided in a CI on the physical health levels and health behaviors of female inmates. The study has a quasi-experimental design. The study was done in Female Closed CI in Ankara, Turkey. The study was conducted on 30 female inmates. Before the implementation of nursing interventions in the initial phase of the study, female inmates were evaluated in terms of physical health problems and health behavior using forms, a physical examination, medical history, health files (file containing medical information related to prisons) and the Omaha System (OS). Findings obtained from evaluations were grouped and symptoms-findings were expressed with OS diagnosis codes. Knowledge, behavior and status scores of prisoners in relation to health problems were determined. After the implementation of the nursing interventions, female inmates were evaluated in terms of physical health problems and health behavior using OS. The research data were collected using the Female Evaluation Form developed by the researcher and the OS. It was found that knowledge, behavior and status scores of prisoners significantly increased after the implementation of nursing interventions (p < 0.05).

Keywords: Correctional institution, correctional nursing, prison nursing, female inmates, physical health problems, health behaviors.

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275 Relational Impact of Job Stress on Gender Based Managerial Effectiveness in Ghanaian Organizations

Authors: Jocelyn Sackey, Priscilla Boahemaa, Mohammed A. Sanda

Abstract:

This study explored the relationship between occupational stress and the perceived effectiveness of men and women managers in Ghanaian organizations. The exploration is underlined by attempt to understand the degree to which male and female managers in Ghanaian organizations experience occupational stress at the workplace. The purpose is to examine the sources and extents of occupational stress experienced by male and female managers in Ghana. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results showed that female managers in Ghana are more likely to report of more stress experiences in the workplace than their male counterparts. The female managers are more likely to perceive role conflict and alienation as job stressors while the male managers perceived blocked career as a major source of workplace stress. It is concluded that despite the female managers experiencing enormous level of occupational stress, there was no significant differences between their managerial effectiveness and that of the male.

Keywords: Gender, job stress, managerial effectiveness, organizational environment

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274 Analysis on the Game-Playing Tendency of SNGs (Social Network Games) users by Gender

Authors: Jooyeon Yook, Wonjun Ko

Abstract:

As the Social network game(SNG) is rising dramatically worldwide, an interesting aspect has appeared in the demographic analysis. That is the ratio of the game users by gender. Although the ratio of male and female users in online game was 60:40% previously, the ratio of male and female users in SNG stood at 47:53% which shows that the ratio of female users is higher than that of male users. Here, it should be noted that 35% in those 53% female users are the first-time users of game. This fact suggests that women who were not interested in game previously has taken an interest in SNG. Notwithstanding this issue, there have been little studies on the female users of SNG although there are many studies that analyzed the tendency of female users- online game play. This study conducted the analyzed how the game-playing tendency of SNG gamers was manifested in the game by gender. For that, this study will identify the tendency of SNG users by gender based on the preceding studies that analyzed the online game users by gender. The subject of this study was confined to the farm and urban construction simulation games which were offered based on the mobile application platform. Regarding the methodology of study, the first focus group interview(FGI) was conducted with the male and female users who had played games on Social network service(SNS) until recently. Later, the second one-on-one in-depth interview was conducted to gain an insight into the psychological state of the subjects.

Keywords: Social network Game, Gender, Play inclination, Game psychology

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273 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: Metaphor therapy, depression, female, students.

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272 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy

Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.

Keywords: Cultural challenges, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, leadership.

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271 Changes of Power-Velocity Relationship in Female Volleyball Players during an Annual Training Cycle

Authors: K. Busko

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to follow changes of powervelocity relationship in female volleyball players during an annual training cycle. The study was conducted on eleven female volleyball players: age 21.6±1.7 years, body height 177.9±4.7 cm, body mass 71.3±6.6 kg and training experience 8.6±3.3 years. Power–velocity relationship was determined from five maximal 10-second cycloergometer efforts with external loads equal: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW) before (I) and after (II) the preparatory period, after the first (III) and second (IV) competitive season. The maximal power output increased from 9.30±0.85 W•kg–1 (I) to 9.50±0.96 W•kg–1 (II), 9.77±0.96 W•kg–1 (III) and 9.95±1.13 W•kg–1 (IV, p<0,05). The power output at the load of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0% BW were statistically significant increased after the first and second competitive season. Power output at load of 12.5% BW was insignificant increased.

Keywords: Female, Force-velocity relationship, Power output, Volleyball

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270 Child Homicide Victimization and Community Context: A Research Note

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

Among serious crimes, child homicide is a rather rare event. However, the killing of children stirs up a special type of emotion in society that pales other criminal acts. This study examines the relevancy of three possible community-level explanations for child homicide: social deprivation, female empowerment, and social isolation. The social deprivation hypothesis posits that child homicide results from lack of resources in communities. The female empowerment hypothesis argues that a higher female status translates into a higher level of capability to prevent child homicide. Finally, the social isolation hypothesis regards child homicide as a result of lack of social connectivity. Child homicide data, aggregated by US postal ZIP codes in California from 1990 to 1999, were analyzed with a negative binomial regression. The results of the negative binomial analysis demonstrate that social deprivation is the most salient and consistent predictor among all other factors in explaining child homicide victimization at the ZIP-code level. Both social isolation and female labor force participation are weak predictors of child homicide victimization across communities. Further, results from the negative binomial regression show that it is the communities with a higher, not lower, degree of female labor force participation that are associated with a higher count of child homicide. It is possible that poor communities with a higher level of female employment have a lesser capacity to provide the necessary care and protection for the children. Policies aiming at reducing social deprivation and strengthening female empowerment possess the potential to reduce child homicide in the community.

Keywords: Child homicide, deprivation, empowerment, isolation.

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269 Patterns of Sports Supplement Use among Iranian Female Athletes

Authors: A. Golshanraz, L. Hakemi, L. Pourkazemi, E. Dadgostar, F. Moradzandi, R. Tabatabaee, F. Moradi, K. Hosseinihajiagha, N. Jazayeri, H. Abedifar, R. Fouladi, M. Khooban, H. Saboori, M. Kiani, M. Sajedi, E. Karooninejad, S.Moeen, M.Ghavam, F.Beiranvand, S.Mansoori, F.Gheisari, H.Barzegari

Abstract:

Supplement use is common in athletes. Besides their cost, they may have side effects on health and performance. 250 questionnaires were distributed among female athletes (mean age 27.08 years). The questionnaire aimed to explore the frequency, type, believes, attitudes and knowledge regarding dietary supplements. Knowledge was good in 30.3%, fair in 60.2%, and poor in 9.1% of respondents. 65.3% of athletes did not use supplements regularly. The most widely used supplements were vitamins (48.4%), minerals (42.9%), energy supplements (21.3%), and herbals (20.9%). 68.9% of athletes believed in their efficacy. 34.4% experienced performance enhancement and 6.8% of reported side effects. 68.2% reported little knowledge and 60.9% were eager to learn more. In conclusion, many of the female athletes believe in the efficacy of supplements and think they are an unavoidable part of competitive sports. However, their information is not sufficient. We have to stress on education, consulting sessions, and rational prescription.

Keywords: athlete, female, sports, supplement

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268 Impediments to Female Sports Management and Participation: The Experience in the Selected Nigeria South West Colleges of Education

Authors: Saseyi Olaitan Olaoluwa, Osifeko Olalekan Remigious

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The study was meant to identify the impediments to female sports management and participation in the selected colleges. Seven colleges of education in the south west parts of the country were selected for the study. A total of one hundred and five subjects were sampled to supply data. Only one hundred adequately completed and returned, copies of the questionnaire were used for data analysis. The collected data were analysed descriptively. The result of the study showed that inadequate fund, personnel, facilities equipment, supplies, management of sports, supervision and coaching were some of the impediments to female sports management and participation. Athletes were not encouraged to participate. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should come to the aid of the colleges by providing fund and other needs that will make sports attractive for enhanced participation.

Keywords: Female sports, impediments, management, Nigeria, south west, colleges.

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267 Gender Based Variability Time Series Complexity Analysis

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria, Puneeta Marwaha

Abstract:

Non linear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis are becoming more popular. It has been observed that complexity measures quantify the regularity and uncertainty of cardiovascular RR-interval time series. In the present work, SampEn has been evaluated in healthy normal sinus rhythm (NSR) male and female subjects for different data lengths and tolerance level r. It is demonstrated that SampEn is small for higher values of tolerance r. Also SampEn value of healthy female group is higher than that of healthy male group for short data length and with increase in data length both groups overlap each other and it is difficult to distinguish them. The SampEn gives inaccurate results by assigning higher value to female group, because male subject have more complex HRV pattern than that of female subjects. Therefore, this traditional algorithm exhibits higher complexity for healthy female subjects than for healthy male subjects, which is misleading observation. This may be due to the fact that SampEn do not account for multiple time scales inherent in the physiologic time series and the hidden spatial and temporal fluctuations remains unexplored.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, normal sinus rhythm group, RR interval time series, sample entropy.

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266 Effects of Intrauterine and Extrauterine Exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-Like Radiofrequency Radiation on Liver Regulatory Enzymes Activities in Infant Female Rabbits

Authors: A. Tomruk, G. Guler, B. Tandogan, E. Ozgur, N.N. Ulusu, N. Seyhan

Abstract:

In the present study, we aimed to design the intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation and investigate its possible bio-effects on infant female rabbits. Totally thirty-six New Zealand White female rabbits, onemonth old, were randomly divided into four groups which are composed of 9 rabbits; i. Group I [Intrauterine (IU) exposure(-); Extrauterine (EU) exposure (-)], Group II [IU exposure (-); EU exposure (+)], Group III [IU exposure(+);EU exposure(-)], Group IV [IU exposure (+);EU exposure(+)]. The master regulatory enzymes activities of pentose phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G-6PD; 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 6- PGDH) and glutathione-dependent metabolism (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione Stransferase, GST, thioredoxin reductase, TRx) were analyzed in liver tissues of young female rabbits. Decreased G-6PD, 6-PGD, GSH-Px, GR activities were found in Group III compared to Group I (p<0.05, Mann Whitney). Increased GSH-px and TRx activities were found in Group IV compared to Group I (p<0.05, Mann Whitney). It can be concluded that the intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to GSMlike RF radiation may influence the liver regulatory enzymes activities.

Keywords: Radiofrequency (RF), intrauterine (IU) andextrauterine (EU) exposure, infant female rabbits.

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265 Gender Differences in Spatial Navigation

Authors: Bia Kim, Sewon Lee, Jaesik Lee

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the gender differences in spatial navigation using the tasks of 2-D matrix navigation and recognition of real driving scene. The results can be summarized as followings. First, female subjects responded faster in 2-D matrix navigation task than male subjects when landmark instructions were provided. Second, in recognition task, male subjects recognized the key elements involved in the past driving scene more accurately than female subjects. In particular, female subjects tended to miss peripheral information. These results suggest the possibility of gender differences in spatial navigation.

Keywords: Gender differences, Spatial navigation, 2-D matrixnavigation, Recognition of driving scene.

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264 The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology

Authors: Mary Gouva, Elena Dragioti, Evangelia Kotrsotsiou

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Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.

Keywords: Family Identification, Psychoanalysis, Psychopathology, Women.

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263 Length Weight Relationship of Terapon jarbua (Forsskal, 1775) from Puducherry Waters

Authors: R. Nandikeswari, M. Sambasivam, V. Anandan

Abstract:

The present study investigates the length-weight relationship of Terapon jarbua from Puducherry (East coast of India). A total of 370 individuals of different sizes were collected from Puducherry landings centre. Length-weight relationships were calculated for all specimens sampled. The length weight relationship equations are W = 0.0050 L3.2742; W = 0.0035 L3.3616; W = 0.0736 L2.4076; W = 0.0098 L3.0807; W = 0.0088 L3.0914; W = 0.0038 L3.3776 for immature male, immature female, matured male, matured female, total male, and total female respectively. The growth exponential (b) values were found to be positively allometric for all the stages except matured male.

Keywords: Allometry, Length weight relationship, Puducherry waters, Terapon jarbua.

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262 The Effects of Neuromuscular Training on Limits of Stability in Female Individuals

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Yu-Tien Tsai, Tzuhui A. Tseng, I-Tsun Chiang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training (NT) on limits of stability (LOS) in female individuals. Twenty female basketball amateurs were assigned into NT experimental group or control group by volunteer. All the players were underwent regular basketball practice, 90 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks, but the NT experimental group underwent extra NT with plyometric and core training, 50 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks during this period. Limits of stability (LOS) were evaluated by the Biodex Balance System. One factor ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups after training. The significant level for statistic was set at p<.05. Results showed that the right direction LOS scores at level 3 indicated a significant interaction between the trained/untrained groups × pre/post repeated measures with post-training scores higher than pre-training scores in the NT experimental group. The study demonstrated that Six weeks NT can improve the postural stability in young female individuals.

Keywords: Balance control, neuromuscular control and posture stability.

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261 The Impact of Female Characters on a Movie’s Return on Investment

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Sameer Ganu, Anshul Goel, Abhishek Kumar

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In the age and times where women’s empowerment is a significant topic of discussion, we aim to analyze the potential gender diversity influence on box office revenues. The following research is carried out by collecting data from 400 Hollywood movies between the years 2014-2017 and performing regression analysis to find a correlation between the presence of female characters in movies and their return on investment (ROI). The paper finds that there is a positive relationship between the performance of the movies (its ROI) and the gender diversity i.e. the more the number of female characters, the higher the revenue generated. Another factor such as Number of Votes also has a direct impact on the revenue of the movie. The research not only takes into consideration the mere presence of women on screen but also the exchange of at least one dialogue among themselves, which is presented by the Bechdel Score of the movie.

Keywords: Bechdel, diversity, Hollywood, return on investment.

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260 Objectivity, Reliability and Validity of the 90º Push-Ups Test Protocol Among Male and Female Students of Sports Science Program

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Mohd Sani Madon

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the objectivity, reliability and validity of the 90º push-ups test protocol among male and female students of Sports Science Program, Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching Sultan Idris University of Education. Samples (n = 300), consisted of males (n = 168) and females (n = 132) students were randomly selected for this study. Researchers tested the 90º push-ups on the sample twice in a single trial, test and re-test protocol in the bench press test. Pearson-Product Moment Correlation method's was used to determine the value of objectivity, reliability and validity testing. The findings showed that the 900 pushups test protocol showed high consistency between the two testers with a value of r = .99. Likewise, The reliability value between test and re-test for the 90º push-ups test for the male (r=.93) and female (r=.93) students was also high. The results showed a correlation between 90º push-ups test and bench press test for boys was r = .64 and girls was r = .28. This finding indicates that the use of the 90º push-ups to test muscular strength and endurance in the upper body of males has a higher validity values than female students.

Keywords: Arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance, 900 push-ups, bench press

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259 Analysis of Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Related Problems among University Students in Minsk, Belarus

Authors: M. O. Welcome, Y. E. Razvodovsky, V. A. Pereverzev

Abstract:

There is a variety of inconsistencies in the differences in alcohol use and related problems between male and female genders. This study was aimed at analyzing the gender differences in alcohol use and related problems among university students in Minsk, Belarus. A total of 465 male (average age of 21) and 1030 female (average age of 20.5) students from four major universities in Minsk, Belarus were administered WHO recommended standardized screening instruments – AUDIT, MAST, CAGE questionnaire, as well as other alcohol related questions. The male to female ratio for the prevalence of alcohol problems according to the AUDIT was 3.34, while the ratio for alcohol users was 0.97. There are a wide gender differences in the pattern of alcohol use and preference for different alcoholic beverages, cause for drinking, and other alcohol related problems like injuries and blackouts.

Keywords: Alcohol related problems, Gender differences, University students, Belarus.

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258 Analysis of Lower Extremity Muscle Flexibility among Indian Classical Bharathnatyam Dancers

Authors: V. Anbarasi, David V Rajan, K. Adalarasu

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Musculoskeletal problems are common in high performance dance population. This study attempts to identify lower extremity muscle flexibility parameters prevailing among bharatanatyam dancers and analyze if there is any significant difference exist between normal and injured dancers in flexibility parameters. Four hundred and one female dancers and 17 male dancers were participated in this study. Flexibility parameters (hamstring tightness, hip internal and external rotation and tendoachilles in supine and sitting posture) were measured using goniometer. Results of our study it is evident that injured female bharathnatyam dancers had significantly (p < 0.05) high hamstring tightness on left side lower extremity compared to normal female dancers. The range of motion for left tendoachilles was significantly (p < 0.05) high for the normal female group when compared to injured dancers during supine lying posture. Majority of the injured dancers had high hamstring tightness that could be a possible reason for pain and MSDs.

Keywords: External rotation (ER), Internal rotation (IR), Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), Range of motion (ROM)

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257 Improving Patients Discharge Process in Hospitals by using Six Sigma Approach

Authors: Mahmoud A. El-Banna

Abstract:

The need to increase the efficiency of health care systems is becoming an obligation, and one of area of improvement is the discharge process. The objective of this work is to minimize the patients discharge time (for insured patients) to be less than 50 minutes by using six sigma approach, this improvement will also: lead to an increase in customer satisfaction, increase the number of admissions and turnover on the rooms, increase hospital profitability.Three different departments were considered in this study: Female, Male, and Paediatrics. Six Sigma approach coupled with simulation has been applied to reduce the patients discharge time for pediatrics, female, and male departments at hospital. Upon applying these recommendations at hospital: 60%, 80%, and 22% of insured female, male, and pediatrics patients respectively will have discharge time less than the upper specification time i.e. 50 min.

Keywords: Discharge Time, Healthcare, Hospitals, Patients, Process Improvement, Six Sigma, Simulation

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256 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara

Abstract:

Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: Career, Career Barriers, Glass ceiling syndrome.

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255 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula

Abstract:

A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis.

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254 Effects of Synchronous Music on Gymnastics' Motor Skills Performance among Undergraduate Female Students in Physical Education College

Authors: Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in Gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10) experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 6 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.

Keywords: Performance, motor skill, music, synchronous.

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253 Mass rearing and Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Pupal Mortality and Reproduction of Citrus Leaf Miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Authors: Shiva Osouli, Maryam Atapour, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Shima Shokri

Abstract:

Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) is native to Asia and one of the most serious pests of Iran’s citrus nursery stocks. In the present study, the possibility of insect mass rearing on four various citrus hosts and the effects of gamma irradiation on the pupal mortality and reproduction of this pest were studied. Trifoliate orange and grapefruit showed less infection, while the number of pupae in Valencia oranges and sweet lemons cages was so high. There was not any significant difference between weight of male and female pupae among different citrus hosts, but generally the weight of male pupae was less than females. Use of Valencia orange or sweet lemons seedlings in especial dark emergence and oviposition cages could be recommended for mass rearing of this pest. In this study, the effects of gamma radiation at doses 100 to 450 Gy on biological and reproductive parameters of the pest has been determined. The results show that mean percent of pupal mortality increased with increasing doses and reached to 28.67% at 450 Gy for male pupae and 38.367% for female pupae. Also, the mean values of this parameter were higher for irradiated female, which indicated the higher sensitivity of this sex. The gamma ray irradiation from 200 and 300 Gy caused decrease in male and female adult moth longevity, respectively. The eggs were laid by emerged females, and their hatchability was decreased by increasing gamma doses. The fecundity of females in both combinations of crosses (irradiated male × normal female and irradiated female × normal male) did not differ, but fertility of laid eggs by irradiated female × normal male affected seriously and the mean values of this parameter reached to zero at 300 Gy. The hatchability percentage of produced eggs by normal female × irradiated male at 300 Gy was 23.29% and reached to less than 2 % at 450 Gy as the highest tested dose. The results of this test show that females have more radio-sensitivity in comparison to males.

Keywords: Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus hosts, mass rearing, sterile insect technique.

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