Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Javier Enrique Rivero

51 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero

Abstract:

The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore, when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures.

Keywords: Optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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50 Artificial Neural Network Development by means of Genetic Programming with Graph Codification

Authors: Daniel Rivero, Julián Dorado, Juan R. Rabuñal, Alejandro Pazos, Javier Pereira

Abstract:

The development of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is usually a slow process in which the human expert has to test several architectures until he finds the one that achieves best results to solve a certain problem. This work presents a new technique that uses Genetic Programming (GP) for automatically generating ANNs. To do this, the GP algorithm had to be changed in order to work with graph structures, so ANNs can be developed. This technique also allows the obtaining of simplified networks that solve the problem with a small group of neurons. In order to measure the performance of the system and to compare the results with other ANN development methods by means of Evolutionary Computation (EC) techniques, several tests were performed with problems based on some of the most used test databases. The results of those comparisons show that the system achieves good results comparable with the already existing techniques and, in most of the cases, they worked better than those techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Evolutionary Computation, Genetic Programming.

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49 A New Muscle Architecture Model with Non-Uniform Distribution of Muscle Fiber Types

Authors: Javier Navallas, Armando Malanda, Luis Gila, Javier Rodriguez, Ignacio Rodriguez

Abstract:

According to previous studies, some muscles present a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of its muscle fiber types and motor unit types. However, available muscle models only deal with muscles with homogeneous distributions. In this paper, a new architecture muscle model is proposed to permit the construction of non-uniform distributions of muscle fibers within the muscle cross section. The idea behind is the use of a motor unit placement algorithm that controls the spatial overlapping of the motor unit territories of each motor unit type. Results show the capabilities of the new algorithm to reproduce arbitrary muscle fiber type distributions.

Keywords: muscle model, muscle architecture, motor unit, EMG simulation.

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48 Catalytic Decomposition of Potassium Monopersulfate. The Kinetics

Authors: Olga Gimeno, Javier Rivas, Maria Carbajo, Teresa Borralho

Abstract:

Potassium monopersulfate has been decomposed in aqueous solution in the presence of Co(II). The process has been simulated by means of a mechanism based on elementary reactions. Rate constants have been taken from literature reports or, alternatively, assimilated to analogous reactions occurring in Fenton's chemistry. Several operating conditions have been successfully applied.

Keywords: Monopersulfate, Oxone®, Sulfate radicals, Water treatment

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47 Virtual Science Hub: An Open Source Platform to Enrich Science Teaching

Authors: Enrique Barra, Aldo Gordillo, Juan Quemada

Abstract:

This paper presents the Virtual Science Hub platform. It is an open source platform that combines a social network, an e-learning authoring tool, a videoconference service and a learning object repository for science teaching enrichment. These four main functionalities fit very well together. The platform was released in April 2012 and since then it has not stopped growing. Finally we present the results of the surveys conducted and the statistics gathered to validate this approach.

Keywords: E-learning, platform, authoring tool, science teaching.

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46 Robotics, Education and Economy

Authors: David G. Maxínez, Francisco Javier Sánchez Rangel, Guillermo Castillo Tapia, Petra Baldovinos Noyola, M. Antonieta García Galván, Moisés G Sierra

Abstract:

Describes the current situation of educational Robotics "the State of the art" its concept, its evolution their niches of opportunity, academic and business and the importance of education and academic outreach. It shows that the development of high-tech automated educational materials influence the teaching-learning process and that communication between machines and humans is a reality.

Keywords: Education, robotics, robots, technology, innovation, educational constructivism

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45 Self-adaptation of Ontologies to Folksonomies in Semantic Web

Authors: Francisco Echarte, José Javier Astrain, Alberto Córdoba, Jesús Villadangos

Abstract:

Ontologies and tagging systems are two different ways to organize the knowledge present in the current Web. In this paper we propose a simple method to model folksonomies, as tagging systems, with ontologies. We show the scalability of the method using real data sets. The modeling method is composed of a generic ontology that represents any folksonomy and an algorithm to transform the information contained in folksonomies to the generic ontology. The method allows representing folksonomies at any instant of time.

Keywords: Folksonomies, ontologies, OWL, semantic web.

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44 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations Using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquín Salvachúa, Juan Quemada

Abstract:

Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced their cost and size while at the same time increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures the “Communications Software” course in our university. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: Recording System, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording.

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43 Catalytic Decomposition of Potassium Monopersulfate. Influence of Variables

Authors: Javier Rivas, Olga Gimeno, Maria Carbajo, Teresa Borralho

Abstract:

Potassium monopersulfate has been decomposed in aqueous solution in the presence of Co(II). The effect of the main operating variables has been assessed. Minimum variations in pH exert a considerable influence on the process kinetics. Thus, when no pH adjustment is considered, the actual effect of variables like initial monopersulfate and/or catalyst concentration may be hindered. As expected, temperature enhances the monopersulfate decomposition rate by following the Arrhenius law. The activation energy in the proximity of 85 kJ/mol has been obtained. Amongst the different solids tested in the monopersulfate decomposition, only the perovskite LaTi0.15Cu0.85O3 has shown a significant catalytic activity.

Keywords: Monopersulfate, Oxone®, Sulfate radicals, Watertreatment.

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42 Hopfield Network as Associative Memory with Multiple Reference Points

Authors: Domingo López-Rodríguez, Enrique Mérida-Casermeiro, Juan M. Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato

Abstract:

Hopfield model of associative memory is studied in this work. In particular, two main problems that it possesses: the apparition of spurious patterns in the learning phase, implying the well-known effect of storing the opposite pattern, and the problem of its reduced capacity, meaning that it is not possible to store a great amount of patterns without increasing the error probability in the retrieving phase. In this paper, a method to avoid spurious patterns is presented and studied, and an explanation of the previously mentioned effect is given. Another technique to increase the capacity of a network is proposed here, based on the idea of using several reference points when storing patterns. It is studied in depth, and an explicit formula for the capacity of the network with this technique is provided.

Keywords: Associative memory, Hopfield network, network capacity, spurious patterns.

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41 Educational Robotics Constructivism and Modeling of Robots using Reverse Engineering

Authors: David G. Maxínez, A. Ferreyra Ramírez, Ismael Echenique Álvarez, Francisco Javier Sánchez Rangel, Guillermo Castillo Tapia, Petra Baldivia Noyola, María Antonieta García Galván

Abstract:

The project describes the modeling of various architectures mechatronics specifically morphologies of robots in an educational environment. Each structure developed by students of pre-school, primary and secondary was created using the concept of reverse engineering in a constructivist environment, to later be integrated in educational software that promotes the teaching of educational Robotics in a virtual and economic environment.

Keywords: Modeling, constructivist, engineering, reverse, robotics education, virtual, morphology.

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40 Aqueous Ranitidine Elimination in Photolytic Processes

Authors: Javier Rivas, Olga Gimeno, Maria Carbajo, Teresa Borralho

Abstract:

The elimination of ranitidine (a pharmaceutical compound) has been carried out in the presence of UV-C radiation. After some preliminary experiments, it has been experienced the no influence of the gas nature (air or oxygen) bubbled in photolytic experiments. From simple photolysis experiments the quantum yield of this compound has been determined. Two photolytic approximation has been used, the linear source emission in parallel planes and the point source emission in spherical planes. The quantum yield obtained was in the proximity of 0.05 mol Einstein-1 regardless of the method used. Addition of free radical promoters (hydrogen peroxide) increases the ranitidine removal rate while the use of photocatalysts (TiO2) negatively affects the process.

Keywords: Quantum yield, photolysis, ranitidine, watertreatment.

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39 Application of Sensory Thermography on Workers of a Wireless Industry in Mexico

Authors: Claudia Camargo, Enrique J. de la Vega, Jesús E. Olguín, Juan A. López, Sandra K. Enríquez

Abstract:

This study focuses on the application of sensory thermography, as a non-invasive method to evaluate the musculoskeletal injuries that industry workers performing Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) may acquire. It was made at a wireless company having the target of analyze temperatures in worker’s wrists, elbows and shoulders in workstations during their activities, this thru sensorial thermography with the goal of detecting maximum temperatures (Tmax) that could indicate possible injuries. The tests were applied during 3 hours for only 2 workers that work in workstations where there’s been the highest index of injuries and accidents. We were made comparisons for each part of the body that were study for both because of the similitude between the activities of the workstations; they were requiring both an immediate evaluation. The Tmax was recorder during the test of the worker 2, in the left wrist, reaching a temperature of 35.088ºC and with a maximum increase of 1.856°C

Keywords: Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM), Maximum temperatures (Tmax), Worker.

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38 Modeling Football Penalty Shootouts: How Improving Individual Performance Affects Team Performance and the Fairness of the ABAB Sequence

Authors: Pablo Enrique Sartor Del Giudice

Abstract:

Penalty shootouts often decide the outcome of important soccer matches. Although usually referred to as ”lotteries”, there is evidence that some national teams and clubs consistently perform better than others. The outcomes are therefore not explained just by mere luck, and therefore there are ways to improve the average performance of players, naturally at the expense of some sort of effort. In this article we study the payoff of player performance improvements in terms of the performance of the team as a whole. To do so we develop an analytical model with static individual performances, as well as Monte Carlo models that take into account the known influence of partial score and round number on individual performances. We find that within a range of usual values, the team performance improves above 70% faster than individual performances do. Using these models, we also estimate that the new ABBA penalty shootout ordering under test reduces almost all the known bias in favor of the first-shooting team under the current ABAB system.

Keywords: Football, penalty shootouts, Montecarlo simulation, ABBA.

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37 Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes to Mefenamic Acid Elimination

Authors: Olga Gimeno, Javier Rivas, Angel Encinas, Fernando Beltran

Abstract:

The elimimation of mefenamic acid has been carried out by photolysis, ozonation, adsorption onto activated carbon (AC) and combinations of the previous single systems (O3+AC and O3+UV). The results obtained indicate that mefenamic acid is not photo-reactive, showing a relatively low quantum yield of the order of 6 x 10-4 mol Einstein-1. Application of ozone to mefenamic aqueous solutions instantaneously eliminates the pharmaceutical, achieving simultaneously a 40% of mineralization. Addition of AC to the ozonation process does not enhance the process, moreover, mineralization is completely inhibited if compared to results obtained by single ozonation. The combination of ozone and UV radiation led to the best results in terms of mineralization (60% after 120 min).

Keywords: Photolysis, mefenamic acid, ozone, activated carbon.

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36 Availability of Sports Facilities does not explain the Association between Economic Environment and Physical Inactivity in a Southern European city

Authors: Cruz Pascual, Enrique Regidor, Paloma Ortega, David Martínez, Paloma Astasio

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the association between economic environment in the districts of Madrid (Spain) and physical inactivity, using income per capita as indicator of economic environment. The analysis included 6,601 individuals aged 16 to 74 years. The measure of association estimated was the prevalence odds ratio for physical inactivity by income per capita. After adjusting for sex, age, and individual socioeconomic characteristics, people living in the districts with the lowest per capita income had an odds ratio for physical inactivity 1.58 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.35 to 1.85) than those living in districts with the highest per capita income. Additional adjustment for the availability of sports facilities in each district did not decrease the magnitude of the association. These findings show that the widely believed assumption that the availability of sports and recreational facilities, as a possible explanation for the relation between economic environment and physical inactivity, cannot be considered a universal observation.

Keywords: Economic environment, physical inactivity, sports facilities, districts, Madrid, Spain

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35 Removal of Phenylurea Herbicides from Waters by using Chemical Oxidation Treatments

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Carolina Garcia, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco J. Real

Abstract:

Four phenylurea herbicides (isoproturon, chlortoluron, diuron and linuron) were dissolved in different water matrices in order to study their chemical degradation by using UV radiation, ozone and some advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2, Fenton reagent and the photo- Fenton system). The waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater and a surface water taken from a reservoir. Elimination levels were established for each herbicide and for several global quality parameters, and a kinetic study was performed in order to determine basic kinetic parameters of each reaction between the target phenylureas and these oxidizing systems.

Keywords: Phenylurea herbicides, UV radiation; Ozone, Fenton reagent, Hydroxyl radicals, Rate constants, Quantum yields

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34 Online Electric Current Based Diagnosis of Stator Faults on Squirrel Cage Induction Motors

Authors: Alejandro Paz Parra, Jose Luis Oslinger Gutierrez, Javier Olaya Ochoa

Abstract:

In the present paper, five electric current based methods to analyze electric faults on the stator of induction motors (IM) are used and compared. The analysis tries to extend the application of the multiple reference frames diagnosis technique. An eccentricity indicator is presented to improve the application of the Park’s Vector Approach technique. Most of the fault indicators are validated and some others revised, agree with the technical literatures and published results. A tri-phase 3hp squirrel cage IM, especially modified to establish different fault levels, is used for validation purposes.

Keywords: Motor fault diagnosis, induction motor, MCSA, ESA, Extended Park´s vector approach, multiparameter analysis.

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33 Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls

Authors: Jorge Maestre Vidal, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

With the increase in popularity of mobile devices, new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently, the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities were successfully identified in their boot processes.

Keywords: Android, information security, intrusion detection systems, malware, mobile devices.

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32 CoSP2P: A Component-Based Service Model for Peer-to-Peer Systems

Authors: Candido Alcaide, Manuel Dıaz, Luis Llopis, Antonio Marquez, Bartolome Rubio, Enrique Soler

Abstract:

The increasing complexity of software development based on peer to peer networks makes necessary the creation of new frameworks in order to simplify the developer-s task. Additionally, some applications, e.g. fire detection or security alarms may require real-time constraints and the high level definition of these features eases the application development. In this paper, a service model based on a component model with real-time features is proposed. The high-level model will abstract developers from implementation tasks, such as discovery, communication, security or real-time requirements. The model is oriented to deploy services on small mobile devices, such as sensors, mobile phones and PDAs, where the computation is light-weight. Services can be composed among them by means of the port concept to form complex ad-hoc systems and their implementation is carried out using a component language called UM-RTCOM. In order to apply our proposals a fire detection application is described.

Keywords: Peer-to-peer, mobile systems, real-time, service-oriented architecture.

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31 Damage Evaluation of Curved Steel Bridges Upgraded with Isolation Bearings and Unseating Prevention Cable Restrainers

Authors: Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa, Javier Gil Belda

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of seismic isolation devices on the overall 3D seismic response of curved highway viaducts with an emphasis on expansion joints. Furthermore, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of cable restrainers is presented. For this purpose, the bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on four different radii of curvature, considering two cases: restrained and unrestrained curved viaducts. Depending on the radius of curvature, three-dimensional non-linear dynamic analysis shows the vulnerability of curved viaducts to pounding and deck unseating damage. In this study, the efficiency of using LRB supports combined with cable restrainers on curved viaducts is demonstrated, not only by reducing in all cases the possible damage, but also by providing a similar behavior in the viaducts despite of curvature radius.

Keywords: Nonlinear dynamic response, seismic design, seismic isolation, unseating prevention system.

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30 Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise

Authors: Raquel Ramos López, Anissa El-Khattabi, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices. These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification process. We also present experimental results that support the validity of the techniques used and show promising results.

Keywords: Digital video, forensics analysis, key frame, mobile device, PRNU, sensor noise, source identification.

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29 Application of Sensory Thermography as Measuring Method to Study Median Nerve Temperatures

Authors: Javier Ordorica Villalvazo, Claudia Camargo Wilson, Jesus Everardo Olguin Tiznado

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental case using sensory thermography to describe temperatures behavior on median nerve once an activity of repetitive motion was done. Thermography is a noninvasive technique without biological hazard and not harm at all times and has been applied in many experiments to seek for temperature patterns that help to understand diseases like cancer and cumulative trauma disorders (CTD’s). An infrared sensory thermography technology was developed to execute this study. Three women in good shape were selected for the repetitive motion tests for 4 days, two right-handed women and 1 left handed woman, two sensory thermographers were put on both median nerve wrists to get measures. The evaluation time was of 3 hours 30 minutes in a controlled temperature, 20 minutes of stabilization time at the beginning and end of the operation. Temperatures distributions are statistically evaluated and showed similar temperature patterns behavior.

Keywords: Median nerve, temperature, sensory thermography, wrists, CTD’s.

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28 Development of Equivalent Inelastic Springs to Model C-Devices

Authors: Oday Al-Mamoori, J. Enrique Martinez-Rueda

Abstract:

'C' shape yielding devices (C-devices) are effective tools for introducing supplemental sources of energy dissipation by hysteresis. Studies have shown that C-devices made of mild steel can be successfully applied as integral parts of seismic retrofitting schemes. However, explicit modelling of these devices can become cumbersome, expensive and time consuming. The device under study in this article has been previously used in non-invasive dissipative bracing for seismic retrofitting. The device is cut from a mild steel plate and has an overall shape that resembles that of a rectangular portal frame with circular interior corner transitions to avoid stress concentration and to control the extension of the dissipative region of the device. A number of inelastic finite element (FE) analyses using either inelastic 2D plane stress elements or inelastic fibre frame elements are reported and used to calibrate a 1D equivalent inelastic spring model that effectively reproduces the cyclic response of the device. The more elaborate FE model accounts for the frictional forces developed between the steel plate and the bolts used to connect the C-device to structural members. FE results also allow the visualization of the inelastic regions of the device where energy dissipation is expected to occur. FE analysis results are in a good agreement with experimental observations.

Keywords: C-device, equivalent nonlinear spring, FE analyses, reversed cyclic tests.

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27 The Cardiac Diagnostic Prediction Applied to a Designed Holter

Authors: Leonardo Juan Ramírez López, Javier Oswaldo Rodriguez Velasquez

Abstract:

We have designed a Holter that measures the heart´s activity for over 24 hours, implemented a prediction methodology, and generate alarms as well as indicators to patients and treating physicians. Various diagnostic advances have been developed in clinical cardiology thanks to Holter implementation; however, their interpretation has largely been conditioned to clinical analysis and measurements adjusted to diverse population characteristics, thus turning it into a subjective examination. This, however, requires vast population studies to be validated that, in turn, have not achieved the ultimate goal: mortality prediction. Given this context, our Insight Research Group developed a mathematical methodology that assesses cardiac dynamics through entropy and probability, creating a numerical and geometrical attractor which allows quantifying the normalcy of chronic and acute disease as well as the evolution between such states, and our Tigum Research Group developed a holter device with 12 channels and advanced computer software. This has been shown in different contexts with 100% sensitivity and specificity results.

Keywords: Entropy, mathematical, prediction, cardiac, holter, attractor.

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26 Magnetic Properties and Cytotoxicity of Ga-Mn Magnetic Ferrites Synthesized by the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Javier Sánchez, Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández

Abstract:

Magnetic spinel ferrites are materials that possess size, magnetic properties and heating ability adequate for their potential use in biomedical applications. The Mn0.5Ga0.5Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelating agent of metallic precursors. The synthesized samples were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) as an inverse spinel structure with no secondary phases. Saturation magnetization (Ms) of crystalline powders was 45.9 emu/g, which was higher than those corresponding to GaFe2O4 (14.2 emu/g) and MnFe2O4 (40.2 emu/g) synthesized under similar conditions, while the coercivity field (Hc) was 27.9 Oe. The average particle size was 18 ± 7 nm. The heating ability of the MNPs was enough to increase the surrounding temperature up to 43.5 °C in 7 min when a quantity of 4.5 mg of MNPs per mL of liquid medium was tested. Cytotoxic effect (hemolysis assay) of MNPs was determined and the results showed hemolytic values below 1% in all tested cases. According to the results obtained, these synthesized nanoparticles can be potentially used as thermoseeds for hyperthermia therapy.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, heating ability, manganese-gallium ferrite, magnetic hyperthermia.

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25 Benchmarking of Pentesting Tools

Authors: Esteban Alejandro Armas Vega, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

The benchmarking of tools for dynamic analysis of vulnerabilities in web applications is something that is done periodically, because these tools from time to time update their knowledge base and search algorithms, in order to improve their accuracy. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these evaluations are made by software enthusiasts who publish their results on blogs or on non-academic websites and always with the same evaluation methodology. Similarly, academics who have carried out this type of analysis from a scientific approach, the majority, make their analysis within the same methodology as well the empirical authors. This paper is based on the interest of finding answers to questions that many users of this type of tools have been asking over the years, such as, to know if the tool truly test and evaluate every vulnerability that it ensures do, or if the tool, really, deliver a real report of all the vulnerabilities tested and exploited. This kind of questions have also motivated previous work but without real answers. The aim of this paper is to show results that truly answer, at least on the tested tools, all those unanswered questions. All the results have been obtained by changing the common model of benchmarking used for all those previous works.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, IDS, security, web scanners, web vulnerabilities.

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24 Public Economic Efficiency and Case-Based Reasoning: A Theoretical Framework to Police Performance

Authors: Javier Parra-Domínguez, Juan Manuel Corchado

Abstract:

At present, public efficiency is a concept that intends to maximize return on public investment focus on minimizing the use of resources and maximizing the outputs. The concept takes into account statistical criteria drawn up according to techniques such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). The purpose of the current work is to consider, more precisely, the theoretical application of CBR (Case-Based Reasoning) from economics and computer science, as a preliminary step to improving the efficiency of law enforcement agencies (public sector). With the aim of increasing the efficiency of the public sector, we have entered into a phase whose main objective is the implementation of new technologies. Our main conclusion is that the application of computer techniques, such as CBR, has become key to the efficiency of the public sector, which continues to require economic valuation based on methodologies such as DEA. As a theoretical result and conclusion, the incorporation of CBR systems will reduce the number of inputs and increase, theoretically, the number of outputs generated based on previous computer knowledge.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning, knowledge, police, public efficiency.

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23 Model of Transhipment and Routing Applied to the Cargo Sector in Small and Medium Enterprises of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Javier Herrera Ochoa, Ivan Dario Romero Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a model for planning the distribution logistics operation. The significance of this work relies on the applicability of this fact to the analysis of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of dry freight in Bogotá. Two stages constitute this implementation: the first one is the place where optimal planning is achieved through a hybrid model developed with mixed integer programming, which considers the transhipment operation based on a combined load allocation model as a classic transshipment model; the second one is the specific routing of that operation through the heuristics of Clark and Wright. As a result, an integral model is obtained to carry out the step by step planning of the distribution of dry freight for SMEs in Bogotá. In this manner, optimum assignments are established by utilizing transshipment centers with that purpose of determining the specific routing based on the shortest distance traveled.

Keywords: Transshipment model, mixed integer programming, saving algorithm, dry freight transportation.

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22 Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing

Authors: Javier A. Dominguez Caballero, Graeme A. Manson, Matthew B. Marshall

Abstract:

Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.

Keywords: Ceramic cutting tools, high speed machining, image processing, tool condition monitoring, tool wear.

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