Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1017

Search results for: modal identification

1017 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero

Abstract:

The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore, when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures.

Keywords: Optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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1016 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: Learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices.

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1015 Operational Modal Analysis Implementation on a Hybrid Composite Plate

Authors: Z. A. C. Saffry, D. L. Majid, N. H. M. Haidzir

Abstract:

In aerospace applications, interactions of airflow with aircraft structures can result in undesirable structural deformations. This structural deformation in turn, can be predicted if the natural modes of the structure are known. This can be achieved through conventional modal testing that requires a known excitation force in order to extract these dynamic properties. This technique can be experimentally complex because of the need for artificial excitation and it is also does not represent actual operational condition. The current work presents part of research work that address the practical implementation of operational modal analysis (OMA) applied to a cantilevered hybrid composite plate employing single contactless sensing system via laser vibrometer. OMA technique extracts the modal parameters based only on the measurements of the dynamic response. The OMA results were verified with impact hammer modal testing and good agreement was obtained.

Keywords: Hybrid Kevlar composite, Laser Vibrometer, modal parameters, Operational Modal Analysis.

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1014 Experimental Modal Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Square Slabs

Authors: M. S. Ahmed, F. A. Mohammad

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform experimental modal analysis (EMA) of reinforced concrete (RC) square slabs. EMA is the process of determining the modal parameters (Natural Frequencies, damping factors, modal vectors) of a structure from a set of frequency response functions FRFs (curve fitting). Although, experimental modal analysis (or modal testing) has grown steadily in popularity since the advent of the digital FFT spectrum analyzer in the early 1970’s, studying all types of members and materials using such method have not yet been well documented. Therefore, in this work, experimental tests were conducted on RC square slab specimens of dimensions 600mm x 600mmx 40mm. Experimental analysis was based on freely supported boundary condition. Moreover, impact testing as a fast and economical means of finding the modes of vibration of a structure was used during the experiments. In addition, Pico Scope 6 device and MATLAB software were used to acquire data, analyze and plot Frequency Response Function (FRF). The experimental natural frequencies which were extracted from measurements exhibit good agreement with analytical predictions. It is showed that EMA method can be usefully employed to investigate the dynamic behavior of RC slabs.

Keywords: Natural frequencies, Mode shapes, Modal analysis, RC slabs.

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1013 Modal Propagation Properties of Elliptical Core Optical Fibers Considering Stress-Optic Effects

Authors: M. Shah Alam, Sarkar Rahat M. Anwar

Abstract:

The effect of thermally induced stress on the modal properties of highly elliptical core optical fibers is studied in this work using a finite element method. The stress analysis is carried out and anisotropic refractive index change is calculated using both the conventional plane strain approximation and the generalized plane strain approach. After considering the stress optical effect, the modal analysis of the fiber is performed to obtain the solutions of fundamental and higher order modes. The modal effective index, modal birefringence, group effective index, group birefringence, and dispersion of different modes of the fiber are presented. For propagation properties, it can be seen that the results depend much on the approach of stress analysis.

Keywords: Birefringence, dispersion, elliptical core fiber, optical mode analysis, stress-optic effect, stress analysis.

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1012 Quadrotor Black-Box System Identification

Authors: Ionel Stanculeanu, Theodor Borangiu

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach in the identification of the quadrotor dynamic model using a black-box system for identification. Also the paper considers the problems which appear during the identification in the closed-loop and offers a technical solution for overcoming the correlation between the input noise present in the output

Keywords: System identification, UAV, prediction error method, quadrotor.

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1011 A New Damage Identification Strategy for SHM Based On FBGs and Bayesian Model Updating Method

Authors: Yanhui Zhang, Wenyu Yang

Abstract:

One of the difficulties of the vibration-based damage identification methods is the nonuniqueness of the results of damage identification. The different damage locations and severity may cause the identical response signal, which is even more severe for detection of the multiple damage. This paper proposes a new strategy for damage detection to avoid this nonuniqueness. This strategy firstly determines the approximates damage area based on the statistical pattern recognition method using the dynamic strain signal measured by the distributed fiber Bragg grating, and then accurately evaluates the damage information based on the Bayesian model updating method using the experimental modal data. The stochastic simulation method is then used to compute the high-dimensional integral in the Bayesian problem. Finally, an experiment of the plate structure, simulating one part of mechanical structure, is used to verify the effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: Bayesian method, damage detection, fiber Bragg grating, structural health monitoring.

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1010 Theoretical Modal Analysis of Freely and Simply Supported RC Slabs

Authors: M. S. Ahmed, F. A. Mohammad

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. Therefore, the theoretical modal analysis was performed using two different types of boundary conditions. Modal analysis method is the most important dynamic analyses. The analysis would be modal case when there is no external force on the structure. By using this method in this paper, the effects of freely and simply supported boundary conditions on the frequencies and mode shapes of RC square slabs are studied. ANSYS software was employed to derive the finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the slabs. Then, the obtained results through numerical analysis (finite element analysis) would be compared with the exact solution. The main goal of the research study is to predict how the boundary conditions change the behavior of the slab structures prior to performing experimental modal analysis. Based on the results, it is concluded that simply support boundary condition has obvious influence to increase the natural frequencies and change the shape of the mode when it is compared with freely supported boundary condition of slabs. This means that such support conditions have the direct influence on the dynamic behavior of the slabs. Thus, it is suggested to use free-free boundary condition in experimental modal analysis to precisely reflect the properties of the structure. By using free-free boundary conditions, the influence of poorly defined supports is interrupted.

Keywords: Natural frequencies, Mode shapes, Modal analysis, ANSYS software, RC slabs.

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1009 Signal and Harmonic Analysis of a Compressor Blade for Identification of the Nonlinear Frequency Vibration

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Gholamhasan Payganeh

Abstract:

High-speed turbomachine can experience significant centrifugal and gas bending loads. As a result, the compressor blades must be able to resist high-frequency oscillations due to surge or stall condition in flow field dynamics. In this paper, vibration characteristics of the 6th stage blade compressor have been examined in detail with, using 3-D finite element (FE) methods. The primary aim of this article is to gain an understanding of nonlinear vibration induced in the blade against different loading conditions. The results indicate the nonlinear behavior of the blade as a result of the amplitude of resonances or material properties. Since one of the leading causes of turbine blade failure is high cycle fatigue, simulations were started by specifying the stress distribution in the blade due to the centrifugal rotation. Next, resonant frequencies and critical speeds of the blade were defined by modal analysis. Finally, the harmonic analysis was simulated on the blades.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibration, modal analysis, resonance, frequency response, compressor blade.

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1008 Modal Analysis of Power System with a Microgrid

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gençoğlu

Abstract:

A microgrid (MG) is a small power grid composed of localized medium or low level power generation, storage systems, and loads. In this paper, the effects of a MG on power systems voltage stability are shown. The MG model, designed to demonstrate the effects of the MG, was applied to the IEEE 14 bus power system which is widely used in power system stability studies. Eigenvalue and modal analysis methods were used in simulation studies. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system voltage stability positively by increasing system voltage instability limit value for buses of a power system in which MG are placed.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, modal analysis, voltage stability.

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1007 A New Direct Updating Method for Undamped Structural Systems

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Jiashang Jiang

Abstract:

A new numerical method for simultaneously updating mass and stiffness matrices based on incomplete modal measured data is presented. By using the Kronecker product, all the variables that are to be modified can be found out and then can be updated directly. The optimal approximation mass matrix and stiffness matrix which satisfy the required eigenvalue equation and orthogonality condition are found under the Frobenius norm sense. The physical configuration of the analytical model is preserved and the updated model will exactly reproduce the modal measured data. The numerical example seems to indicate that the method is quite accurate and efficient.

Keywords: Finite element model, model updating, modal data, optimal approximation.

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1006 MDA of Hexagonal Honeycomb Plates used for Space Applications

Authors: A. Boudjemai , M.H. Bouanane, Mankour, R. Amri, H. Salem, B. Chouchaoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to perform a multidisciplinary design and analysis (MDA) of honeycomb panels used in the satellites structural design. All the analysis is based on clamped-free boundary conditions. In the present work, detailed finite element models for honeycomb panels are developed and analysed. Experimental tests were carried out on a honeycomb specimen of which the goal is to compare the previous modal analysis made by the finite element method as well as the existing equivalent approaches. The obtained results show a good agreement between the finite element analysis, equivalent and tests results; the difference in the first two frequencies is less than 4% and less than 10% for the third frequency. The results of the equivalent model presented in this analysis are obtained with a good accuracy. Moreover, investigations carried out in this research relate to the honeycomb plate modal analysis under several aspects including the structural geometrical variation by studying the various influences of the dimension parameters on the modal frequency, the variation of core and skin material of the honeycomb. The various results obtained in this paper are promising and show that the geometry parameters and the type of material have an effect on the value of the honeycomb plate modal frequency.

Keywords: Satellite, honeycomb, finite element method, modal frequency, dynamic.

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1005 Classifying Turbomachinery Blade Mode Shapes Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ismail Abubakar, Hamid Mehrabi, Reg Morton

Abstract:

Currently, extensive signal analysis is performed in order to evaluate structural health of turbomachinery blades. This approach is affected by constraints of time and the availability of qualified personnel. Thus, new approaches to blade dynamics identification that provide faster and more accurate results are sought after. Generally, modal analysis is employed in acquiring dynamic properties of a vibrating turbomachinery blade and is widely adopted in condition monitoring of blades. The analysis provides useful information on the different modes of vibration and natural frequencies by exploring different shapes that can be taken up during vibration since all mode shapes have their corresponding natural frequencies. Experimental modal testing and finite element analysis are the traditional methods used to evaluate mode shapes with limited application to real live scenario to facilitate a robust condition monitoring scheme. For a real time mode shape evaluation, rapid evaluation and low computational cost is required and traditional techniques are unsuitable. In this study, artificial neural network is developed to evaluate the mode shape of a lab scale rotating blade assembly by using result from finite element modal analysis as training data. The network performance evaluation shows that artificial neural network (ANN) is capable of mapping the correlation between natural frequencies and mode shapes. This is achieved without the need of extensive signal analysis. The approach offers advantage from the perspective that the network is able to classify mode shapes and can be employed in real time including simplicity in implementation and accuracy of the prediction. The work paves the way for further development of robust condition monitoring system that incorporates real time mode shape evaluation.

Keywords: Modal analysis, artificial neural network, mode shape, natural frequencies, pattern recognition.

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1004 Optimal Combination for Modal Pushover Analysis by Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: K. Shakeri, M. Mohebbi

Abstract:

In order to consider the effects of the higher modes in the pushover analysis, during the recent years several multi-modal pushover procedures have been presented. In these methods the response of the considered modes are combined by the square-rootof- sum-of-squares (SRSS) rule while application of the elastic modal combination rules in the inelastic phases is no longer valid. In this research the feasibility of defining an efficient alternative combination method is investigated. Two steel moment-frame buildings denoted SAC-9 and SAC-20 under ten earthquake records are considered. The nonlinear responses of the structures are estimated by the directed algebraic combination of the weighted responses of the separate modes. The weight of the each mode is defined so that the resulted response of the combination has a minimum error to the nonlinear time history analysis. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used to minimize the error and optimize the weight factors. The obtained optimal factors for each mode in different cases are compared together to find unique appropriate weight factors for each mode in all cases.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Modal Pushover, Optimalweight.

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1003 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari

Abstract:

Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: Blade, crack propagation, health monitoring, modal analysis.

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1002 Optimal Control of Piezo-Thermo-Elastic Beams

Authors: Marwan Abukhaled, Ibrahim Sadek

Abstract:

This paper presents the vibrations suppression of a thermoelastic beam subject to sudden heat input by a distributed piezoelectric actuators. An optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of a quadratic functional in terms of displacement and velocity at a given time and with the least control effort. The solution method is based on a combination of modal expansion and variational approaches. The modal expansion approach is used to convert the optimal control of distributed parameter system into the optimal control of lumped parameter system. By utilizing the variational approach, an explicit optimal control law is derived and the determination of the corresponding displacement and velocity is reduced to solving a set of ordinary differential equations.

Keywords: Optimal control, Thermoelastic beam, variational approach, modal expansion approach

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1001 Automatic Real-Patient Medical Data De-Identification for Research Purposes

Authors: Petr Vcelak, Jana Kleckova

Abstract:

Our Medicine-oriented research is based on a medical data set of real patients. It is a security problem to share patient private data with peoples other than clinician or hospital staff. We have to remove person identification information from medical data. The medical data without private data are available after a de-identification process for any research purposes. In this paper, we introduce an universal automatic rule-based de-identification application to do all this stuff on an heterogeneous medical data. A patient private identification is replaced by an unique identification number, even in burnedin annotation in pixel data. The identical identification is used for all patient medical data, so it keeps relationships in a data. Hospital can take an advantage of a research feedback based on results.

Keywords: DASTA, De-identification, DICOM, Health Level Seven, Medical data, OCR, Personal data

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1000 Multiple Crack Identification Using Frequency Measurement

Authors: J.W. Xiang, M. Liang

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to detect multiple cracks based on frequency information. When a structure is subjected to dynamic or static loads, cracks may develop and the modal frequencies of the cracked structure may change. To detect cracks in a structure, we construct a high precision wavelet finite element (EF) model of a certain structure using the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). Cracks can be modeled by rotational springs and added to the FE model. The crack detection database will be obtained by solving that model. Then the crack locations and depths can be determined based on the frequency information from the database. The performance of the proposed method has been numerically verified by a rotor example.

Keywords: Rotor, frequency measurement, multiple cracks, wavelet finite element method, identification.

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999 Identification and Classification of Plastic Resins using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Hamed Masoumi, Seyed Mohsen Safavi, Zahra Khani

Abstract:

In this paper, an automated system is presented for identification and separation of plastic resins based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For identification and separation among resins, a "Two-Filter" identification method is proposed that is capable to distinguish among polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Through surveying effects of parameters such as surface contamination, sample thickness, label and cap existence, it was obvious that the "Two-Filter" method has a high efficiency in identification of resins. It is shown that accurate identification and separation of five major resins can be obtained through calculating the relative reflectance at two wavelengths in the NIR region.

Keywords: Identification, Near Infrared, Plastic, Separation, Spectroscopy

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998 Service Identification Approach to SOA Development

Authors: Nafise Fareghzadeh

Abstract:

Service identification is one of the main activities in the modeling of a service-oriented solution, and therefore errors made during identification can flow down through detailed design and implementation activities that may necessitate multiple iterations, especially in building composite applications. Different strategies exist for how to identify candidate services that each of them has its own benefits and trade offs. The approach presented in this paper proposes a selective identification of services approach, based on in depth business process analysis coupled with use cases and existing assets analysis and goal service modeling. This article clearly emphasizes the key activities need for the analysis and service identification to build a optimized service oriented architecture. In contrast to other approaches this article mentions some best practices and steps, wherever appropriate, to point out the vagueness involved in service identification.

Keywords: SOA, service identification, service taxonomy, service layer.

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997 Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: Djilani Kobibi Youcef Islam, Hadjeri Samir, Djehaf Mohamed Abdeldjalil

Abstract:

The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Keywords: FACTS, load flow, modal analysis, UPFC, voltage stability.

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996 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Yong-Run Chen, Jui-Pin Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: Dynamic compliance, Bearing preload, Modal damping.

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995 Bio-Inspired Generalized Global Shape Approach for Writer Identification

Authors: Azah Kamilah Muda, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Maslina Darus

Abstract:

Writer identification is one of the areas in pattern recognition that attract many researchers to work in, particularly in forensic and biometric application, where the writing style can be used as biometric features for authenticating an identity. The challenging task in writer identification is the extraction of unique features, in which the individualistic of such handwriting styles can be adopted into bio-inspired generalized global shape for writer identification. In this paper, the feasibility of generalized global shape concept of complimentary binding in Artificial Immune System (AIS) for writer identification is explored. An experiment based on the proposed framework has been conducted to proof the validity and feasibility of the proposed approach for off-line writer identification.

Keywords: Writer identification, generalized global shape, individualistic, pattern recognition.

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994 Robust Adaptive ELS-QR Algorithm for Linear Discrete Time Stochastic Systems Identification

Authors: Ginalber L. O. Serra

Abstract:

This work proposes a recursive weighted ELS algorithm for system identification by applying numerically robust orthogonal Householder transformations. The properties of the proposed algorithm show it obtains acceptable results in a noisy environment: fast convergence and asymptotically unbiased estimates. Comparative analysis with others robust methods well known from literature are also presented.

Keywords: Stochastic Systems, Robust Identification, Parameter Estimation, Systems Identification.

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993 Methodology for the Multi-Objective Analysis of Data Sets in Freight Delivery

Authors: Dale Dzemydiene, Aurelija Burinskiene, Arunas Miliauskas, Kristina Ciziuniene

Abstract:

Data flow and the purpose of reporting the data are different and dependent on business needs. Different parameters are reported and transferred regularly during freight delivery. This business practices form the dataset constructed for each time point and contain all required information for freight moving decisions. As a significant amount of these data is used for various purposes, an integrating methodological approach must be developed to respond to the indicated problem. The proposed methodology contains several steps: (1) collecting context data sets and data validation; (2) multi-objective analysis for optimizing freight transfer services. For data validation, the study involves Grubbs outliers analysis, particularly for data cleaning and the identification of statistical significance of data reporting event cases. The Grubbs test is often used as it measures one external value at a time exceeding the boundaries of standard normal distribution. In the study area, the test was not widely applied by authors, except when the Grubbs test for outlier detection was used to identify outsiders in fuel consumption data. In the study, the authors applied the method with a confidence level of 99%. For the multi-objective analysis, the authors would like to select the forms of construction of the genetic algorithms, which have more possibilities to extract the best solution. For freight delivery management, the schemas of genetic algorithms' structure are used as a more effective technique. Due to that, the adaptable genetic algorithm is applied for the description of choosing process of the effective transportation corridor. In this study, the multi-objective genetic algorithm methods are used to optimize the data evaluation and select the appropriate transport corridor. The authors suggest a methodology for the multi-objective analysis, which evaluates collected context data sets and uses this evaluation to determine a delivery corridor for freight transfer service in the multi-modal transportation network. In the multi-objective analysis, authors include safety components, the number of accidents a year, and freight delivery time in the multi-modal transportation network. The proposed methodology has practical value in the management of multi-modal transportation processes.

Keywords: Multi-objective decision support, analysis, data validation, freight delivery, multi-modal transportation, genetic programming methods.

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992 Impact of Proposed Modal Shift from Private Users to Bus Rapid Transit System: An Indian City Case Study

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Fatima Electricwala

Abstract:

One of the major thrusts of the Bus Rapid Transit System is to reduce the commuter’s dependency on private vehicles and increase the shares of public transport to make urban transportation system environmentally sustainable. In this study, commuter mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to the proposed Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Surat, with estimation of the probable shift from private mode to public mode. Further, evaluation of the BRTS scenarios, using Surat’s transportation ecological footprint was done. A multi-modal simulation model was developed in Biogeme environment to explicitly consider private users behaviors and non-linear environmental impact. The data of the different factors (variables) and its impact that might cause modal shift of private mode users to proposed BRTS were collected through home-interview survey using revealed and stated preference approach. A multi modal logit model of mode-choice was then calibrated using the collected data and validated using proposed sample. From this study, a set of perception factors, with reliable and predictable data base, to explain the variation in modal shift behaviour and their impact on Surat’s ecological environment has been identified. A case study of the proposed BRTS connecting the Surat Industrial Hub to the coastal area is provided to illustrate the approach.

Keywords: BRTS, Private Modes, Mode choice models, Ecological footprint.

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991 On the Accuracy of Basic Modal Displacement Method Considering Various Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history seismic analysis is supposed to be the most accurate method to predict the seismic demand of structures. On the other hand, the required computational time of this method toward achieving the result is its main deficiency. While being applied in optimization process, in which the structure must be analyzed thousands of time, reducing the required computational time of seismic analysis of structures makes the optimization algorithms more practical. Apparently, the invented approximate methods produce some amount of errors in comparison with exact time history analysis but the recently proposed method namely, Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) and Sum Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) drastically reduces the computational time by combination of peak responses in each mode. In the present research, the Basic Modal Displacement (BMD) method is introduced and applied towards estimation of seismic demand of main structure. Seismic demand of sampled structure is estimated by calculation of modal displacement of basic structure (in which the modal displacement has been calculated). Shear steel sampled structures are selected as case studies. The error applying the introduced method is calculated by comparison of the estimated seismic demands with exact time history dynamic analysis. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by application of three types of earthquakes (in view of time of peak ground acceleration).

Keywords: Time history dynamic analysis, basic modal displacement, earthquake induced demands, shear steel structures.

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990 Model Updating-Based Approach for Damage Prognosis in Frames via Modal Residual Force

Authors: Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri, Mojtaba Jafarian Abyaneh, Ali Zare Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective model updating strategy for damage localization and quantification in frames by defining damage detection problem as an optimization issue. A generalized version of the Modal Residual Force (MRF) is employed for presenting a new damage-sensitive cost function. Then, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is utilized for solving suggested inverse problem and the global extremums are reported as damage detection results. The applicability of the presented method is investigated by studying different damage patterns on the benchmark problem of the IASC-ASCE, as well as a planar shear frame structure. The obtained results emphasize good performance of the method not only in free-noise cases, but also when the input data are contaminated with different levels of noises.

Keywords: Frame, grey wolf optimization algorithm, modal residual force, structural damage detection.

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989 Experimental Modal Analysis and Model Validation of Antenna Structures

Authors: B.R. Potgieter, G. Venter

Abstract:

Numerical design optimization is a powerful tool that can be used by engineers during any stage of the design process. There are many different applications for structural optimization. A specific application that will be discussed in the following paper is experimental data matching. Data obtained through tests on a physical structure will be matched with data from a numerical model of that same structure. The data of interest will be the dynamic characteristics of an antenna structure focusing on the mode shapes and modal frequencies. The structure used was a scaled and simplified model of the Karoo Array Telescope-7 (KAT-7) antenna structure. This kind of data matching is a complex and difficult task. This paper discusses how optimization can assist an engineer during the process of correlating a finite element model with vibration test data.

Keywords: Finite Element Model (FEM), Karoo Array Telescope(KAT-7), modal frequencies, mode shapes, optimization, shape optimization, size optimization, vibration tests

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988 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: Flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel.

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