Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30455
Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 35

References:


[1] R. Kim, R. Viscusi, A. Collier, and J. Korndorffer, “Learning preferences of surgery residents: a multi-institutional study”, Surgery, vol 163, no 1, pp 901-905, 2018.
[2] Z. Nasiri, S. Gharekhani, M. Ghasempour, “Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Status of Babol Dental Students”, Electronic Physician, vol 8, no 5, pp 2340-2345, 2016.
[3] A. Arbabisarjou, S. Zare, M. Shahrakipour, G. Ghoreishinia, “The survey of the relationship between the learning style and academic performance in students of Medical Sciences”, International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, vol 5, no 7, pp 338-342, 2016.
[4] H. Moayyeri, “Impact of Undergraduate Students’ Learning Preferences (VARK) on Their Language Achievement”, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 132-139, 2015.
[5] P. Newton and M. Miah, “Evidence-Based Higher Education – Is the Learning Styles ‘Myth’ Important?”, Frontiers in Psychology, vol 8, no 1, 2017.
[6] P. M. Newton, “The learning styles myth is thriving in higher education”, Frontiers in psychology, 6, pp. 1908, 2015.
[7] N. D. Fleming, and C. Mills, “Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection”, To Improve the Academy, 11, pp. 137-149, 1992.
[8] N. D. Fleming, “I'm different; not dumb. Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom”, Annual Conference of the Higher Education and Research Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA), vol. 18, pp. 308-313, 1995.
[9] L. Lanham, “Why Are You Procrastinating? Turning Four Common Productivity Challenges into Triumphs”. Performance Improvement, 57(2), pp. 40-42, 2018.
[10] A. Sharma and A Wadhwa, “Study of Sensory Learning Styles of Second Year Undergraduate Dentistry Students and its Use in Microbiology Teaching”, Dental Science, vol 6, no 11, pp 5-8, 2016.
[11] M. Asiry, “Learning styles of dental students”, Saudi Journal for Dental Research, vol 7, no 1, pp 13-17, 2016.
[12] M. Klement, “How do my students study? An analysis of students` of educational disciplines favorite learning styles according to VARK classification”, Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol 132, no 1, pp 384-390, 2014.
[13] I. Prithiskumar and S. Michael, “Understanding your student: Using the VARK model”, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol 60, no 2, pp 183-186, 2014.
[14] J. P. Good, D. Ramos and D. C. D'Amore, “Learning style preferences and academic success of preclinical allied health students”, J Allied Health, 42(4), pp. 81-90, 2013.
[15] B. Stirling and W. Alqulaini, “Using VARK to assess Saudi nursing students’ learning style preferences: Do they differ from other health professionals?”, Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, vol 12, no 2, pp 125-130, 2017.
[16] V. Marcy, “How the VARK learning style inventory can be used to improve student learning” The Journal of Physician Assistant Education, vol 12, pp 117-120, 2001.
[17] R. Marie and R. Maxilom, “Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences of Selected Business Administration Students”, International Journal of Linguistics and Education, vol 1, no 1, pp 12-17, 2016.
[18] A. Zapalska and D. Brozik, “Learning styles and online education”, Emarald, vol 23, no 5, pp 325-335, 2006.
[19] D. Young and S. Seibenhener, “Preferred Teaching Strategies for Students in an Associate of Science Nursing Program”, Teaching and Learning in Nursing, vol 13, no 1, pp 41-45, 2018.
[20] S. Haq, S. Yasmeen, S. Ali, F. Gallam, “Students’ Learning Styles Require Modified Teaching Strategies, Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College”, vol 16, no 2, pp 191-193, 2012.
[21] B. Ictenbas and H. Eryilmaz, “Determining Learning Styles of Engineering Students to Improve the Design of a Service Course”, Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol 28, no 1, pp 342-346, 2011.
[22] Hawk, T. F., & Shah, A. J., “Using learning style instruments to enhance student learning”, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 5(1), pp. 1-19, 2007.
[23] Leite, W. L., Svinicki, M., and Shi, Y., “Attempted validation of the scores of the VARK: learning styles inventory with multitrait–multimethod confirmatory factor analysis models” Educational and psychological measurement, 70(2), pp. 323-339, 2010.
[24] Fitkov-Norris, E. D., and Yeghiazarian, A., “Validation of VARK learning modalities questionnaire using Rasch analysis”, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 588, No. 1, 2015.
[25] N. Othman and M. Amiruddin, “Different Perspectives of Learning Styles from VARK Model”, International Conference on Learner Diversity, 2010.
[26] R. Valerdi, R. Jain, T. Ferris, and J. Kasser, “An Exploration of Matching Teaching to the Learning Preferences of Systems Engineering Graduate Students”, 19th INCOSE Symposium, Singapore, July 2009.
[27] A. Gilakjani, “Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and Their Impacts on English Language Teaching”, Journal of Studies in Education, vol 2, no 1, pp 104-113, 2012.
[28] N. Fleming, “Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!”, Educational Development, vol 7 no 4, pp 4-7, 2006.
[29] Jie, L. and Xiaoqing, Q., “Language learning styles and learning strategies of tertiary-level English learners in China”, RELC journal, 37(1), pp. 67-90, 2006.
[30] Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., and Ecclestone, K., “Learning Styles and Pedagogy in Post 16 Learning: A Systematic and Critical Review”, London: Learning and Skills Research Centre, 2004.
[31] Felder, R. M., “Matters of style”, ASEE prism, 6(4), pp. 18-23, 1996.
[32] Black, C., “Science/Fiction How Learning Styles Became a Myth”, 2016.
[33] Fleming, N. D., “The case against learning styles: There is no evidence...” Obtenido de Designer of the VARK Questionnaire for Learners’preferences, http://vark-learn.com/introduction-to-vark/articles, 2012.
[34] Curry, L., “An organization of learning styles theory and constructs”, 1983.
[35] Felder, R. M., & Spurlin, J., “Applications, reliability and validity of the index of learning styles”, International journal of engineering education, 21(1), pp. 103-112, 2005.
[36] Sadler‐Smith, E., “Learning styles’ and instructional design”, Innovations in Education and Training International, 33(4), pp. 185-193, 1996.
[37] Felder, R. M., “Are learning styles invalid? (Hint: No!)”, On-course newsletter, 27, 2010.
[38] Zywno, M. S., “Instructional technology, learning styles and academic achievement”, age, 7, 1, 2002.
[39] Gilbert, J. E., and Swanier, C. A., “Learning styles: How do they fluctuate”, Institute for Learning Styles Journal, 1(4), pp. 29-40, 2008.
[40] Shannon, S. V., “Using metacognitive strategies and learning styles to create self-directed learners”, Institute for Learning Styles Journal, 1(1), pp. 14-28, 2008.
[41] Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., and Bjork, R., “Learning styles: Concepts and evidence”, Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), pp. 105-119, 2008.
[42] Fitrawati, F., “Using Metacognitive Strategies and Learning Styles to Create Self-Directed Learners in Writing Class”, Proceedings of ISELT FBS Universitas Negeri Padang, 2, pp. 159-168, 2014.
[43] Wilson-Hull, S. L., “The Impact of Learning Styles on High Stakes Testing: Perspectives from Mississippi Delta Area Teachers”, Institute for Learning Styles Journal, 1, pp. 41-56, 2008.